SMS Dresden (1907)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other ships of the same name, see SMS Dresden.
SMS Dresden German Cruiser LOC 16727.jpg
SMS Dresden transiting the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal
Career (German Empire)
Name: Dresden
Namesake: City of Dresden
Builder: Blohm & Voss, Hamburg
Laid down: 1906
Launched: 5 October 1907
Commissioned: 14 November 1908
Fate: Scuttled off Robinson Crusoe Island, 14 March 1915
General characteristics
Class & type: Dresden-class cruiser
Displacement: 4,268 metric tons (4,201 long tons; 4,705 short tons)
Length: 118.3 m (388.1 ft)
Beam: 13.5 m (44.3 ft)
Draft: 5.53 m (18.1 ft)
Installed power: 15,000 shaft horsepower (11,000 kW)
Propulsion: 2 Parsons steam turbines
12 water-tube boilers
Speed: 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph)
Range: 3,600 nautical miles (6,700 km; 4,100 mi)
Complement: 18 officers
343 enlisted men
Armament: 10 × 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/40 guns
2 × 50 cm (19.7 in) torpedo tubes
Armor: Deck: 80 mm (3.1 in)
Conning tower: 100 mm (3.9 in)
Gun shields: 50 mm (2.0 in)

SMS Dresden ("His Majesty's Ship Dresden")[a] was the lead ship of her class, built for the Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). She was laid down at the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg in 1906, launched in October 1907, and completed in November 1908. Her entrance into service was delayed by accidents during sea trials, including a collision with another vessel that necessitated major repairs. She had one sister ship, Emden. Like the preceding Königsberg-class cruisers, Dresden was armed with ten 10.5 cm (4.1 in) guns and two torpedo tubes.

Dresden spent much of her career overseas. After commissioning, she visited the United States in 1909 during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, before returning to Germany to serve in the reconnaissance force of the High Seas Fleet for three years. In 1913, she was assigned to the Mediterranean Division, and later that year she was sent to the Caribbean to protect German nationals during the Mexican Revolution. At the end of the conflict the following year, she carried the former dictator Victoriano Huerta to Jamaica, where the British had granted him asylum. She was due to return to Germany in July 1914, but was prevented from doing so by the outbreak of World War I. At the onset of hostilities, Dresden operated as a commerce raider in South American waters in the Atlantic, before moving to the Pacific Ocean in September and thereafter joining Maximilian von Spee's East Asia Squadron.

Dresden saw action in the Battle of Coronel in November, where she engaged the British cruiser HMS Glasgow, and at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December, where she was the only German warship to escape destruction. She eluded her British pursuers for several more months, until she put into Robinson Crusoe Island in March 1915. Her engines were worn out and she had almost no coal left for her boilers, so the ship's captain contacted the local Chilean authorities to have Dresden interned. There, she was trapped by British cruisers, including her old opponent Glasgow. The British violated Chilean neutrality and opened fire on the ship in the Battle of Más a Tierra. The Germans scuttled Dresden and the majority of the crew escaped to be interned in Chile for the duration of the war. The wreck remains in the harbor, but several artifacts, including her bell and compass, have been returned to Germany.

Design[edit]

Line-drawing of the Dresden class
Main article: Dresden class cruiser

Dresden was 118.3 meters (388 ft) long overall and had a beam of 13.5 m (44 ft) and a draft of 5.53 m (18.1 ft) forward. She displaced 4,268 t (4,201 long tons; 4,705 short tons) at full combat load. Her propulsion system consisted of two Parsons steam turbines, designed to give 15,000 shaft horsepower (11,000 kW) for a top speed of 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph). The engines were powered by twelve coal-fired Marine-type water-tube boilers. Dresden carried up to 860 tonnes (850 long tons) of coal, which gave her a range of 3,600 nautical miles (6,700 km; 4,100 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph). She had a crew of 18 officers and 343 enlisted men.[1]

