SM UB-43

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For other ships of the same name, see German submarine U-43.
UB-43 in port, c. 1915–16
UB-43 in port, c. 1915–16
Career (German Empire)
Name: UB-43
Ordered: 31 July 1915[1]
Builder: AG Weser, Bremen[1]
Yard number: 245[1]
Laid down: 3 September 1915[1]
Launched: 8 April 1916[1]
Commissioned: 24 April 1916[1]
Decommissioned: 21 July 1917[1]
Fate: Sold to Austria-Hungary
Service record as UB-43
Part of: Pola Flotilla of the German Imperial Navy
Commanders:
  • Dietrich Niebuhr (Apr–Aug 1916)[1]
  • Hans von Mellenthin (Aug 1916 – Apr 1917)
  • Horst Obermüller (Apr–Jul 1917)
Victories:
  • 22 ships (99,176 GRT) sunk[1]
  • 1 warships (7,350 t) damaged
Career (Austria-Hungary)
Name: SM U-43
Acquired: 21 July 1917
Commissioned: 30 July 1917
Fate: ceded to France as war reparation, 1920; scrapped
Service record as U-43
Commanders:
  • Friedrich Schlosser (Jul 1917 – Jan 1918)[2]
  • Eugen Hornyák Edler von Horn (Feb–Oct 1918)
Victories:
  • 1 ships (4,016 GRT) damaged[2]
General characteristics
Type: as built: German Type UB II submarine
after July 1917: U-43-class submarine
Displacement: 272 t (300 short tons), surfaced[3]
205 t (226 short tons), submerged
Length: 121 ft 1 in (36.91 m)[3]
Beam: 14 ft 5 in (4.39 m)[4]
Draft: 12 ft 2 in (3.71 m)[4]
Propulsion: 2 × propeller shaft
2 × diesel engines, 284 bhp (212 kW) total
2 × electric motors, 280 shp (210 kW) total[5]
Speed: 8.82 knots (16.33 km/h) surfaced
6.22 knots (12 km/h) submerged[3]
Endurance: 6,940 nautical miles @ 5 knots, surfaced (12,850 km @ 9.3 km/h)[3]
45 nautical miles @ 4 knots, submerged (83 km @ 7.4 km/h)[3]
Complement: 22[5]
Armament: 2 × 50 cm (19.7 in) bow torpedo tubes; 4 torpedoes
1 × 88 mm/30 (3.5 in) deck gun
1 × 8 mm (0.31 in) machine gun[5]

SM UB-43 was a Type UB II submarine or U-boat for the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during World War I. UB-43 was sold to the Austro-Hungarian Navy (German: Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine or K.u.K. Kriegsmarine) during the war. In Austro-Hungarian service the B was dropped from her name and she was known as SM U-43 or U-XLIII as the lead boat of the Austro-Hungarian U-43 class.

UB-43 was ordered in July 1915 and was laid down at the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen in September. UB-43 was a little more than 121 feet (37 m) in length and displaced between 270 and 305 metric tons (298 and 336 short tons), depending on whether surfaced or submerged. She was equipped to carry a complement of four torpedoes for her two bow torpedo tubes and had an 8.8-centimeter (3.5 in) deck gun. As part of a group of six submarines selected for Mediterranean service, UB-43 was broken into railcar sized components and shipped to Pola where she was assembled and launched in early April 1916, and commissioned later in the month. Over the next year the U-boat sank twenty-two ships, which included the Peninsular and Oriental liner Arabia. UB-43 also damaged the British cruiser Grafton.

The German Imperial Navy was having difficulties filling submarine crews with trained men and offered to sell UB-43 and a sister boat, UB-47, to the Austro-Hungarian Navy. After the terms were agreed to in June 1917, both boats were handed over at Pola. When commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the B in her designation was dropped so that she became U-43 or U-XLIII. She damaged one Italian steamer in limited Austro-Hungarian service through the end of the war. U-43 was ceded to France as a war reparation in 1920 and broken at Bizerta that same year.

