SAE J1772-2009 electric vehicle connector.
|Type||Automotive power connector|
|Manufacturer||Yazaki and others|
SAE J1772 is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles maintained by the Society of Automotive Engineers and has the formal title "SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler”. It covers the general physical, electrical, communication protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector.
The main stimulus for the development of SAE J1772 came from the California Air Resources Board. Formerly electric vehicles like the General Motors EV1 had used inductive charger couplers. These were ruled out in favor of conductive coupling to supply electricity for recharging with the California Air Resources Board settling upon the SAE J1772-2001 standard as the charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June 2001. Avcon manufactured a rectangular connector compliant with that SAE J1772 REV NOV 2001 specification that was capable of delivering up to 6.6 kW of electrical power. (Photos and description of this old-revision rectangular "AVCon connector" and "AVCon inlet" are at )
The CARB regulation of 2001 mandated the usage of SAE J1772-2001 beginning with the 2006 model year. Later requirements asked for higher currents to be used than the Avcon connector could provide. This process led to the proposal of a new round connector design by Yazaki which allows for an increased power delivery of up to 19.2 kW delivered via single phase 120–240 V AC at up to 80 amperes. In 2008 the CARB published a draft amendment to section 1962.2 Title 13 that mandated the usage of the oncoming SAE J1772 standard beginning with the 2010 model year.
The Yazaki plug that was built to the new SAE J1772 plug standard successfully completed certification at UL. It is only certified to 30A although the standard is written to 80A. The standard specification was subsequently voted upon by the SAE committee in July 2009. On January 14, 2010 the SAE J1772 REV 2009 was adopted by the SAE Motor Vehicle Council. The companies participating in or supporting the revised -2009 standard include GM, Chrysler, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Nissan, and Tesla.
The SAE J1772-2009 connector specification has been added to the international IEC 62196-2 standard ("Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories") with voting on the final specification to close in May 2011. The SAE J1772 connector is considered a "Type 1" implementation providing a single phase coupler.
The SAE J1772-2009 was adopted by the car manufacturers of post-2000 electric vehicles like the third generation of the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf as the early models. The connector became standard equipment on the US-market due to the availability of charging stations with that plug type in the nation's electric vehicle network (with the help of funding such as ChargePoint America program drawing grants from provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act).
The European versions were equipped with a SAE J1772-2009 inlet as well until the automotive industry settled on the IEC Type 2 "Mennekes" connector as the standard inlet - since all IEC connectors use the same SAE J1772 signaling protocol the car manufacturers are selling cars with either a SAE J1772-2009 inlet or an IEC Type 2 inlet depending on the market. There are also (passive) adapters available that can convert J1772-2009 to IEC Type 2 and vice versa. The only difference is that most European versions have an on-board charger that can take advantage of three-phase electric power with higher Volt and Ampere limits even for the same basic electric vehicle model (such as Chevrolet Volt / Opel Ampera or the upcoming BMW i3).
Combined charging system
SAE is developing a Combo Coupler variant of the J1772 connector with additional pins to accommodate fast DC charging at 200–450 Volts DC and up to 90 kW. This will also use Power Line Carrier technology to communicate between the vehicle, off-board charger, and smart grid. Seven car makers (Audi, BMW, Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Porsche and Volkswagen) had agreed to introduce the "Combined Charging System" in mid-2012. As of Spring 2013, there are no production cars using the J1772 Combo plug although the Chevrolet Spark EV scheduled for summer 2013 and the BMW i3 scheduled for late 2013 will use the SAE Combo plug . In Europe the combo coupler is based on the Type 2 (VDE) AC charging connector maintaining full compatibility with the SAE specification for DC charging and the GreenPHY PLC protocol.
The connector is designed for single phase electrical systems with 120 V or 240 V such as those used in North America and Japan.
The round 43 mm diameter connector has five pins, with three different pin sizes
- AC Line 1 and AC Line 2 - have same size power pins
- Ground Pin
- Proximity Detection and Control Pilot - have same size pin
Proximity Detection - Prevents movement of the car while connected to the charger.
Control Pilot - Communication line used to coordinate charging level between the car and the charger as well as other information.
The connector uses a 1 kHz square wave at +/- 12 volts generated by the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), i.e. the charging station, on the pilot pin to detect the presence of the vehicle, communicate the maximum allowable charging current, and control charging. The connector is designed to withstand up to 10,000 connection/disconnection cycles and exposure to the elements. Approximating one connection/disconnection cycle daily, the average connector's lifespan should be just over 27 years.