The ship was armed with ten 10.5 cm SK L/40 guns in single mounts. Two were placed side by side forward on the forecastle, six were located amidships, three on either side, and two were placed side by side aft. The guns could engage targets out to 12,200 m (40,000 ft). They were supplied with 1,500 rounds of ammunition, for 150 shells per gun. She was also fitted to carry fifty naval mines and equipped with two 50 cm (19.7 in) torpedo tubes with four torpedoes, mounted on the deck. The ship was protected by an armored deck that was up to 80 mm (3.1 in) thick. The conning tower had 100 mm (3.9 in) thick sides, and the guns were protected by 50 mm (2.0 in) thick shields.[1]

Service history[edit]

Dresden visiting New York City in October 1909

Dresden was ordered under the contract name Ersatz Comet[b] and was laid down at the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg in 1906 and launched on 5 October 1907.[2] The Oberbürgermeister of her namesake city christened the ship.[3] Fitting-out work then commenced, and she was commissioned into the High Seas Fleet on 14 November 1908.[2] Following her commissioning, Dresden began her sea trials. On 28 November she accidentally collided with the Swedish galleass Cäcilie outside Kiel and sank her. Dresden was badly damaged in the collision and required six months of repair work before she could resume sea trials. After she returned to trials in 1909 she had a turbine accident that necessitated further repairs, which lasted until September.[3]

Dresden '​s trials were declared over on 7 September, though she had not actually completed the required testing, as she had been ordered to visit the United States instead.[3] The purpose of the voyage was to represent Germany at the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in New York; Dresden was joined by the protected cruisers Hertha and Victoria Louise and the light cruiser Bremen.[4] Dresden left Wilhelmshaven on 11 September and stopped in Newport, where she met the rest of the ships of the squadron. The ships arrived in New York on 24 September, and remained there through 9 October, arriving back in Germany on the 22nd.[3]

Dresden, Victoria Louise, and Hertha during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in 1909

Dresden thereafter joined the reconnaissance force for the High Seas Fleet; the following two years consisted of the peacetime routine of squadron exercises, training cruises, and annual fleet exercises. On 16 February 1910, she collided with the light cruiser Königsberg.[3] The collision caused significant damage to Dresden, though no one on either vessel was injured. She made it back to Kiel, where repairs were effected.[5] The repair work took eight days. Dresden visited Hamburg on 13–17 May that year. From 14 to 20 April 1912, she was temporarily transferred to the Training Squadron, along with the armored cruiser Friedrich Carl and the light cruiser Mainz. For the year 1911–12, Dresden won the Kaiser's Schießpreis (Shooting Prize) for excellent gunnery amongst the light cruisers of the High Seas Fleet.[3] From September 1912 through September 1913, she was commanded by Fregattenkapitän (Frigate Captain) Fritz Lüdecke, who would command the ship again during World War I.[6]

On 6 April 1913, she and the cruiser Strassburg were sent from Kiel to the Adriatic Sea,[7] where she joined the Mittelmeer-Division (Mediterranean Division), centered on the battlecruiser Goeben and commanded by Konteradmiral (Rear Admiral) Konrad Trummler. The ships cruised the eastern Mediterranean for several months, and in late August, Dresden was ordered to return to Germany. After arriving in Kiel on 23 September, she was taken into the Kaiserliche Werft (Imperial Shipyard) for an overhaul that lasted until the end of December. She was scheduled to return to the Mediterranean Division, but following the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, the Admiralstab (Admiralty Staff) decided to reassign Dresden to the North American station to protect German interests in the country. In addition, the cruiser Bremen, then in North American waters, was due to return to Germany, but her intended replacement, Karlsruhe, had not yet entered service. On 27 December 1913, Dresden departed Germany and arrived off Vera Cruz on 21 January 1914,[3] under the command of Fregattenkapitän Erich Köhler.[6] The United States had already sent a squadron of warships to the city, as had several other countries.[8]

