SMERSH (James Bond)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
SMERSH
Universe James Bond series
Type Intelligence agency
Founded 1940 or earlier
Location Leningrad
Moscow
Numerous
Key people General Grubozaboyschikov (leader)
Rosa Klebb (Director of Operations)
Donovan "Red" Grant (Chief Executioner
Mr. Big
Auric Goldfinger
Purpose Counter-intelligence
Political subversion of the West

SMERSH is a Soviet counterintelligence agency featured in Ian Fleming's early James Bond novels as agent 007's nemesis. SMERSH is the acronym of Spetsyalnye MEtody Razoblacheniya SHpyonov meaning Special Methods of Spy Detection, (in Russian Cyrillic СМЕРШ: Специальные Методы Разоблaчения Шпионов .[1] SMERSH is a portmanteau word from two Russian words: "SMERt' SHpionam" (СМЕРть Шпионам, Směrt Špionam) meaning "Death to Spies".

Though Fleming's version of SMERSH supposedly was modelled upon the real SMERSH organisation, which existed 1943-1946, the novels portray SMERSH as a massive Soviet counterintelligence organisation, much more resembling the real-life KGB, which aims its operatives abroad in subversion of the West, with the additional goal of killing Western spies, particularly James Bond of SIS. SMERSH's headquarters are variously stated to be in Leningrad or in Moscow, Soviet Union.

In the Bond film series, SMERSH is usually replaced with SPECTRE - a global terrorist organisation.

Departmental overview[edit]

The novel Casino Royale breaks SMERSH down into five departments or отделы (оtdyels):

  • Department I: In charge of counterintelligence among Soviet organisations at home and abroad.
  • Department II: Operations, including executions.
  • Department III: Administration and finance.
  • Department IV: Investigations and legal work. Personnel.
  • Department V: Prosecutions — the section which passes final judgment on all victims.

History[edit]

Novels[edit]

Within the world of James Bond, SMERSH is a Soviet counterintelligence agency that is a recurring threat to him and the British Secret Service. In Casino Royale, the first Bond novel, SMERSH is described as the most powerful and feared organization in the Soviet Union with its main headquarters in Leningrad. It was believed to be under the personal direction of Lavrentiy Beria and was tasked with "the elimination of all forms of treachery and back-sliding within the various branches of the Soviet Secret Service and Secret Police at home and abroad" (a mission vaguely similar to that of the real-life SMERSH). The organization was suspected of having carried out Leon Trotsky's assassination in 1940. While it was hugely expanded during World War II to deal with treachery among Soviet forces, it was purged after the war and by the time of Casino Royale was believed "to consist of only a few hundred operatives of very high quality," only one of whom had ever been captured by British agents.[2] By the time of From Russia, with Love, however, Fleming describes SMERSH as having 40,000 agents and being based in Moscow rather than in Leningrad.[3]

SMERSH made its first and perhaps longest-lasting impact on Bond in Casino Royale: A SMERSH agent sent to kill the Communist agent Le Chiffre carved a Sha (ш), the initial Cyrillic letter of "Špion" (Russian for "spy") into the back of Bond's left hand. (Despite skin grafts, signs of the wound remain in later Bond books).[4] Then, at the end of the novel, Bond's lover and fellow agent Vesper Lynd—in fact a Soviet double agent—committed suicide when she learned that a SMERSH agent had her under surveillance and that the organization was planning to kill her. As a result of her death, Bond swore vengeance upon SMERSH, which he called "the threat behind the spies, the threat that made them spy."[5] His revenge began in the second novel, Live and Let Die, wherein he becomes highly interested in disrupting Mr. Big's financing of Soviet operations upon learning that Big is a SMERSH agent.[6] SMERSH retaliates in From Russia, with Love, issuing a death warrant for the immediate execution of James Bond ("To be killed with ignominy").[7] Not only is his assassination arranged, but SMERSH goes to great lengths to ensure his death will be scandalously embarrassing throughout the entire intelligence community. The first part of "From Russia With Love" is given entirely from SMERSH's point of view, depicting the interplay between various agents and operatives and the meticulous preparations for killing Bond, and a large part of the book passes before Bond himself appears onstage. Later, Bond again squares off against SMERSH in Goldfinger after learning that Auric Goldfinger is the agency's treasurer.

