|Founder(s)||Anthony James Barr
|Headquarters||Cary, North Carolina|
|Key people||James Goodnight, CEO and Co-founder
John Sall, Co-founder and Executive Vice President
|Revenue||$2.725 billion US$ (2011)|
SAS Institute is a Cary, North Carolina- based developer of analytics software. It owns the largest market share for advanced analytics and is one of the world's largest private software companies. SAS (pronounced "sass") develops and markets its software (also called SAS), which helps companies gather, store, access, analyze and report on corporate data to aid in decision-making. SAS’ software is used by about 79% of Fortune 500 companies.
Early history (1966-1976) 
SAS began as a research project at North Carolina State University to analyze agricultural data. In the late 1960s a consortium of eight land-grant universities made up the University Statisticians of the Southern Experiment Stations, which was primarily funded by the USDA. The schools came together under a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop a general-purpose statistical software package to analyze their collective agricultural data. North Carolina State University in Raleigh, NC, led the consortium, due to their access to more powerful mainframe computers.
SAS co-founders Jim Goodnight and Anthony James Barr were faculty members at the university, where they became project leaders for the development of the early version of SAS. When NIH discontinued funding in 1972, consortium members chipped in $5,000 each per year to keep developing and maintaining the system. By 1976, the project had more than 100 customers and was led by Goodnight, Barr, Helwig and Sall. It was at this point that the team of four left the university to form SAS Institute, Inc. and opened their first office across the street from North Carolina State University.
Modern era (1976 to present) 
In 1976 the company issued its first SASware Ballot, soliciting customers for suggestions to improve the software, and began global expansion. By 1978 the company had 21 employees and 600 SAS customer sites. In 1980 SAS moved its headquarters to its current location in Cary, NC.
During the 1980s, SAS was one of Inc. Magazine's fastest growing companies in America for six consecutive years. During that time, SAS grew from a handful of employees in a single building to 1,500 employees in 18 buildings and new SAS offices opened on four continents.
During the 1990s, SAS grew to 7,000 employees. Industry-specific SAS products were developed, and the pace of new product introductions accelerated. The company employed 9,000 people in 2009 and 11,000 by 2011. As of 2011, SAS had more than 50,000 customer sites and 200 products.
SAS Institute develops and markets business analytics software collectively called SAS. SAS draws from statistics, predictive analytics, data mining, data visualization, operations research, quality improvement, graph theory and text analytics to help organizations predict, measure, analyze and decide based on data. It is used in detecting fraud, risk management, regulatory compliance, performance management, customer/marketing analysis and supply chain management.
A SAS application may combine data integration, data quality, data mastering, enterprise data access and data governance to source, cleanse and pool operationally generated and third-party data into an accurate source of input for analytical modeling. Analysis engines then apply a series of transformations, models and testing routines relevant to the use case. Analysis results are delivered to operational systems, dashboards, reports and other graphical user interfaces where they are consolidated, presented and used for automated or business-level decisions. SAS utilizes grid, in-database, and in-memory computing algorithms and methods to address extremely large data volumes. SAS also refers to the SAS language, a fourth-generation programming language.
The SAS Global Certification program, established in 1999, includes credentials in SAS Programming, Predictive Modeling, Administration, Data Management and Business Intelligence. At the beginning of 2005, the program had issued 5,000 certifications. As of 2011, more than 35,800 SAS certifications have been awarded in 77 countries. Exams are delivered in a proctored environment at users groups, SAS facilities, universities, and other locations.
SAS Publishing has an online bookstore and an in-house writing staff that develops product documentation for all SAS products and features. In the early 1990s SAS Press was founded as an independent publishing arm of SAS that publishes books written by SAS users, for SAS users. Researchers and academics who have published their work with SAS Press include Neil Timm, Ravindra Khattree, Dayanand N. Naik, Peter Westfall, and R. C. Littell. By the end of 2010, more than 160 books were published by 250 authors.
User community 
The SAS community includes users groups on the local, regional, and international levels, and within customer organizations. The structure of each group varies by country, region and group. Typically users groups are led by volunteer boards and committees of SAS users. SAS Institute often supports users-group events by inviting local users, providing logistics support, contributing speakers or sharing expenses.