Dresden at anchor, probably before the war

The Admiralstab ordered Hertha, which had been on a training cruiser for naval cadets, to join Dresden off Mexico. Bremen was similarly recalled to reinforce the German naval contingent; after arriving, she was tasked with transferring European nationals to German HAPAG liners. Dresden and the British cruiser HMS Hermione meanwhile rescued 900 American citizens trapped in a hotel in Vera Cruz and transferred them to American warships. The German consul in Mexico City requested additional forces, and so Dresden provided a landing party that consisted of a Maat (Junior Petty Officer) and ten sailors, armed with two MG 08 machine guns.[9] On 15 April 1914, Dresden steamed to Tampico on Mexico's Caribbean coast.[10] That month, the German-flagged merchant ship SS Ypiranga arrived in Mexico, carrying a load of small arms for the regime of Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta. The United States had put an arms embargo into effect in an attempt to reduce the violence of the civil war. The US Navy intercepted Ypiranga in the so-called "Ypiranga incident" on 21 April. Shortly thereafter, Dresden arrived and confiscated the merchantman and pressed her into naval service to transport German refugees out of Mexico. Despite the American embargo, the Germans nevertheless delivered the weapons and ammunition to the Mexican government on 28 May.[11]

On 20 July, after the Huerta regime was toppled, Dresden carried Huerta, his vice president, Aureliano Blanquet, and their families to Kingston, Jamaica, where Britain had granted them asylum. Upon arriving in Kingston on the 25th, Köhler learned of the rising political tensions in Europe during the July Crisis that followed the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. By this time, the ship was in need of a refit in Germany, and met with her replacement, Karlsruhe, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the following day. Lüdecke, who had arrived in command of Karlsruhe, traded places with Köhler aboard Dresden. The Admiralstab initially ordered Dresden to return to Germany for her needed overhaul, but the heightened threat of war by the 31st led the staff to countermand the order, instead instructing Lüdecke to prepare to conduct Handelskrieg (trade war) in the Atlantic.[9][12]

World War I[edit]

After receiving the order to remain in the Atlantic, Lüdecke turned his ship south while maintaining radio silence to prevent any hostile warships from discovering his vessel. On the night of 4–5 August, he received a radio report informing him of Britain's declaration of war on Germany. He decided that the South Atlantic would be Dresden '​s operational area, and steamed to the Brazilian coast. Off the mouth of the Amazon River, he stopped a British merchant ship on 6 August.[9] The ship, SS Drumcliffe, whose captain professed to know nothing of Britain's entry into the war, was permitted to proceed unmolested in accordance with the rules set forth in the Hague Convention of 1907. Dresden thereafter rendezvoused with the German collier SS Corrientes, a converted HSDG vessel. The cruiser moved to the Rocas Atoll on the 12th, along with the HAPAG steamers Prussia, Baden, and Persia. After departing the atoll, en route to Trinidade, Dresden caught the British steamer SS Hyades; Lüdecke took off the ship's crew and then sank the merchantman. Dresden captured the British collier SS Holmwood on 24 August and sank her after evacuating her crew. After arriving in Trinidade, she rendezvoused with the gunboat Eber and several steamers.[13][14]

Map showing the voyages of the German warships in the Pacific and South Atlantic; Dresden '​s route is shown in purple

On 26 August, while steaming off the mouth of the Río de la Plata, she caught two more British steamers, but the poor condition of Dresden '​s engines curtailed further operations.[15] On 5 September, Dresden put into Hoste Island for engine maintenance,[16] which lasted until the 16th. While the ship was there, the HAPAG steamer Santa Isabel arrived from Punta Arenas with news of the war situation, particularly the heavy merchant traffic on the western coast of South America. Lüdecke decided to steam there, and on 18 September Dresden passed the Strait of Magellan.[15] While en route, Dresden encountered the French steamer SS Ortega, though Lüdecke refrained from attacking the transport ship, since she had fled into neutral waters.[16] After steaming up the Chilean coast, she stopped in the Juan Fernández Islands, where she made radio contact with the light cruiser Leipzig,[15] which was operating on the Pacific coast of South America.[17] Dresden saw no further success against British shipping, and on 12 October, she joined Vizeadmiral (Vice Admiral) Maximilian von Spee's East Asia Squadron, which had crossed the Pacific and was coaling at Easter Island.[18] The following day, Lüdecke was promoted to the rank of Kapitän zur See (Captain at Sea).[19]