Design and construction[edit]

The German UB II design improved upon the design of the UB I boats, which had been ordered in September 1914.[6] In service, the UB I boats were found to be too small and too slow. A major problem was that, because they had a single propeller shaft/engine combo, if either component failed, the U-boat became almost totally disabled.[7] To rectify this flaw, the UB II boats featured twin propeller shafts and twin engines (one shaft for each engine), which also increased the U-boat's top speed.[8] The new design also included more powerful batteries,[7] larger torpedo tubes, and a deck gun.[3] As a UB II boat, U-43 could also carry twice the torpedo load of her UB I counterparts, and nearly ten times as much fuel.[3] To accommodate all of these changes the boats' had larger hulls,[7] and surface and submerged displacements more than twice those of the UB I boats.[3]

The Imperial German Navy ordered UB-43 from AG Weser on 31 July 1915 as one of a series of six UB II boats (numbered from UB-42 to UB-47).[3] UB-43 was 121 feet (37 m) long and 14 feet 5 inches (4.39 m) abeam. She had a single hull with saddle tanks and had a draft of 12 feet 2 inches (3.71 m) when surfaced.[4] She displaced 305 metric tons (336 short tons) while submerged but only 272 metric tons (300 short tons) on the surface.[3]

The submarine was equipped with twin diesel engines and twin electric motors—for surfaced and submerged running, respectively—that drove twin propeller shafts.[4] UB-43 had a surface speed of up to 8.82 knots (16.33 km/h) and could go as fast as 6.22 knots (11.52 km/h) while underwater.[3] The U-boat could carry up to 27 metric tons (30 short tons) of diesel fuel, giving her a range of 6,940 nautical miles at 5 knots (12,850 km at 9.3 km/h).[3] Her electric motors and batteries provided a range of 45 nautical miles at 4 knots (83 km at 7.4 km/h) while submerged.[3]

UB-43 was equipped with two 50-centimeter (19.7 in) bow torpedo tubes and could carry four torpedoes. The U-boat was also armed with an 88 mm/26 (3.5 in) deck gun and an 8 mm (0.31 in) machine gun.[5]

UB-43 was laid down by AG Weser at its Bremen shipyard on 3 September 1915.[1] As one of six U-boats selected for service in the Mediterranean while under construction, UB-43 was broken into railcar-sized components and shipped overland to the Austro-Hungarian port of Pola.[9][10] Shipyard workers from Weser assembled the boat and her five sisters at Pola,[9] where she was launched on 8 April.[1]

German Imperial Navy career[edit]

SM UB-43 was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 24 April 1916 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Dietrich Niebuhr;[1][Note 1] UB-43 was the only U-boat command for the 27-year-old officer.[11] UB-43 was assigned to the Navy's Pola Flotilla (German: Deutsche U-Halbflotille Pola) in which she remained throughout her German career.[1] Although the flotilla was based in Pola, the site of the main Austro-Hungarian Navy base, boats of the flotilla operated out of the Austro-Hungarian base at Cattaro which was located farther south and closer to the Mediterranean. German U-boats typically returned to Pola only for repairs.[12]

Under Niebuhr's command, UB-43 had no success,[11] and he was replaced by Kapitänleutnant Hans von Mellenthin on 29 August.[1] After two weeks under von Mellenthin's command, UB-43 sank her first ship. While 112 nautical miles (207 km) east of Malta, the British steamer Italiana with her cargo of hay destined for Salonica was torpedoed and sunk.[13] Three days later, and some 60 nautical miles (110 km) closer to Malta, von Mellenthin sank a pair of British steamers. Dewa was in ballast headed for Port Said when attacked by UB-43; three of the steamer's crew lost their lives in the attack.[14] Lord Tredegar was carrying a general cargo when she was sent down with the loss of four men.[15] The Wall Street Journal reported that the sinking of Lord Tredegar resulted in a loss of $1,000,000 for her American insurer.[16]