SAS Global Forum 
SAS Global Forum is a worldwide user conference, held in a different city each year to promote education, training, networking and professional development. The event is led by SAS Global Users Group, which is a non-profit organization governed by an executive board. The board is composed of 25 SAS users and three SAS Institute representatives. The first SAS Global Forum was in 1976 in Kissimmee, Florida and had just over 200 attendees. At the time it was called SAS Users Group International (SUGI), before being renamed to SAS Global Forum in 2006.
Online communities 
An e-mail list called SAS-L was started in the 1980s and is still active today. SAS customers and programmers on SAS-L began a tradition of saying "a little birdie told me" when SAS made covert contributions to the SAS-L community by providing authoritative answers to SAS user participants. In 2006, SAS Institute started the online support community forums. In 2007, SAS Global Users Group announced sasCommunity.org, an online SAS community with Wiki-style collaboration and information sharing. SAS employees were openly invited to contribute. It includes events, articles, Sasopedia, TIPs and related social media sites.
User groups 
There are five regional SAS users groups (RUGs) in the US. They typically hold annual regional conferences, but may also support local users, smaller events and workshops throughout the year. Each regional group is led by its own executive committee, which determines the frequency, length, and content of its conferences.[third-party source needed]
There are special-interest SAS users groups for specific industries or job roles. For example, there are special interest groups for JMP users, pharmaceutical, insurance & finance, retail and for statisticians. Some meet annually and others meet more frequently.
In-house SAS user groups (IUGs) are composed of users within a single organization, enabling its members to discuss confidential topics and share real data from their projects. Local users groups (LUGs) support users within geographic regions like a city, county or state. LUGs are more localized versions of regional users groups (RUGs), but act independently. There are also international users groups for various geographic regions around the globe.
SAS Institute remains a wholly owned private company enabling the management, led by James Goodnight, to run the company without concern about the demands of shareholders. Approximately 25% of the revenue of the SAS Institute goes to research and development. SAS has remained a private company for more than 35 years. It’s been profitable every year and has never had a layoff. CEO Jim Goodnight has been able to keep the company private, largely because SAS has no debt, and its large cash pools prevent outside pressure for layoffs during hard times.
SAS had revenues of $138,000 during its first year in business in 1976 and $506,000 its second year. Revenues continued to approximately double each year, reaching $19.6 million by 1982. From 1983 to 1993 revenues grew by approximately $20 to $100 million each year reaching $420.2 million by 1993 and $1.18 billion by 2002. Since 2002 the company has grown by $100 to $250 million each year reaching $2.87 billion in annual revenues in 2012. SAS' partners include Accenture, Capgemini, Deloitte, EMC Greenplum (a division of EMC), Hewlett Packard, IBM, Oracle and Teradata.
|2012||rPath, Inc.||Software appliance||United States|||
|2011||AssetLink||Integrated Marketing Management||United States|||
|2010||Vision Systems and Technology (VSTI)||Avanced Analytics Professional Services||United States|||
|2010||Memex||Intelligence Management Software||Scotland|||
|2008||Teragram||Natural Language Processing||United States|||
|2008||IDeaS||Revenue Management Software for the hospitality industry.||United States|||
|2006||Veridiem||Customer Intelligence||United States|||
|2003||Marketmax||Merchandise Planning and Analytics Software||United States|||
|2003||Risk Advisory||Risk Management||United States|||
|2003||OpRisk Analytics LLC||Management Consulting Services||United States|||
|2002||Verbind Software||Behavioral Tracking and Event-Triggering Software||United States|||
|2002||ABC Technologies Inc.||Software Developer and Wholesaler||United States|||
|2001||Intrinsic Ltd||Campaign Management Software||United Kingdom|||
|2000||Dataflux||Data Quality, Data Integration and Master Data Management||United States|||
|1997||Statview Life Sciences software from Abacuus Concepts||Business Analytics||United States|||
|1993||GESCAN International, Inc.||Document and Workflow Management Systems||United States|||
|1988||NeoVisuals Inc.||3D Computer Graphics and Animation Software||United States|||
|1986||The Lattice C compiler, often considered the first C programming language on the IBM PC||C Compiler||United States|||
|1984||The System 2000 Database Management System from Intel Corporation||Database Management||United States|||
Corporate culture 
SAS has a reputation as a good place to work. Its workplace benefits are based on the idea that they allow employees to focus completely on their work, by relieving staff of causes of outside stress that may be distracting. SAS CEO Jim Goodnight describes it as a triangle, where happy employees make happy customers, which makes a happy company. In academics it’s well-established that this approach is effective, but some feel it’s rarely implemented. In 2010, the on-site healthcare center saved the company an estimated $6 million. These benefits may also account for SAS' low turnover: SAS lost 3.7% of its employees in 2000, which is about one-tenth of competitors' rates.