On 18 October, Dresden and the East Asia Squadron, which was centered on the armored cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, departed Easter Island, bound for the South American coast. They arrived at Más a Fuera island on 26 October. The following evening, the German cruisers escorted the auxiliary cruiser SS Prinz Eitel Friedrich and the merchant ships SS Yorck and SS Göttingen to Chile. The flotilla arrived off Valparaiso on 30 October, and the following evening, von Spee received intelligence that a British cruiser was at the Chilean port of Coronel. Von Spee decided that his squadron should ambush the cruiser—HMS Glasgow—when it was forced to leave port due to Chile's neutral status, which required belligerent warships to leave after twenty-four hours.[20] What von Spee did not know was that Glasgow was in the company of Rear Admiral Christopher Craddock's 4th Cruiser Squadron, which also included the armored cruisers Monmouth and Good Hope and the auxiliary cruiser Otranto.[21]

Battle of Coronel[edit]

Map showing the movements of the German and British warships
Main article: Battle of Coronel

Early on the morning of 1 November, von Spee took his squadron out of Valparaiso, steaming at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) south toward Coronel.[22] At around 16:00, Leipzig spotted the first smoke column from the leading British cruiser. By 16:25, the other two ships had been spotted. The two squadrons slowly closed the distance, until the Germans opened fire at 18:34, at a range of 10,400 m (34,100 ft).[23] The German ships engaged their opposite numbers, with Dresden firing on Otranto. After Dresden '​s third salvo, Otranto turned away after a hit that caused a fire was observed. Following Otranto '​s departure, Dresden shifted her fire to Glasgow, which was also targeted by Leipzig. The two German cruisers hit their British opponent five times.[24]

At around 19:30, von Spee ordered Dresden and Leipzig to launch a torpedo attack against the damaged British armored cruisers. Dresden increased speed to position herself off the British bows, and briefly spotted Glasgow as she was withdrawing, but the British cruiser quickly disappeared in the haze and gathering darkness. Shortly thereafter, Dresden encountered Leipzig; both ships initially thought the other was hostile. Dresden '​s crew was in the process of loading a torpedo when the two ships confirmed each other's identity.[25] By 22:00, Dresden and the other two light cruisers were deployed in a line to search for the British cruisers, though they found nothing.[26] Dresden had emerged from the battle completely unscathed.[27]

On 3 November, von Spee took Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Nürnberg back to Valparaiso for provisioning and to consult with the Admiralstab. Neutrality laws permitted only three belligerent warships in a port at a given time. Dresden and Leipzig meanwhile remained with the squadron's colliers in Más a Fuera. Von Spee returned to Más a Fuera on 6 November, and thereafter detached Dresden and Leipzig for a visit to Valparaiso, where they also restocked their supplies. The two cruisers arrived on 12 November, left the following day, and rendezvoused with the rest of the squadron at sea on 18 November. Three days later, the squadron anchored in St. Quentin Bay in the Gulf of Penas, where they coaled.[28] Meanwhile, the Royal Navy had deployed a pair of battlecruisers, Invincible and Inflexible, to hunt down the German squadron. The British ships were commanded by Vice Admiral Doveton Sturdee. They left Britain on 11 November, and arrived in the Falkland Islands nearly a month later, on 7 December. There, they joined the armored cruisers Cornwall, Kent, and Carnarvon, and the light cruisers Glasgow and Bristol.[29]

On 26 November, the German East Asia Squadron left St. Quentin Bay, bound for the Atlantic. On 2 December, they caught the Canadian sailing ship Drummuir, which was carrying some 2,750 metric tons (2,710 long tons; 3,030 short tons) of high-grade Cardiff coal. The following morning, the Germans anchored off Picton Island, where they unloaded the coal from Drummuir into their own auxiliaries.[30] On the morning of 6 December, von Spee held a council aboard Scharnhorst to discuss their next moves. He suggested an attack on the Falklands to destroy the British wireless station and coal stocks there. Lüdecke and the captains of Leipzig and Nürnberg all opposed the plan, and were in favor of bypassing the Falklands and instead proceeding to the La Plata area to continue to raid British shipping. Regardless, von Spee and those who favored the attack on the Falklands won the argument.[31]