In October, von Mellenthin and UB-43 sank an additional two ships.[17] On 10 October, the British tanker Elax, carrying fuel oil from Rangoon was sunk off Cape Matapan without casualties.[18] Three days later, two men were killed when UB-43 torpedoed and sank their ship, the British steamer Welsh Prince, of 4,934 gross register tons (GRT).[19]

On 18 November, the British Admiralty, released a report that listed all of UB-43's first five victims as evidence of German wrongdoing. According to the British report, Italiana, Dewa, Lord Tredegar, and Elax—four of the twenty-two ships listed—had all been torpedoed without warning. This type of attack was counter to German pledges to adhere cruiser warfare, which required that ships be allowed time for the crews to escape before any attack could commence.[20] UB-43's fifth victim, Welsh Prince, was on another list of 107 British ships sunk whose lifeboats had been fired upon by German submarines.[20]

In the meantime, UB-43 had continued sinking British ships, sending down five in a nine-day span in early November.[17] Statesman, a 6,153-ton steamer carrying a general cargo, was first on 3 November; six crewmen were killed when the ship went down 200 nautical miles (370 km) east of Malta.[21] The following day, the 3,937-ton Clan Leslie and the 5,398-ton Huntsvale were sunk in the same area.[22][23] Clan Leslie was carrying a general cargo from Bombay when sunk with three casualties.[22] Seven were killed when Huntsvale, traveling in ballast for Algiers, was sunk.[23]

RMS Arabia, a Peninsular and Oriental liner, was sunk by UB-43 on 6 November 1916.

On 6 November, UB-43 torpedoed the Peninsular and Oriental liner Arabia 112 nautical miles (207 km) off Cape Matapan.[24] According to contemporary news accounts, gunners on Arabia fired upon UB-43 after the liner was torpedoed, but recorded no hits.[25] All 437 passengers aboard the steamer,[26] en route from Sydney to London when attacked,[24] were rescued after an hour in the water. The liner went down 90 minutes after the torpedo struck. Eleven died in the attack,[27] including two of Arabia's engineers killed in the initial blast of the torpedo.[25] Six days after Arabia's sinking, UB-43 sank the 3,383-ton British steamer Kapunda east of Malta.[28] Kapunda's loss brought the U-boat's November tally to 26,774 gross register tons,[17] which accounted for more than 15% of the November tally for all German U-boats in the Mediterranean.[29]

UB-43 and von Mellenthin sank three more British steamers in December: Bretwalda on the 13th, and Russian and Westminster on the 14th.[17] Bretwalda—which had escaped destruction from a mine laid by UC-5 in August 1915—and her cargo of jute were sent down 220 nautical miles (410 km) from Malta.[30] Russian, at 8,825 tons, was the largest ship sunk by UB-43;[17] the horse transport ship was sailing in ballast from Salonica when she went down with 28 of her crewmen.[31][32] After UB-43 torpedoed Westminster,[17] the U-boat shelled the survivors in their lifeboats, according to authors R. H. Gibson and Maurice Prendergast.[31] Fifteen men from Westminster died in the sinking.[33]

UB-43 sank no ships over the next eight weeks.[17] Author Paul Halpern reports that the majority of the German U-boats in the Mediterranean fleet were undergoing repairs and refits at Pola and Cattaro during January. Although no specific mention is made of repairs done on UB-43, the U-boat's inactivity in this period may be for that reason.[34]

Unrestricted submarine warfare[edit]

On 1 February 1917, Kaiser Wilhelm II personally approved a resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in order to try to force the British to make peace.[35] The new rules of engagement specified that no ship was to be left afloat,[36][Note 2] although British reports for several of UB-43's victims suggest that von Mellenthin was already operating in this manner.[26]