Employees are given a large amount of autonomy and trust, all the while being well-compensated and well-taken care of. In return for those benefits, the company expects a high level of performance from its employees. As one employee put it, “Here, I know everything I do has an impact on the final product. That gives you a sense of responsibility to get things done right and on time… Here, a goof is a deliverable goof."
The SAS campus has a number of employee perks, including childcare centers, "M&M Wednesdays", soda fountains and snacks in every breakroom, and a 58,000-square-foot (5,400 m2) recreation and fitness center. Some company traditions were established during the 1970s, when it employed 20 people. Staff were taken out for pizza each time 100 customers were won. Profit sharing was offered. Fresh fruit was provided every Monday and M&Ms every Wednesday. Today employees eat 22.5 tons of M&MS a year.
SAS opened its first on-site childcare center in 1981, when an employee planned to become a stay-at-home mom after her maternity leave. It was also in the 1980s that SAS opened the recreation and fitness center, a healthcare center and a café. In the 1980s, SAS won one of its first awards as an employer when Health and Living magazine named SAS in a list of “Healthiest Companies to Work for” in the U.S.
The SAS headquarters in Cary, NC features a 66,000 square foot recreation and fitness center and an on-site health care center that are both free to employees. The health center conducted 40,000 visits in 2009. The company covers 89% of health insurance premiums and has unlimited sick days. SAS subsidizes the cost of childcare, fitness and similar programs for remote employees. SAS also sponsors work/life balance programs including support for elder care, adoption, financial planning, lending libraries, and a summer camp for children. An onsite childcare center is available at a significant discount to SAS employees. Three subsidized on-site cafeterias served 500 breakfasts and 2,300 lunches a day in 2010.
SAS Institute is frequently included in lists of the best places to work. SAS has been listed on Fortune’s Best Companies to Work For list every year in the US since its inception in the late 1990s. In 1999, SAS Australia was the first non-US region to be recognized as a great place to work. SAS was identified as a best place to work in a 2004 USA Today article. In October 2008, SAS's Canadian division was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's. Later that month, SAS was also named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers. In 2010 and 2011 SAS was named No. 1 on Fortune's best places to work list. SAS Belgium, SAS Norway and SAS Sweden have also been named No. 1 in their countries by the Great Place to Work Institute. In 2011 the Best Place to Work Institute ranked SAS No. 2 in a list of top multinational companies to work for. and in 2012 was ranked No. 1.
Organizational structure 
As SAS Institute has grown, it has chosen to create new divisions, instead of adding layers of management, leading to a very flat and simple organizational structure. According to Fast Company "the sense of accountability at SAS is so ingrained and the lines of reporting there are so simple," that it doesn't need a formal organization chart. According to Professor Jeffrey Pfeffer of Stanford Business School, there are only three levels in the organization and CEO Jim Goodnight has 27 people who directly report to him.
Because the organizational structure is fluid, the promotion process is not very significant. An employee can easily go from software developer to project manager back to software developer in this system (Kurtzman, “An Interview with Jeffrey Pfeffer”). SAS also does not have a very formal evaluation process. CEO Jim Goodnight says he evaluates staff on how well they attract and retain talent, because he feels keeping and motivating the best talent, will cause everything else to work out.
SAS does everything in-house. At its facility in North Carolina, every employee, from the gardeners to the cafeteria workers to the child care center workers are all SAS employees. The company does not outsource anything. This is because SAS believes it is more cost effective and the workers do better work.
Management style 
At SAS managers are involved not only in management, but in doing the work itself side-by-side with those they manage. In an interview in Fast Company, an employee said, “My manager is doing what I'm doing. She is in the trenches, writing code. Dr. Goodnight was once in the same group that I'm in.” According to a report in Software Business Magazine, this breeds respect among management and staff, speeds up the decision-making process and produces a flatter organization by limiting the bureaucratic middle-men.