In the 2009 standard, two charging levels are defined.
|AC Level 1||120 V||Single phase||16 A|
|AC Level 2||240 V||Split phase||32 A (2001)
80 A (2009)
The SAE J1772 committee proposes a DC connector based on the SAE J1772-2009 AC connector with additional DC and ground pins to support charging at 200–450 V DC and 80 A (36 kW) for DC Level 1 and up to 200 A (90 kW) for DC Level 2, http://www.sae.org/smartgrid/chargingspeeds.pdf after evaluating it against other designs including the JARI/TEPCO connector used by the CHAdeMO DC fast charge protocol. The SAE DC Level 3 charging has not been determined but the standard as it now exists has the potential 200–600 V DC at a maximum of 400 A (240 kW).
The J1772 standard includes several levels of shock protection, ensuring the safety of charging even in wet conditions. Physically, the connection pins are isolated on the interior of the connector when mated, ensuring no physical access to those pins. When not mated, J1772 connectors have no voltage at the pins, and charging power does not flow until commanded by the vehicle.
The pins are of the first-make, last-break variety. If the plug is in the charging port of the vehicle and charging, and it is removed, the control pilot and proximity detection pins will break first so that the Power Pin relay in the charging station will be shut off and no current will flow.
The signaling protocol has been designed so that
- supply equipment signals presence of AC input power
- vehicle detects plug via proximity circuit (thus the vehicle can prevent driving away while connected)
- control pilot functions begin
- supply equipment detects plug-in electric vehicle
- supply equipment indicates to PEV readiness to supply energy
- PEV ventilation requirements are determined
- supply equipment current capacity provided to PEV
- PEV commands energy flow
- PEV and supply equipment continuously monitor continuity of safety ground
- charge continues as determined by PEV
- charge may be interrupted by disconnecting the plug from the vehicle
The technical specification was described first in the 2001 version of SAE J1772 and subsequently the IEC 61851. The charging station puts 12 volts on the contact pilot CP and the proximity pilot PP (also "Plug Present") measuring the voltage differences. This protocol allows it to skip integrated circuit electronics as they are required for other charging protocols like the CAN Bus used with Chademo or EnergyBus – the SAE J1772 is considered robust enough for a range of −40 °C to +85 °C.
The charging station sends a 1000 Hz square wave on the contact pilot that is connected back to the protected earth on the side of the vehicle by means of a resistor and a diode (voltage range ±12 V ±0,4 V). The live wires of public charging stations are always dead if the CP-PE circuit is open, although the standard allows a charging current as in Mode 1 (maximum 16 A). If the circuit is closed then the charging station can also test the protective earth to be functional. The vehicle can request a charging state by setting a resistor - using 2700 Ω a Mode 3 compatible vehicle is announced ("vehicle detected") which does not require charging. Switching to 880 Ω the vehicle is "ready" to be charged and switching to 240 Ω the vehicle requests "with ventilation" charging which does not have an effect outdoors but the charging current will be switched off indoors if no ventilation is available. The charging station can use the wave signal to describe the maximum current that is available from the charging station with the help of pulse width modulation: a 16% PWM is a 10 A maximum, a 25% PWM is a 16 A maximum, a 50% PWM is a 32 A maximum and a 90% PWM flags a fast charge option.
The pilot line circuitry examples in SAE J1772:2001 show that the current loop CP-PE is connected permanently via a 2740 Ω resistor making for a voltage drop to from +12 V to +9 V when a cable is hooked up to the charging station which activates the wave generator. The charging is activated by the car by adding parallel 1300 Ω resistor resulting in a voltage drop to +6 V or by adding a parallel 270 Ω resistor for a required ventilation resulting in a voltage drop +3 V. Hence the charging station can react by only checking the voltage range present on the CP-PE loop. Note that the diode will only make for a voltage drop in the positive range - any negative voltage on the CP-PE loop will shut off the current as being considered a fatal error (like touching the pins).
|total resistance CP-PE||open||2700 Ω||880 Ω||240 Ω|
with R3 = 2740 Ω
|measured voltage CP-PE||+12 V||+9 V ±1 V||+6 V ±1 V||+3 V ±1 V||±0 V||−12 V|
|base status||Status A||Status B||Status C||Status D||Status E||Status F|
The function of the Proximity Pilot PP is specified in IEC 61851 which allows the car to control the maximum charging current of the charging station by adding a resistor on the PP-PE loop. This allows adapter cables to use a resistance coding for the current: The pilot line circuitry examples show that the resistor is put in the plugs of the adapter cable itself - if the PP-PE is connected through to the car then it allows its battery management system to control the charging process by shifting additional resistors that are put in parallel with the permant 2700 Ω resistor on the loop.
|total resistance PP-PE||1500 Ω||680 Ω||220 Ω||100 Ω|
|current capacity||13 A||20 A||32 A||63 A|
|wire cross section||1,5 mm²||2,5 mm²||6 mm²||16 mm²|
The pin PP is also named "Plug Present" as the SAE J1772 example pinout describes the switch S3 as being mechanically linked to the connector latch release actuator. During charging the EVSE side connects the PP-PE loop via S3 and a 150 Ω R6 - when opening the release actuator a 330 Ω R7 is added in the PP-PE loop on the EVSE side which gives a voltage shift on the line to allow the electric vehicle to initiate a controlled shutoff prior to actual disconnection of the charge power pins. However many low power adapter cables do not offer that locking actuator state detection on the PP pin.
