SASM/GNC romanization

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The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping,[1] Geographical Names Committee[2] and former Script Reform Committee[3] of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanizations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters. These systems may be referred to as SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions or SASM/GNC romanizations.

These romanization systems have been used for foreign translations of Chinese personal names and toponyms since 1978.[4]

All schemes except pinyin have a strict form and a broad form, where the broad form is used in general. In the case of pinyin, tone marks are omitted in practice.

Chinese[edit]

Main article: Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin is used for the romanization of Chinese, however the tone marks are omitted in the broad sense and included in the strict sense.

Mongolian[edit]

Scheme[edit]

Mongolian extended IPA SASM/GNC/SRC (broad) SASM/GNC/SRC (strict)
a a a
b b
tsʰ c c
ᠳ᠊ ᠳ d d
ə e e
f f f
ᠭ ᠭ‍ g g
ᠬ ᠬ‍ x h h
i i i
tʃ˭ j j
k k
l l l
m m m
n n n
o o o
p p
tʃʰ q q
r r r
s s s
t t
u u u
w w w
ʃ x x
j y y
ts˭ z z
ɔ o ô
ʊ u û

Though Mongolian script is listed within the standard, it is still a phonetic transcription based on the Qahar dialect. For example, ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ is not transcribed as Ûlaganhada hôta but rather Ûlaanhad hôt (strict) or Ulanhad hot (broad).

Though it is recommended within the standard the strict transcription to use the system when transcribing place names and broad transcription is recommended for general use, strict transcription is rarely used in practice, e.g. Hohhot rather than Hohhôt. In certain occasions, the SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Mongolian is even fused with Hanyu pinyin, such as Huhhot or Huhehot.

Examples[edit]

Mongolian SASM/GNC/SRC (strict) SASM/GNC/SRC (broad) Scientific Cyrillic Common transcription of Cyrillic
ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ Hohhôt Hohhot Kökeqota Хөххот Khökhkhot
ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Ûlaanhad hôt Ulanhad hot Ulaɣanqada qota Улаанхад хот Ulaankhad khot
ᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Ereen hôt Eren hot Eriyen qota Эрээн хот Ereen khot
ᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠤᠯ Xiliin gôl Xilin gol Sili-yin γoul Шилийн гол Shiliin gol (Shiliyn gol)
ᠠᠯᠠᠱᠠ Alxaa Alxa Alaša Алшаа Alshaa
ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Qahar Qahar Čaqar Цахар Tsakhar
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ Qagaan Qagan Čaɣan Цагаан Tsagaan
ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Qingis Haan Qingis Han Činggis Qaɣan Чингис Хаан Chingis Khaan
ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠠ Barag Barag Barɣu Барга Barga
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ Bûryad[citation needed] Buryad[citation needed] Buriyad Буриад Buriad
ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳ Dorbod Dorbod Dörbed Дөрвөд Dörvöd
Ôngniûd Ongniud Dörbed Онниуд Onniud

Characters labeled as red in SASM/GNC/SRC strict and Cyrillic Mongolian are not mutually isomorphic. This may be caused by dialectal difference (Chakhar and Khalkha) or different interpretation of the concept phonetical and phonemical. Characters labeled as green in SASM/GNC/SRC strict and Traditional Mongolian are not mutually equivalent.

Tibetan[edit]

Main article: Tibetan pinyin

Uyghur[edit]

Not to be confused with Uyghur New script.

The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization system for the Uyghur language is based on Uyghur New script (commonly known as Yengi Yeziⱪ or Uyghur Pinyin Yëziqi), since at the time it devised Uyghur New script was the official orthography of the Uyghur language in China.

Scheme[edit]

UEY ISO 233 IPA ULY UYY broad strict
ا, ئا a a a a a
ب b b b b b
تس tsʰ (ts) c c c
د d d d d d
ې, ئې e ë e e ê
ف f f f f f
گ ɡ g g g g
خ x x h h h
ئى ,ى i i i i i
ج j j j j
ك k k k k
ل l l l l l
م m m m m m
ن n n n n n
و, ئو o o o o o
پ p p p p
چ tʃʰ ch q q q
ر r r r r r
س s s s s s
ت t t t t
ۇ, ئۇ u u u u u
ۋ v w v v v
w w w w
ش ʃ sh x x x
ي j y y y y
ز z z z z z
غ ʁ gh ƣ g ĝ
ھ h h h ĥ
ق q k
ە, ئە ɛ e ə a
(e)
ä
ۆ, ئۆ ø ö ɵ o ö
ۈ, ئۈ y ü ü ü ü
ژ ʒ zh y (Initial)
j (Coda)
ŷ (Initial)
ĵ (Coda)
ڭ ŋ ng ng ng ng

Non-SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions and orthographies in China[edit]

Pinyin-based or pinyin-influenced[edit]

Romanizations such as Bbánlám pìngyīm and Guangdong Romanization, in addition with orthographies such as the Zhuang alphabet (1982) and Yengi Yeziⱪ for Uyghur (Uyghur Pinyin Yëziqi) are not SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions.

Non-SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions used in China[edit]

Non-SASM/GNC/SRC transliterations may be used in China for scholarly purposes, and are promoted for those circumstances. For example, libraries in China use Wylie transliteration and scientific transcription to transcribe Tibetan and Mongolian book titles respectively within the library catalog.

Non-SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions (e.g. THDL), however, are not rather promoted.

Personal and place names from languages without SASM/GNC/SRC romanization[edit]

For personal and place names from languages without SASM/GNC/SRC romanization, the pinyin romanization of its transcription into Chinese characters are used. For example, Xishuangbanna is not transcribed as Sipsongpanna or Sibsongbanna.

The Oirat language, however, is transcribed from the corresponding Qahar dialect, since it is considered officially by the PRC government as a dialect of Mongolian.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chinese: 国家测绘总局, known as State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (国家测绘局) after 1982 and renamed to National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (国家测绘地理信息局) in 2011
  2. ^ Chinese: 中国地名委员会
  3. ^ Chinese: 中国文字改革委员会, renamed to State Language Commission or National Language and Character Working Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会) in 1985
  4. ^ 国务院批转《关于改用汉语拼音方案作为我国人名地名罗马字母拼写法的统一规范的报告》

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Bureaus
UN