There is a large degree of autonomy within the system and job descriptions are often very fluid. This leads to employees being able to work on projects that they’re passionate about and committed to. Furthermore, this is a significant deterrent to the type of alienation Marx described because employees are choosing the projects and departments they want to work on.
Charity and community 
SAS Institute provides free web-based teaching curriculum to more than 50,000 teachers and 12,000 schools through its Curriculum Pathways program. The company is a founding member of the North Carolina 1:1 Learning Technology Initiative. In 2010, SAS supported the Triangle High Five Algebra Readiness Initiative and started hosting the first annual Algebra Readiness Summit for 400 math educators. SAS is part of initiatives that support science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) teaching and careers; examples are the Change the Equation (CTeq) program and Computer Science Education Week.
In 2010, SAS donated about $400,000 worth of laptops to high schools, $1.2 million in cash, and $170,000 in surplus equipment/hardware. SAS maintains an Executive Sustainability Council focused on operational sustainability and the company’s senior management is involved in several environmental organizations. SAS sponsored the SAS Soccer Park (now Wake Med Soccer Park) in Cary. SAS Hall, the new mathematics and statistics building at North Carolina State University, is also named after the SAS Institute. SAS used to be the principal sponsor of SAS Soccer Park in Cary, North Carolina (now "WakeMed Soccer Park"). Jim Goodnight is one of the major contributors to Cary Academy.
SAS also maintains six aircraft for use in company operations including Bell 407 helicopter, a Boeing 737 Business Jet, an 8 passenger Cessna Citation X, a pair of 12pax Dassault Falcon 900's and fractional ownership in a six-passenger Hawker 400. Aircraft are housed in the company's hangar at the Raleigh-Durham International Airport near the SAS campus.
See also 
- SAS Institute lawsuit with World Programming and SAS Institute Inc. v World Programming Ltd - a precedent setting court ruling.
- By Chris Baysden, Triangle Business Journal. “SAS grows analytics market share.” June 13, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Van Kooten, Michel (August 23, 2011). "Global Software Top 100 - Edition 2011". Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- By Steve Lohr, The New York Times. “At a Software Powerhouse, the Good Life Is Under Siege.” November 21, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Forbes. “America’s Largest Private Companies: #188 SAS.” Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- By David Kaplan, Fortune. “SAS: A new no. 1 best employer.” January 22, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Presented at Duke University. SAS Institute FDA Intellectual Partnership for Efficient Regulated Research Data Archival and Analyses. April 12, 2000. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Company History | SAS
- SAS corporate timeline. March 3, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By Leigh Buchanan, Inc. Magazine. "How SAS Continues to Grow." September 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- By Rebecca Leung, CBS News. “Working the Good Life.” February 11, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- SAS Website. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By James Taylor, JT on EDM. “First Look – SAS High Performance Computing.” March 7, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By Sarbjit Rai, North Carolina State University. “SAS Certification: Is it for You?” Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- SAS Certification Site. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By Terry Barham, Generation SAS. “Let SAS Certification Come To You.” September 7, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Tech Support Site. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Neil Timm - Publications".Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- Ravindra Khattree, Dayanand N. Naik. Applied multivariate statistics with SAS software. 1999: SAS Publishing.
- "Peter H. Westfall". Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Ramon C. Littell". Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- SAS Press Site
- "SAS Global Forum". SAS Institute, Inc. 2008-04-04.Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- SAS Global Forum Executive Board. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Dates and Locations of Past SAS Global Forums. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- SAScommunity.org. “The History of Little Birdie.” Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- SAScommunity.org. “SAS-L.” Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "SAS Global Forum [2007". SAS Institute, Inc. 2008-04-04.Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- "Panel Discussion: sasCommunity.org". SGF 2008. 2008-04-04.Retrieved 2010-08-27.
- SAS User Groups Site. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- PharmaSUG. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Fishman, Charles (December 31, 1998). "Sanity Inc.". Fast Company.