Under these new rules of engagement, UB-43 first sank the Greek steamer Miaoulis 130 nautical miles (240 km) from Benghazi on 24 February, while she was carrying cottonseed to London.[37][38] Two days later, the turret hull steamer Clan Farquhar,[39] carrying cotton and coal for London,[38] was torpedoed and sunk. After the attack, which killed 49 of her crew, the ship's second engineer was taken captive by von Mellenthin.[39] On the 27th, Brodmore and her cargo of frozen meat from Majunga were sunk off Libya (and her master taken prisoner),[40] and on the 28th the Japanese steamer Shinsei Maru was sunk nearby.[41]

HMS Grafton, a British cruiser, was damaged when torpedoed by UB-43 in June 1917.

It was nearly a month later before von Mellenthin and UB-43 sank their next target. On 26 March, the British steamer Ledbury, carrying wheat from Karachi, was sunk 90 nautical miles (170 km) from Benghazi.[42] Eight days later, Vasilefs Constantinos, a Greek steamer of 4,070 gross register tons, was sunk in the Ionian Sea; the Constantinos was the last ship sunk by UB-43 under von Mellenthin's command.[43] On 9 April, von Mellenthin was succeeded by Oblt. Horst Obermüller,[1] a 26-year-old first time U-boat commander.[44] Under von Mellenthin's command, UB-43 had sunk 86,236 gross register tons of merchant shipping.[Note 3]

On 1 May, Obermüller sank the American-owned (but British-flagged) tanker British Sun carrying a load of fuel oil.[45] According to a report in The New York Times, the 5,565-ton vessel, valued at $2,500,000, was "one of the finest" tankers.[45][46] The collier Repton was sent down off Cape Matapan six days later; three of the British steamer's crewmen died in the attack.[47] Later in the month, the Greek steamer Dorothy and her cargo of wheat from Karachi were sunk 45 nautical miles (83 km) from Cap D'Armi.[48] UB-43's final attack of note was upon the cruiser HMS Grafton, torpedoed 150 nautical miles (280 km) east of Malta. Grafton was damaged but suffered no casualties.[49] The 7,350-metric-ton (8,100-short-ton)-displacement British ship was brought safely into port at Malta.[50]

On 21 July, UB-43 was decommissioned at Pola and handed over to the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In her German Imperial Navy career of fourteen months, UB-43 sank twenty-two merchant ships totaling 99,176 gross register tons, and damaged one warship with a displacement of 7,350 metric tons (8,100 short tons).[1][Note 4]

Austro-Hungarian Navy service[edit]

In November 1916, the German Imperial Navy, having a hard time finding trained submarine crews, inquired to find out if its ally Austria-Hungary was interested in purchasing some of its Mediterranean submarines. A general agreement led to protracted negotiations, which stalled over the outflow of Austro-Hungarian gold reserves to Germany. But, with all of the details worked out, the two parties agreed on the sale of UB-43 and sister ship UB-47 to Austria-Hungary in June 1917.[51][Note 5]

When handed over by the Germans on 21 July, UB-43 was in a "worn out condition".[5] Despite the rough condition of the boat, the U-boat was commissioned into the Austro-Hungarian Navy on 30 July 1917 as SM U-43, dropping the B from her former designation. Linienschiffsleutnant Friedrich Schlosser was installed as the new commander of the U-boat,[2] which remained at Pola for the next three months undergoing repairs. Departing that port on 1 November, U-43 made way to Cattaro, and then went out on patrol.[52] Schlosser torpedoed the Italian steamer Orione on 16 November, but the Italian ship did not sink; she was towed to safety in Taranto.[53]

On 30 November, a leak on U-43 partially flooded the boat and caused her to sink to a depth of 100 metres (330 ft) before she was bought under control and raised to the surface. The flooding damaged the U-boat's electrical systems, preventing her from submerging on her return to port for repairs. An unidentified submarine launched a torpedo at the surfaced U-43, but the torpedo's aim was off and it passed harmlessly in front of the bow. The boat made port at Cattaro on 1 December and at Pola on 6 December for two months of repairs.[52]