After Goldfinger, SMERSH is mentioned only fleetingly, usually in reference to having been disbanded. In the continuation novels (and novelizations), however, SMERSH returns as an organisation essentially renamed and reorganised within Soviet intelligence. They are first mentioned again in The Spy Who Loved Me film novelization, although replaced by KGB in the film. In John Gardner's series of Bond novels, SMERSH is renamed Department V (the letter) in Icebreaker. They return in a larger role in No Deals, Mr. Bond, renamed Department Eight, Directorate S, a KGB sub-section.

Films[edit]

In the film series, Bond's archenemy became SPECTRE, which first appeared in Fleming's novel Thunderball (1961). SPECTRE is introduced in the first film, Dr. No (1962), in which the doctor explains to Bond that it is the acronym for the SPecial Executive for Counterintelligence, Terrorism, Revenge, and Extortion, the four great cornerstones of power. Film versions of novels where SMERSH appears substituted either SPECTRE or independent villains.

Although twice referred to, SMERSH never appears in the official film series; first, in From Russia with Love (1963), Bond initially thinks he is fighting SMERSH, only to learn that the villains are from SPECTRE, including villainess Rosa Klebb, the former head of SMERSH who has secretly defected to SPECTRE. Tatiana Romanova, the Bond girl heroine, says she knows Klebb as SMERSH's head of operations, and obeys her orders, presuming them from SMERSH. Second, The Living Daylights (1987) features a faked SMERSH re-activation. Throughout, it is referred to with its less-known full name Smert Shpionam, rather than the better-known acronym; General Pushkin, then head of KGB, says it has been inoperative for the past 20 years. SMERSH is also an element in the 1967 spoofed film adaptation of Casino Royale that centres upon Le Chiffre's attempted recovery of SMERSH monies via baccarat at the Royale casino.

In the 2006 film adaptation of Casino Royale, SMERSH's role in the plot is filled by a terrorist organisation called Quantum.

Appearances[edit]

Novels
Films

SMERSH agents[edit]

Notable villains in the Bond novels who were SMERSH agents or associates, included:

  • Le Chiffre: Le Chiffre is the villain in Casino Royale. He is paymaster of the "Syndicat des Ouvriers d'Alsace", a SMERSH-controlled trade union.
  • "Adolph Gettler": A SMERSH agent who shadowed Bond and Vesper while they are on French holiday in Casino Royale. He was identifiable by his eyepatch, screwed in like a monocle. His real name is unknown, but he posed as a Swiss wristwatch salesman named Adolph Gettler.
  • Mr. Big: Mr. Big is the villain in the novel Live and Let Die. He is head of the "Black Widow Voodoo Cult", and, according to M, is one of the most powerful living criminals in the world.
  • Auric Goldfinger: The villain in Goldfinger. He is SMERSH's treasurer, yet also a jeweller, metallurgist, and smuggler. In the film, though an international communist, he has no apparent SMERSH affiliation.
  • Colonel Rosa Klebb: Head of Otdyel II, the SMERSH torture and death department in the novel From Russia, with Love. She employs MGB Corporal Tatiana Romanova to entrap James Bond in Istanbul, where he would be killed and disgraced before the intelligence community. Ultimately, she fails and René Mathis captures her. In the film, Klebb (Lotte Lenya), defected from SMERSH to SPECTRE. She is shot in the back by Romanova, who is in love with Bond.
  • Donovan "Red" Grant: In the novel, he is Chief Executioner of SMERSH; originally a British soldier serving with the occupation forces in Berlin, he defected to the USSR. In the film From Russia with Love, working under Rosa Klebb makes him a SPECTRE agent.
  • Colonel-General Grubozaboyshikov: He was selected head of SMERSH after Lavrenty Beria's death. In the From Russia, with Love novel he chairs a committee of Soviet security organizations which meets to plan an intelligence coup against the West that will involve the killing of James Bond in circumstances that will provoke a public scandal.
  • Colonel Tov Kronsteen: He is planning department head for SMERSH in the From Russia, with Love novel; (his name, Tov, is Jewish). He was a Chess expert and the champion of Moscow for two years running. During the championship game for his third year, SMERSH summoned him to plan Bond's killing and discrediting. In the film, Kronsteen (Vladek Sheybal), works for SPECTRE, and is tasked with planning Bond's killing and disgrace for killing Dr. Julius No. Ultimately, he fails and is murdered at Ernst Stavro Blofeld's behest.
  • Colonel Niktin: Heads the Soviet Secret Service (MGB, KGB post-1953) in From Russia with Love. Later in the James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me film novelization he is promoted to Colonel-General and is head of SMERSH; he is not in the film, and is replaced by General Gogol who is head of the KGB.
  • Lieutenant-General Slavin: Slavin was the head of the intelligence department for the General Staff of the Army (GRU). He was a member of the committee of Soviet security organizations which meet under SMERSH chairmanship in From Russia, with Love to plan the disgrace and killing of James Bond.
  • Lieutenant-General Vozdvishensky: Vozdvishensky is head of RUMID, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs intelligence department. He represents this department on the committee of Soviet security organizations which meets under SMERSH leadership in From Russia, with Love, in order to plan the killing of James Bond "with ignominy". Later in the James Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me film novelization we learn that he has since defected and now conducts a language symposium for employees of the British Ministry of Defence.
  • Sergei Borzov: Borzov was a member of Otdyel II, the operations and executions branch of SMERSH in the film novelization of The Spy Who Loved Me, but was never mentioned as a member in the actual film. Borzov was the romantic love interest of agent XXX before being killed by James Bond in the opening teaser.
  • Kolya Mosolov: Mosolov is a KGB agent who is a member of the Icebreaker team in the novel Icebreaker. He is discovered to have planned the entire Icebreaker team in coordination with von Glöda. The two have a deal in which Mosolov would betray his country and sell arms to von Glöda in exchange for the capture of secret agent 007. Mosolov being not only an agent of the KGB, but also an agent working within "Department V" (formerly SMERSH). Mosolov believes that von Glöda will not succeed and is merely going along with the deal for the time being in order to capture Bond for the Soviets.
  • General Konstantin Nikolaevich Chernov: Codenamed "Blackfriar", Chernov (also known as Koyla Chernov) is the Chief Investigating Officer of Department Eight, Directorate S (formerly SMERSH). He appears in John Gardner's No Deals, Mr. Bond as the villain who is systematically targeting former members of a secret operation in East Germany.

Parodies[edit]

A number of other fictional spy organisations appear to be loosely based on SMERSH, some of them parodies, e.g. THRUSH in The Man from U.N.C.L.E., Schlecht in The Intelligence Men, and Stench in Carry On Spying.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Soviet Army – SMERSH at SpetsNaz Psychologyhttp://www.systemaspetsnaz.com/the-soviet-army.htm.
  2. ^ Fleming, Ian, Casino Royale (Jonathan Cape, 1953), ch. 2.
  3. ^ Fleming, Ian, From Russia, with Love (Jonathan Cape, 1957), ch. 6.
  4. ^ Fleming, Casino Royale, ch. 18.
  5. ^ Fleming, Casino Royale, ch. 27.
  6. ^ Fleming, Ian, Live and Let Die (Jonathan Cape, 1954), ch. 2.
  7. ^ Fleming, From Russia, with Love, ch. 4.

See also[edit]