The PWM duty cycle of the 1 kHz CP signal indicates the maximum allowed mains current. According to the SAE it includes socket outlet, cable and vehicle inlet. In the US the definition of the "ampacity" (ampere capacity) is split for continuous and short term operation, while the IEC has included the same ampere steps with only one nominal definition. The SAE defines the ampacity value to be derived by a formula based on the 1000 µs full cycle (of the 1 kHz signal) with the maximum continuous ampere rating being 0,6 A per 10 µs (with lowest 100 µs = 6 A and highest 800 µs = 48 A).
|PWM||SAE continuous||SAE short term||IEC omnicharge|
|50%||30 A cont||36 A peak||32 A (EU)|
|40%||24 A cont||30 A peak||25,5 (EU)|
|30%||18 A cont||22 A peak||19 A (EU)|
|25%||15 A cont||20 A peak||16 A (EU)|
|16%||10 A (EU)|
|10%||6 A (EU)|
P1901 powerline communication
In an updated standard due in 2012, SAE proposes to use power line communication, specifically IEEE P1901, between the vehicle, off-board charging station, and the smart grid, without requiring an additional pin; SAE and the IEEE Standards Association are sharing their draft standards related to the smart grid and vehicle electrification.
P1901 communication is compatible with other 802.x standards via the IEEE P1905 standard, allowing arbitrary IP-based communications with the vehicle, meter or distributor, and the building where chargers are located. P1905 includes wireless communications but it's unclear if SAE J1772 would or should pass such signals to a vehicle while charging.
Compatible charging stations
The Chevrolet Volt, Nissan Leaf, Toyota Plug-In Prius and Smart electric drive all come with 120V portable charging leads that couple a 120V mains plug to the car's J1772 receptacle. For 240V charging, the U.S. National Electrical Code require a coupler to be permanently wired to an AC circuit in most cases; such a coupler is commonly called a charging station. Products compatible with SAE J1772-2009 include:
- AeroVironment home charging station for the Nissan Leaf
- Bosch Power Max home charging stations
- ClipperCreek CS-40
- Coulomb Technologies CT500, CT2000, CT2100, and CT2020 families of ChargePoint Networked Charging Stations
- EATON  Pow-R-Station Family of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations 
- ECOtality Blink home wall-mount and commercial stand-alone charging stations
- EVoCharge – Retractable Reel EVSE’s designed to support Residential, Commercial and Industrial Markets.
- GE Wattstation available in 2011
- GoSmart Technologies ChargeSPOT line of charging stations
- GRIDbot's "UP" family of charging stations
- Hubbell PEP Stations - http://www.hubbell-wiring.com/press/pdfs/WLDEE001.pdf
- Leviton evr-green home charging stations at a range of power levels, with separate pre-wire kit that allows one to plug into a NEMA 6 240V receptacle
- Schneider Electric / Square D EVLink Charging Solutions for residential, commercial, and fleet charging solutions.
- Siemens VersiCharge for cost effective residential, semi-public, and fleet level 2 EV charging.
- SemaConnect ChargePro Charging Stations
- Shorepower Technologies ePump line of fully customizable EVSE; indoor and outdoor solutions for cars and trucks.
- TucsonEV - J1772 Adapter Boxes, Inlets and Plugs with and without cord, 70A and 30A. We will soon have a J1772 Compatible EVSE for up to 240v/30amps
- CIRCONTROL CIRCARLIFE product range includes EV charging infraestructure with post and wall mount units with J1772 standard
- OpenEVSE Project - Open Source Design for EVSE.
The proposal of the Mennekes connector initiated by RWE and Daimler has been added as a "Type 2" implementation to IEC 62196 providing a single and three phase coupler. The connector was specified in the VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 standard - this connector specifies up to 63A three-phase (at 400V in Central Europe) which makes for a maximum of 63A*400V*√3 = 43.6 kW. Additionally the IEC 62196-2 standard specifies a "Type 3" connector providing a single and three phase coupler with shutters which takes up the proposal of the EV Plug Alliance (Scame, Schneider, Legrand). All plug types - including Type 1 (SAE), Type 2 (VDE) and Type 3 (EVPlug) - share the same specifications for the pilot pin taken from the IEC 61851-1 standard.
Tokyo Electric Power Company has developed a specification solely for level 3 high-voltage DC automotive fast charging using a different connector (JARI Level 3 DC), and formed the CHAdeMO (abbreviation of "CHArge de MOve", equivalent to "charge for moving") association with Japanese automakers Mitsubishi, Nissan and Subaru to promote it.
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