Battle of the Falkland Islands[edit]

The German ships approached the islands from the south before turning back to the south to try to escape, but each ship was chased down and sunk save one.
Map showing the movements of both squadrons

On the afternoon of 6 December, the German ships departed Picton Island, bound for the Falklands. On 7 December, they rounded the Tierra del Fuego and turned north into the Atlantic. They arrived off the Falklands at around 02:00; three hours later, von Spee detached Gneisenau and Nürnberg to send a landing party ashore. By 08:30, the ships were approaching Port Stanley, when they noticed thick columns of smoke rising from the harbor. After closing to the harbor entrance, they quickly realized they were confronted by a much more powerful squadron, which was just getting up steam. Von Spee immediately broke off the operation and turned east to flee before the British ships could catch his squadron. By 10:45, Gneisenau and Nürnberg had rejoined the fleet, and the German auxiliaries were detached to seek shelter in the maze of islands off Cape Horn.[32]

The British ships set off in pursuit, and by 12:50, Sturdee's two battlecruisers had overtaken the Germans. A minute later, he gave the order to open fire at the trailing German ship, Leipzig. Von Spee ordered the three small cruisers to try to escape to the south, while he turned back with Scharnhorst and Gneisenau in an attempt to hold off the British squadron. Nevertheless, Sturdee had foreseen this possibility, and so had ordered his armored and light cruisers to pursue the German light cruisers.[33] The battlecruisers quickly overwhelmed von Spee's armored cruisers, and destroyed them with heavy loss of life.[34] Meanwhile, Dresden, with her turbine engines, was able to outpace her pursuers, and was the only German warship to escape destruction that day. Lüdecke decided to take his ship into the islands off South America to keep a steady supply of coal available.[35]

On 9 December, she passed back around Cape Horn to return to the Pacific.[36] That day, she anchored in Sholl Bay, with only 160 t (160 long tons; 180 short tons) of coal aboard. Oberleutnant zur See (Lieutenant at Sea) Wilhelm Canaris convinced the Chilean naval representative for the region to permit Dresden to remain in the area for an extra twenty-four hours so enough coal could be taken aboard so she could reach Punta Arenas.[37] She arrived at there on 12 December, where she received 750 t (740 long tons; 830 short tons) of coal from a German steamer.[36] The Admiralstab hoped that Dresden would be able to break through the Atlantic and return to Germany, but the poor condition of her engines precluded any attempt to do so. Lüdecke instead decided to attempt to cross the Pacific via Easter Island, the Solomon Islands, and the Dutch East Indies and commence commerce raiding in the Indian Ocean.[38] Dresden took on another 1,600 t (1,600 long tons; 1,800 short tons) of coal on 19 January.[39] On 14 February, Dresden left the islands off the South American coast for the South Pacific. On 27 February, the cruiser captured the British barque Conway Castle south of the island of Más a Tierra.[36]

On 8 March, Dresden was drifting in dense fog when lookouts spotted Kent, which also had her engines off, about 15 nautical miles (28 km; 17 mi) away. Both ships immediately got steam up in their boilers, but Dresden eventually escaped after a five-hour chase. The strenuous effort depleted her coal stocks and overtaxed her engines. Lüdecke decided that his ship was no longer operational, and determined to have his ship interned to preserve it. The following morning, she put into Más a Fuera, dropping anchor in Cumberland Bay at 8:30. The following day, Lüdecke received a wireless message indicating that the Kaiser had permitted him to allow Dresden to be interned, and so Lüdecke informed the local Chilean official of his intention to do so.[40][41]

Battle of Más a Tierra[edit]