- By Kevin Maney, USA Today. “SAS Workers Won When Greed Lost.” April 21, 2004. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By N Shivapriya, The Economic Times. “SAS Steams Along as Unlisted Firms Amid US Financial Chaos.” September 25, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By Quentin Hardy, Forbes. “SAS-We Spurned IBM, Now to Win.” June 9, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- By Rebecca Leung, CBS News. “Working the Good Life.” February 11, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Knowledge @ Wharton. “SAS Institute CEO Jim Goodnight on Building Strong Companies -- and a More Competitive U.S. Workforce.” January 5, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- SAS Company Statistics Page. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Press Release. "SAS alliances bring analytical innovation to businesses". October 26, 2011.
- SAS. "SAS Acquires Key rPath Assets for Broader Deployment of SAS Solutions." November 30, 2012.
- Gartner. "Assetlink Buy Moves SAS Into Software as a Service and Mainstream MRM." February 23, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- News Observer. "Cary's SAS buys VSTI." July 17, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- By David Hubler, Washington Technology. "Acquisition boosts SAS’ goal of security market leadership." June 23, 2010.
- Press Release. "SAS acquires UK software firm Memex." June 23, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- By Chris Kanaracus, IDG. "SAS buys natural language processing vendor Teragram." March 17, 2008. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Press Release. SAS acquires software firm IDeaS. August 4, 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- By Hannah Smalltree, Tech Target. SAS snaps up Veridiem for MRM. March 16, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- By Dennis Callaghan, eWeek. "SAS Buys Marketmax." August 2003. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- WRAL. "SAS Corporate Timeline." March 3, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- alcra store. "SAS Institute Inc. Mergers and Acquisitions." Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Thomson Reuters. ABC Technologies Inc acquires OpRisk Analytics. June 18, 2003.
- By Melissa Campanelli, Direct Marketing News. "SAS Buys Verbind Tech Assets." November 19, 2002. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- By Aliza Earnshaw, Portland Business Journal. "ABC Technologies agrees to acquisition by SAS." March 10, 2002. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- By Dennis Callaghan, eWeek. "SAS Moves to Strengthen CRM Suite." February 4, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- By Doug Henschen, TechWeb. "SAS's DataFlux Intros Management Platform." February 23, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- Press Release. "SAS Institute to Step Up Investment and Acquisition Efforts. February 8, 2000. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- The Free Library. "SAS Institute acquires StatView software package from Abacus Concepts." September 26, 1997. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Computer Business Review. "Gescan International Finds More Platforms." May 6, 1993. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- SASCommunity.org. "SAS Institute's New Stand-Alone Graphics Product: NeoVisuals Software." Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Lattice: How we Started
- IEEE Computer Society. "System 2000: The MRI Systems Corporation." October - December 2009. Volume 31, Number 4. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Mitch Weitzner and Morley Safer. “60 Minutes/SAS: The Royal Treatment.” Originally appeared on April 20, 2003.
- HSM Global. “Building a Winning Corporate Culture – Jim Goodnight and SAS.” Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- By Janet Wiscombe, Workforce.com. “SAS Optimas Award Winner for General Excellence, 2000.” October 8, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Fishman, Charles (December 31, 1998). "Sanity Inc.". Fast Company. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- SAS Benefits Site. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Canada's Top 100 Employers Competition".
- Moskowitz, Milton; Levering, Robert; Tkaczyk, Christopher (February 8, 2010). "100 Best Companies: The List". Fortune 161 (2): 75.
- Moskowitz, Milton; Levering, Robert; Tkaczyk, Christopher (February 8, 2010). "100 Best Companies: The List". Fortune 161 (2): 75.
- SAS Corporate Awards. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Canada's Top 100 Employers Competition." Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Numerous SAS Press Releases. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- WRAL TechWire. "SAS No. 2, Quintiles No. 25 on multinational best place to work list" October 28, 2011
- Great Place to Work 2012 "World's Best Multinational Workplaces"
- Joel, Kurtzman. "An Interview with Jeffrey Pfeffer". Strategy+Business.
- Turchin, Brian. "SAS Profile -- Going Its Own Way". Software Business Online.
- By Raishay Lin, eSchoolNews. “Free curriculum resource helps educators teach to common core standards.” August 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- North Carolina 1:1 Learning Collaborative Website. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Press Release. “Business analytics leader SAS joins White House education effort.” October 6, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- SAS Corporate Responsibility Report. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- "FAA Registry". Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- Baysden, Chris (April 14, 2006). "Private jet owners in a fight with commercial airliners over taxes". Triangle Business Journal.