During U-43's time under repair, Schlosser was reassigned to command U-14,[54] and Linienschiffsleutnant Eugen Hornyák Edler von Horn was named to take his place aboard U-43 on 18 January 1918.[2][55] Under von Horn, U-43 patrolled off Cattaro, having to crash dive at least once to escape attack from enemy torpedo boats. On 17 March, while returning to Cattaro from patrol, the crew of the Austro-Hungarian destroyer Dinara mistook U-43 for an enemy submarine and rammed her, damaging the diving planes. U-43 sailed for Fiume for three months of repairs.[52]

The U-boat returned to action in June and patrolled off Montenegro, Durazzo, and Cattaro for the next five months. On 13 June, U-43 was slightly damaged in an air raid on Cattaro and, on 5 September, had to crash dive to avoid another air attack while off Cattaro. On 20 September, the boat rendezvoused with U-47 and received a French prisoner of war. The prisoner was the only survivor of the French submarine Circé, which U-47 had torpedoed the night before.[52]

At the end of the war, U-43 was at Cattaro.[56] In her Austro-Hungarian Navy career, U-43 damaged a single merchant ships of 4,016 gross register tons.[2] U-43 was ceded to France as a war reparation in 1920, towed to Bizerta, and broken up there within a year.[56]

Ships sunk or damaged[edit]

As the German UB-43[edit]

Ships sunk or damaged by SM UB-43[17]
Date Name [Note 6] Tonnage Nationality
14 September 1916 Italiana 2,663 British
17 September 1916 Dewa 3,802 British
17 September 1916 Lord Tredegar 3,856 British
10 October 1916 Elax 3,980 British
13 October 1916 Welsh Prince 4,934 British
3 November 1916 Statesman 6,153 British
4 November 1916 Clan Leslie 3,937 British
4 November 1916 Huntsvale 5,398 British
6 November 1916 ArabiaArabia 7,903 British
12 November 1916 Kapunda 3,383 British
13 December 1916 Bretwalda 4,037 British
14 December 1916 Russian 8,825 British
14 December 1916 Westminster 4,342 British
24 February 1917 Miaoulis 2,918 Greek
26 February 1917 Clan Farquhar 5,858 British
27 February 1917 Brodmore 4,071 British
28 February 1917 Shinsei Maru 3,060 Japanese
26 March 1917 Ledbury 3,046 British
3 April 1917 Vasilefs Constantinos 4,070 Greek
1 May 1917 British Sun 5,565 British
7 May 1917 Repton 2,881 British
26 May 1917 Dorothy 4,494 Greek
10 June 1917 GraftonHMS Grafton* 7,350 British
Sunk:
Damaged:
Total:
99,176
7,350
106,526

* damaged but not sunk

As the Austro-Hungarian U-43[edit]

Ships sunk or damaged by SM U-43[57]
Date Name [Note 6]Tonnage Nationality
16 November 1917 Orione* 4,016 Italian
Damaged: 4,016