Dresden, flying a white flag, moments prior to her scuttling

On the morning of 14 March, Kent and Glasgow approached Cumberland Bay; their appearance was relayed back to Dresden by one of her pinnaces, which had been sent to patrol the entrance to the bay. Dresden was unable to maneuver, owing to her fuel shortage, and so Lüdecke signaled that his ship was no longer a combatant. The British disregarded this message, as well as the Chilean vessel that approached them as they entered the bay. Glasgow opened fire, in violation of Chile's neutrality; in fact, Britain had already informed Chile that British warships would disregard international law if they located Dresden in Chilean territorial waters.[42] Shortly thereafter, Kent joined in the bombardment as well. The German gunners fired off three shots in response, but the guns were quickly knocked out by British gunfire.[43]

Lüdecke sent the signal "Am sending negotiator" to the British warships, and dispatched Canaris in a pinnace; Glasgow nevertheless continued to bombard the defenseless cruiser. In another attempt to stop the attack, Lüdecke raised the white flag, which finally prompted Glasgow to cease fire. Canaris came aboard to speak with Captain John Luce; the former strongly protested the latter's violation of Chile's neutrality. Luce simply replied that he had his orders, and demanded an unconditional surrender. Canaris explained that Dresden had already been interned by Chile, and thereafter returned to his ship, which had in the meantime been prepared for scuttling.[42]

At 10:45, the scuttling charge detonated in the bow and exploded the forward ammunition magazines. The bow was badly mangled; in about half an hour, the ship had taken on enough water to sink. As it struck the sea floor, the bow was torn from the rest of the ship, which rolled over to starboard. As the rest of the hull settled below the waves, a second scuttling charge exploded in the ship's engine rooms.[44]

Coordinates: 33°36′6″S 78°49′30″W / 33.60167°S 78.82500°W / -33.60167; -78.82500

Aftermath[edit]

Dresden '​s bell, recovered from wreck.

Most of the ship's crew managed to escape; only eight men were killed in the attack, with another twenty-nine wounded.[45] The British auxiliary cruiser HMS Orama took fifteen severely wounded men to Valparaiso; four of them died.[40] The destruction of his ship had left Lüdecke in shock, and so Canaris took responsibility for the fate of the ship's crew. They remained on the island for five days until two Chilean warships brought a German passenger ship to take the men to Quiriquina Island, where they would be interned for the duration of the war. Canaris escaped from the internment camp on 5 August 1915 and reached Germany exactly two months later.[46] On 31 March 1917, a small group of men escaped on the Chilean barque Tinto; the voyage back to Germany lasted 120 days. The rest of the crew did not return to Germany until 1920.[40]

The wreck lies at a depth of 70 meters (230 ft).[47] In 2002, the first survey of the wreck was done by a team led by James P. Delgado for the Sea Hunters documentary produced by the National Underwater and Marine Agency. The team included the archaeologist Dr. Willi Kramer, the first German to visit the wreck since she sank 88 years before.[48] Dresden lies on her starboard side pointed north, toward the beach. The wreck has been heavily damaged; much of the upper works, including the bridge, the masts, the funnels, and many of the guns have been torn from the ship. The bow has been cut off; it sits upright on the sea floor. The destruction of the bow was a result of the scuttling charges detonated by the ship's crew. The stern is also badly damaged, with the main deck blasted away and many shell holes in the ship's side.[49] Some of the damage to the aft part of the ship appears to have been done by an undocumented salvage operation sometime before Delgado's survey. According to German records, Dresden was carrying gold coins from their colony at Tsingtau; Delgado speculated that this salvage work was an attempt to retrieve the gold.[50]

In 1965, the ship's compass and several flags were recovered and returned to Germany, where they are held at the German Naval Academy at Mürwik.[51] In 2006, Chilean and German divers found and recovered Dresden '​s bell, which is now in Germany.[47] CS Forester's novel Brown on Resolution, and two subsequent movies, were inspired by the Dresden's escape and subsequent destruction.[52]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "SMS" stands for "Seiner Majestät Schiff" (German: His Majesty's Ship).
  2. ^ German warships were ordered under provisional names. For new additions to the fleet, they were given a single letter; for those ships intended to replace older or lost vessels, they were ordered as "Ersatz (name of the ship to be replaced)".

