South African Class NG G16 2-6-2+2-6-2
|South African Class NG G16 2-6-2+2-6-2|
No. NG113 at Sandstone Estates, 9 April 2006
|Type and origin|
|Designer||Hannoversche Maschinenbau AG
South African Railways
|Builder||Société Anonyme John Cockerill
Beyer, Peacock and Company
|Serial number||Cockerill 3265-3268/1937 
Beyer, Peacock 6919-6926/1939, 7426-7432/1951, 7862-7868/1958 
Hunslet-Taylor 3894-3901/1967-1968 
|Model||Class NG G16|
|Configuration||2-6-2+2-6-2 "Double Prairie" Garratt|
|Gauge||2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge|
|21 in (533 mm)|
|Driver diameter||33 in (838 mm)|
|21 in (533 mm)|
|Minimum curve||160 ft (48.768 m)|
|Wheelbase||Total: 43 ft 3 in (13.183 m)
6 ft 3 in (1.905 m) coupled
13 ft 10.5 in (4.229 m) total
|Length||48 ft 3.25 in (14.713 m)|
|Width||7 ft (2.134 m)|
|Height||10 ft 4 in (3.150 m)|
|Frame||Bar frame, 23 ft 9 in (7.239 m) between pivot centres|
|Axle load||All but 137-143:
6.9 long tons (7.0 t) on 1st driver
6.9 long tons (7.0 t) on 2nd driver
|Weight on drivers||All but 137-143:
39.25 long tons (39.9 t)
40.125 long tons (40.8 t)
|Locomotive weight||All but 137-143:
59.1 long tons (60.0 t)
61.275 long tons (62.3 t)
|Fuel capacity||All but 137-143:
4 long tons (4.1 t)
6.2 long tons (6.3 t)
|Water capacity||All but 137-143, 149-156:
1,285 imp gal (5,840 l) front
540 imp gal (2,500 l) rear
1,325 imp gal (6,020 l) front only
1,325 imp gal (6,020 l) front
540 imp gal (2,500 l) rear
|Boiler||4 ft 7.75 in (1.416 m) inside diameter
9 ft 3.625 in (2.835 m) inside length
5 ft 5 in (1.651 m) pitch
|Boiler pressure||180 psi (1,240 kPa)|
|Firegrate area||19.5 sq ft (1.812 m2)|
|152 tubes 1.75 in (44.4 mm) diameter
15 tubes 5.5 in (140 mm) diameter
839 sq ft (77.946 m2)
|– Firebox||82.1 sq ft (7.627 m2)|
|– Total||921.1 sq ft (85.573 m2)|
|Superheater area||149 sq ft (13.843 m2)|
|Cylinder size||12 in (305 mm) bore
16 in (406 mm) stroke
|Tractive effort||18,850 lbf (84 kN) at 75% pressure|
|Operator(s)||South African Railways 
Alfred County Railway 
Welsh Highland Railway
|Class||Class NG G16|
|Number in class||34|
|Number(s)||NG85-NG88, NG109-NG116, NG125-NG131, NG137-NG143, NG149-NG156|
Between 1937 and 1968 the South African Railways placed thirty-four Class NG G16 Garratt articulated steam locomotives with a 2-6-2+2-6-2 Double Prairie type wheel arrangement in service on the Avontuur Railway and on the Natal narrow gauge lines.
The success of the Class NG G13 narrow gauge Garratts that were introduced by the South African Railways (SAR) in 1927 led to a decision that any additional narrow gauge articulated locomotives would be of the same design. Altogether thirty-four more 2-6-2+2-6-2 Double Prairie type narrow gauge locomotives were built, spread over five orders from three manufacturers over a span of thirty-one years.
In 1937 Société Anonyme John Cockerill of Seraing in Belgium delivered four new 2-6-2+2-6-2 locomotives, numbered in the range from NG85 to NG88, which were so similar to the older locomotives that they were initially classified as Class NG G13 as well. However, in view of the fact that all the carrying wheels were fitted with roller bearing axle boxes and arranged as pony trucks, compared to the Class NG G13 whose inner carrying wheels were built to the Gölsdorf system that allowed the axle some lateral movement, it was soon decided to reclassify them to Class NG G16.
These pre-war locomotives, like the earlier Class NG G13 locomotives, were built with riveted coal and water bunkers and with large radius tops on the water tanks.
The third order was for a further seven locomotives in 1951, numbered in the range from NG125 to NG131, once again from Beyer, Peacock. These and the subsequent locomotives had welded water and coal bunkers and flat top water tanks with rounded top side edges.
The fourth batch of seven locomotives, numbered in the range from NG137 to NG143, were the last steam locomotives to be built by Beyer, Peacock and were ordered and built to the specifications of the Tsumeb Copper Corporation in South West Africa (SWA). They were mechanically similar to the earlier and subsequent Class NG G16 locomotives, but with a revised coal and water carrying arrangement. These locomotives had an enlarged front water tank capacity, but carried no water in their rear bunkers, which consequently had an enlarged coal capacity. It was planned to attach a water tanker to the locomotive for use across the Namib desert in SWA, as was the practice with the Cape gauge Class GM and Class GMA Garratts in South Africa.