* damaged but not sunk

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Oberleutnant zur See Niebuhr was in the Navy's April 1907 cadet class with 34 other future U-boat captains, including Werner Fürbringer, Heino von Heimburg, Hans Howaldt, Otto Steinbrinck, and Ralph Wenninger. See: Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI Officer Crews: Crew 4/07". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 11 February 2009. 
  2. ^ Since the early stages of the war, the British had blockaded Germany, preventing neutral shipping from reaching German ports. By the time of the so-called "turnip winter" of 1916–17, the blockade had severely limited imports of food and fuel into Germany. Among the results were an increase in infant mortality and as many as 700,000 deaths attributed to starvation or hypothermia during the war. See: Tarrant, pp. 44–45.
  3. ^ Von Mellenthin went on to command UB-49 (one of the earliest of the UB III U-boats) and, later, U-120, and was awarded the Pour le Mérite in February 1918. See: Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Hans von Mellenthin". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  4. ^ Oberleutnant zur See Obermüller, UB-43's commander at the time she was decommissioned, went on to command the coastal minelayer UC-34 and, later, UB-132. See: Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Horst Obermüller". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  5. ^ UB-43 and UB-47 were not the first former Imperial German Navy submarines purchased by the Austro-Hungarian Navy. In 1915 the Austro-Hungarian Navy purchased the German U-boats UB-1 and UB-15 and commissioned them as U-10 and U-11, respectively. See: Gardiner, p. 343.
  6. ^ a b Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: UB-43". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U KUK U43". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Tarrant, p. 172.
  4. ^ a b c d Gardiner, p. 181.
  5. ^ a b c d e Gardiner, p. 344.
  6. ^ Gardiner, p. 174.
  7. ^ a b c Miller, p. 48.
  8. ^ Williamson, p. 13.
  9. ^ a b Halpern, p. 383.
  10. ^ Miller, p. 49.
  11. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Dietrich Niebuhr". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  12. ^ Halpern, p. 384.
  13. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Italiana". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  14. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Dewa". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  15. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Lord Tredegar". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  16. ^ "War risk insurance". The Wall Street Journal. 21 September 1916. p. 7. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Ships hit by UB 43". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  18. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Elax". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  19. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Welsh Prince". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  20. ^ a b "Lists 22 violations of German pledge". The New York Times. 19 November 1916. p. 3. 
  21. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Statesman". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  22. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Clan Leslie". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  23. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Huntsvale". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  24. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Arabia". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  25. ^ a b "Steamer Arabia fires on diver". San Francisco Chronicle. 11 November 1916. p. 4. 
  26. ^ a b "Arabia torpedoed without warning". The New York Times. 9 November 1916. p. 8. 
  27. ^ "Arabia (1105587)". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 12 February 2009. (subscription required)
  28. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Kapunda". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  29. ^ The merchant vessel tonnage sunk by German U-boats in the Mediterranean in November 1916 was 166,130 tons. See: Tarrant, p. 148.
  30. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Bretwalda". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  31. ^ a b Gibson and Prendergast, p. 134.
  32. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Russian". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  33. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Westminster". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  34. ^ Halpern, p. 390.
  35. ^ Tarrant, pp. 45–46.
  36. ^ Tarrant, p. 46.
  37. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Miaoulis". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  38. ^ a b "Berlin reports 15 ships sunk in Mediterranean". Chicago Daily Tribune. 9 March 1917. p. 2. 
  39. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Clan Farquhar". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  40. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Brodmore". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  41. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Shinsei Maru". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  42. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Ledbury". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  43. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Vasilefs Constantinos". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  44. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Horst Obermüller". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  45. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: British Sun". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  46. ^ "8,600-ton steamer is sunk". The New York Times. 4 May 1917. p. 4.  According to the article, British Sun was 8,600 tons, but Uboat.net and the Miramar Ship Index both list the vessel as 5,565 gross register tons. See: "British Sun (1127990)". Miramar Ship Index. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz. Retrieved 12 February 2009. (subscription required)
  47. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Repton". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  48. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Dorothy". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  49. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Grafton (hms)". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  50. ^ Gibson and Prendergast, p. 260.
  51. ^ Baumgartner and Sieche, as excerpted here (reprinted and translated into English by Sieche). Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  52. ^ a b c d "Tengeralattjárók" (pdf) (in Hungarian). Imperial and Royal Navy Association. pp. 30–31. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  53. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Orione". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  54. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Friedrich Schlosser". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  55. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Eugen Hornyák Edler von Horn". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 
  56. ^ a b Gibson and Prendergast, p. 389.
  57. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Ships hit by KUK U43". U-Boat War in World War I. Uboat.net. Retrieved 12 February 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]