Slavia was a pioneer in women's football in Czechoslovakia, and won the first three editions of the Czech SR Championship between 1970 and 1972. It subsequently won six more trophies until 1989, when a final between the Czech and Slovak champions was organized. Slavia were the Czechoslovakian champions in 1992 and 1993.
However, rivals Sparta Praha gained the upper hand in the new Czech League following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Slavia won the championship for the first time in 2003 and played the 2003-04 UEFA Women's Cup, where it was knocked out in the group stage by defending champion Umea IK. It has always been the league's runner-up since, ranking second to Sparta. In 2011 they were close to winning their first national Cup, but lost the final to Sparta in the penalty shootout. The same happened again in 2013.
In 2014 the team won the double, ending a nine-year-old winning streak of Sparta in the league. It also marked the first time Sparta didn't win the cup.