South American land mammal age

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The South American land mammal ages (SALMA) establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric South American fauna beginning 64.5 Ma during the Paleogene and continuing through to the Middle Pleistocene (0.33 Ma). These periods are referred to as ages, stages, or intervals and were established using geographic place names where fossil materials where obtained.[1]

The basic unit of measure is the first/last boundary statement. This shows that the first appearance event of one taxon is known to predate the last appearance event of another. If two taxa are found in the same fossil quarry or at the same stratigraphic horizon, then their age-range zones overlap.


  • Lujanian: Lower boundary 0.8 Ma. Upper boundary 0.011 Ma.
  • Ensenadan: Lower boundary 1.2 Ma. Upper boundary 0.8 Ma.
  • Uquian: Lower boundary 3 Ma. Upper boundary 1.2 Ma.
  • Chapadmalalan: Lower boundary 4 Ma. Upper boundary 3 Ma.
  • Montehermosan: Lower boundary 6.8 Ma. Upper boundary 4 Ma.
  • Huayquerian: Lower boundary 9 Ma. Upper boundary 6.8 Ma.
  • Chasicoan: Lower boundary 10 Ma. Upper boundary 9 Ma.
  • Mayoan: Lower boundary 11.8 Ma. Upper boundary 10 Ma.
  • Laventan: Lower boundary 13.8 Ma. Upper boundary 11.8 Ma.
  • Colloncuran: Lower boundary 15.5 Ma. Upper boundary 13.8 Ma.
  • Friasian: Lower boundary 16.3 Ma. Upper boundary 15.5 Ma.
  • Santacrucian: Lower boundary 17.5 Ma. Upper boundary 16.3 Ma.
  • Colhuehuapian: Lower boundary 21.0 Ma. Upper boundary 17.5 Ma.
  • Deseadan: Lower boundary 29.0 Ma. Upper boundary 21.0 Ma.
  • Tinguirirican: Lower boundary 36.0 Ma. Upper boundary 29.0 Ma.
  • Divisaderan: Lower boundary 42.0 Ma. Upper boundary 36.0 Ma.
  • Mustersan: Lower boundary 48.0 Ma. Upper boundary 42.0 Ma.
  • Casamayoran: Lower boundary 54.0 Ma. Upper boundary 48.0 Ma.
  • Riochican: Lower boundary 57.0 Ma. Upper boundary 54.0 Ma.
  • Itaboraian: Lower boundary 59.0 Ma. Upper boundary 57.0 Ma.
  • Peligran: Lower boundary 62.5 Ma. Upper boundary 59.0 Ma.
  • Tiupampan: Lower boundary 64.5 Ma. Upper boundary 62.5 Ma.


  1. ^ Flynn J. and C. C. Swisher. (1995). Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages: correlation to global geochronology. Geochronology Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation, SEPM Special Publication 54:317-333.

Other continental ages[edit]