However, while the locomotives were being built, the decision was made to convert all the SWA narrow gauge lines to Cape gauge. In terms of a prior agreement between the SAR and the Tsumeb Copper Corporation, the SAR would purchase any narrow gauge locomotives that would become redundant should the re-gauging of the SWA system take place. The new locomotives were therefore delivered directly to the SAR in 1958.
The final order for eight locomotives in 1967, numbered in the range from NG149 to NG156, turned out to be the last new steam locomotives to be ordered by the SAR. Since no overseas manufacturers were available to supply them, they were built by Hunslet-Taylor in Germiston, Transvaal, using boilers supplied by their overseas principals, the Hunslet Engine Company. Built between 1967 and 1968, these locomotives had the same enlarged capacity front water tank as that of the Tsumeb group, but their rear bunkers were identical to those of the 1951 batch of locomotives, carrying both coal and water.
The seven Beyer, Peacock locomotives ordered by the Tsumeb Copper Corporation, numbers NG137 to NG143, were initially distributed between the Umzinto, Port Shepstone and Avontuur lines, but the three that went to the Langkloof were soon transferred to Natal as well.
The end of SAR steam
When the lower section of the Avontuur line was dieselised with the arrival of the Class 91-000 diesel-electric locomotive in 1973, all the Class NG G16 locomotives that were still in service were transferred to various branches in Natal, where they remained until they were withdrawn from service. The Class 91-000 diesels and the remaining Class NG15 Kalaharis served the Langkloof together for some years, but by the mid-1980s road transport had triumphed over rail transport on the apple route as well and the SAR narrow gauge steam fleet was retired.
Class NG G16A modification
When the four Natal narrow gauge systems were closed down by the SAR, the Weenen and Mid Illovo lines were lifted, but the Harding line was privatised as the Alfred County Railway (ACR), operating out of Port Shepstone.
As part of their strategy to keep the railway competitive, two of the ACR’s Class NG G16 locomotives were rebuilt using technology similar to that used in the Class 26 Red Devil. The rebuilding incorporated a gas producing combustion system (GPCS), Lempor exhausts, an improved spark arrester, lightweight multi-ring articulated piston valves, improved valve events and improved mechanical lubrication. The two locomotives that received this treatment, number NG141 in 1989 and number NG155 in 1990, were reclassified to Class NG G16A.
In comparative testing, number NG141 achieved a fuel saving of 25% compared to a standard Class NG G16 Garratt, a performance that was easily maintained in regular service. The cost of the work paid off financially within twelve months and led to a proposal to develop a Class NG G17, but that never materialised since the line’s farming produce traffic was gradually lost to road transport on the improving road network.
Since withdrawal from SAR service, some locomotives were sold into private hands and kept in operational condition, while others ended up in various degrees of preservation ranging across the spectrum from running order to staging to total abandonment. By 2012 at least three establishments still operated or were restoring ex SAR class NG G16 Garratts.
Welsh Highland Railway
The Welsh Highland Railway in the United Kingdom owns four Class NG G16 locomotives, of which one has been used for spares to keep the other three running. These three locomotives, Cockerill-built number NG87 and Beyer, Peacock-built numbers NG138 and NG143, are kept in excellent condition by an establishment that exhibits great pride in its heritage.
The Sandstone Estates near Ficksburg in the Free State was home to a large number of Class NG G16 locomotives, either as the owners or as the custodian for locomotives belonging to individuals or other establishments. Three of their Class NG G16 locomotives are still being kept in pristine condition and are regularly run during the Estate’s annual events like the Cosmos Festival, Cherry Festival and others. These are Cockerill-built no. NG88, Beyer, Peacock-built no. NG113 and Hunslet-Taylor-built no. NG153.
Puffing Billy Railway
The Puffing Billy Railway (PBR), located in the Dandenong Ranges east of Melbourne, Australia, began restoring Class NG G16 no. NG129 and regauging it to 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) as a backup for their Victorian Railways G class Garratt no. G42. Completion of no. NG129's restoration was planned to coincide with the next time that no. G42 was expected to be withdrawn for major maintenance. Faced with the need to manufacture a number of missing parts for no. NG129, the PBR also purchased no. NG127 and a container of spare parts in early 2012. It was expected that this would greatly simplify the restoration project and also give them a second almost-complete Class NG G16 which may also be restored in future.