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gröner, p. 105
  2. ^ a b Gröner, pp. 105–106
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, p. 269
  4. ^ Levine & Panetta, p. 51
  5. ^ "Cruisers in Collision". New York Times. 17 February 1910. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, p. 268
  7. ^ "German Cruisers for the Adriatic". New York Times. 7 April 1913. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  8. ^ Lenz, p. 183
  9. ^ a b c Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, p. 270
  10. ^ "German Cruiser Ordered to Tampico". New York Times. 16 April 1914. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Lenz, pp. 195–196
  12. ^ Delgado, pp. 169–170
  13. ^ Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, pp. 270–271
  14. ^ Mueller, pp. 11–12
  15. ^ a b c Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, p. 271
  16. ^ a b Mueller, p. 12
  17. ^ Halpern, pp. 79–80
  18. ^ Halpern, p. 80
  19. ^ Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, p. 273
  20. ^ Staff, p. 30
  21. ^ Staff, pp. 30–31
  22. ^ Staff, p. 31
  23. ^ Staff, pp. 32–33
  24. ^ Staff, pp. 34–35
  25. ^ Staff, pp. 36–37
  26. ^ Staff, p. 38
  27. ^ Mueller, p. 14
  28. ^ Staff, pp. 58–59
  29. ^ Staff, pp. 59–60
  30. ^ Staff, p. 61
  31. ^ Staff, p. 62
  32. ^ Staff, pp. 62–64
  33. ^ Staff, p. 65
  34. ^ Staff, pp. 68–72
  35. ^ Staff, p. 73
  36. ^ a b c Staff, p. 80
  37. ^ Mueller, pp. 15–16
  38. ^ Hildebrand, Röhr, and Steinmetz, pp. 271–272
  39. ^ Mueller, p. 16
  40. ^ a b c Hildebrand, Röhr and Steinmetz, p. 272
  41. ^ Mueller, pp. 16–17
  42. ^ a b Mueller, p. 17
  43. ^ Delgado, p. 168
  44. ^ Delgado, pp. 168–169
  45. ^ Staff, p. 81
  46. ^ Mueller, pp. 19–20
  47. ^ a b "Underwater Cultural Heritage from World War I". unesco.org. UNESCO. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  48. ^ Delgado, p. 175
  49. ^ Delgado, pp. 177–178
  50. ^ Delgado, p. 180
  51. ^ Gröner, p. 106
  52. ^ Kanagasingam, p. 83

References[edit]

  • Delgado, James P. (2004). Adventures of a Sea Hunter: In Search of Famous Shipwrecks. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 1-92668-560-1. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-790-9. 
  • Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-352-4. 
  • Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert; Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe (Volume 2). Ratingen, Germany: Mundus Verlag. ASIN B003VHSRKE. 
  • Kanagasingam, Rajkumar (2007). German Memories in Asia. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-46701-701-9. 
  • Lenz, Lawrence (2008). Power and Policy: America's First Steps to Superpower, 1889–1922. New York, NY: Algora Pub. ISBN 978-0-87586-665-9. 
  • Levine, Edward F.; Panetta, Roger (2009). Hudson–Fulton Celebration of 1909. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub. ISBN 978-0-73856-281-0. 
  • Mueller, Michael (2007). Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler's Spymaster. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-101-3. 
  • Staff, Gary (2011). Battle on the Seven Seas: German Cruiser Battles, 1914–1918. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Maritime. ISBN 978-1-84884-182-6. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Parker de Bassi, Maria Teresa (1993). Kreuzer Dresden: Odyssee ohne Wiederkehr (in German). Herford: Koehler Verlagsgesellschaft. ISBN 3-7822-0591-X. 
  • Perez Ibarra, Martin (2014). Señales del Dresden (in Spanish). Chile: Uqbar Editores. ISBN 978-956-9171-36-9.