The last known fate of all the Class NG G16 locomotives, as at January 2015, are shown in the table.
|NG85||Cockerill||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Purchased from the liquidator of the Alfred County Railway, unrestored.|
|NG86||Cockerill||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Purchased from the liquidator of the Alfred County Railway, unrestored.|
|NG87||Cockerill||Wales||Welsh Highland Railway||Purchased from the Exmoor Steam Railway, currently in service on WHR.|
|NG88||Cockerill||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Operational.|
|NG109||Beyer, Peacock||Wales||Welsh Highland Railway||Purchased by Waterman Heritage Railway Trust in 2009 for future use on the WHR. After failure of UK Government to back apprenticeship programme, Pete Waterman sold LNWR Engineering to Jeremy Hosking in May 2014, and has moved all parts to Dinas.|
|NG110||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Unrestored.|
|NG111||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Gold Reef City, Johannesburg|
|NG112||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Century City, Cape Town||On loan from Sandstone Estates.|
|NG113||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Operational.|
|NG114||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||Transnet Heritage Foundation, in storage.|
|NG115||Beyer, Peacock||England||Exmoor Steam Railway||In Storage.|
|NG116||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Paton's Country Railway, Ixopo, KwaZulu-Natal||Owned by American resident, John Middleton and others, under restoration.|
|NG125||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||Transnet Heritage Foundation, in storage.|
|NG126||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||Transnet Heritage Foundation, in storage.|
|NG127||Beyer, Peacock||Australia||Puffing Billy Railway||Previously used on the Banana Express, transported to Australia by Puffing Billy Railway in 2012.|
|NG128||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Unrestored.|
|NG129||Beyer, Peacock||Australia||Puffing Billy Railway||Overhaul and conversion to 2'6" gauge proceeding.|
|NG130||Beyer, Peacock||England||For Welsh Highland Railway||Purchased from the Exmoor Steam Railway by Steam Powered Services (Peter Best) for restoration, initially for service on WHR.|
|NG131||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Avontuur Railway||Operational.|
|NG137||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Purchased from the liquidator of the Alfred County Railway, unrestored.|
|NG138||Beyer, Peacock||Wales||Welsh Highland Railway||Operational on the Welsh Highland Railway.|
|NG139||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||In storage.|
|NG140||Beyer, Peacock||Wales||Welsh Highland Railway||Used for spares to support continuing operation of 138 and 143 on the WHR, may be overhauled in the future.|
|NG141||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Rebuilt to Class NG G16A, undergoing cosmetic restoration for private owner.|
|NG142||Beyer, Peacock||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||In storage.|
|NG143||Beyer, Peacock||Wales||Welsh Highland Railway||Operational, overhauled 2010-2011. The last Garratt built by Beyer, Peacock.|
|NG149||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||In storage.|
|NG150||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Purchased from the liquidator of the Alfred County Railway, unrestored.|
|NG151||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||In storage.|
|NG152||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Purchased from the liquidator of the Alfred County Railway, unrestored.|
|NG153||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Operational.|
|NG154||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Humewood Station, Port Elizabeth||Dismantled by Transnet Heritage Foundation, scrapped in August 2011.|
|NG155||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Sandstone Estates||Rebuilt to Class NG G16A, unrestored.|
|NG156||Hunslet-Taylor||South Africa||Paddock, KwaZulu-Natal||In storage.|
The main picture and the following photographs offer views of the various models of the Class NG G16 locomotive.
Cockerill-built no. NG87, Beddgelert on the WHR, 31 August 2009
Beyer, Peacock-built no. NG143, Rhyd Ddu on the WHR, 31 August 2004
- List of South African locomotive classes
- Narrow gauge locomotive numbering and classification
- South African Class NG G13 2-6-2+2-6-2
- South African Class NG G16A 2-6-2+2-6-2
- South African locomotive history
- The 2-6-2+2-6-2 "Double Prairie"
- Two foot gauge railways in South Africa
- Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Garratt Locomotives from Other Builders, retrieved 10 November 2012
- Hamilton, Gavin N., The Garratt Locomotive - Garratt Locomotives produced by Beyer, Peacock, retrieved 10 November 2012
- South African Railways and Harbours Locomotive Diagram Book, 2’0” & 3’6” Gauge Steam Locomotives, 15 August 1941, as amended
- Durrant, A E (1989). Twilight of South African Steam (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, London: David & Charles. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0715386387.
- Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 107, 109–110. ISBN 0869772112.
- "The Ultimate Steam Page – P. Girdlestone". trainweb.org. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Alfred County Railway 2-6-2+2-6-2 NG G16A Garratts 141 & 155". martynbane.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- Middleton, John N. (2002). Railways of Southern Africa Locomotive Guide - 2002 (as amended by Combined Amendment List 4, January 2009) (2nd, Dec 2002 ed.). Herts, England: Beyer-Garratt Publications. pp. 32–33.
- "Puffing Billy Monthly News, February 2012". Bill Russell. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Payling, D (2012). Garratts & Kalaharis of the West Highland Railway (1st ed.). Porthmadog, Wales: The Ffestiniog & Welsh Highland Railways. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978 0 901848 10 9.
- Welsh Highland Railway news
- Stars of Sandstone, Official Operating Programme for 12th - 21st April 2014 (stars 2014 - official operating programme-7.pdf)
- Exmoor Steam Railway and its history