Solar water disinfection

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SODIS application in Indonesia

Solar water disinfection is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make contaminated water safe to drink by ridding it of infectious disease-causing biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms. However, disinfection may not make all kinds of water safe to drink due to non-biological agents such as toxic chemicals or heavy metals. Consequently, additional steps beyond disinfection may be necessary to make water clean to drink.

There are three primary subsets of solar water disinfection:

  1. Electric. Solar disinfection using the effects of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels (solar PV).
  2. Heat. Solar thermal water disinfection.
  3. UV. Solar ultraviolet water disinfection.

Solar disinfection using the effects of electricity generated by photovoltaics typically uses an electrical current to deliver electrolytic processes which disinfect water, for example by generating oxidative free radicals which kill pathogens by damaging their chemical structure. A second approach uses stored solar electricity from a battery, and operates at night or at low light levels to power an ultraviolet lamp to perform secondary solar ultraviolet water disinfection.

Solar thermal water disinfection uses heat from the sun to heat water to 70C-100C for a short period of time. A number of approaches exist here. Solar heat collectors can have lenses in front of them, or use reflectors. They may also use varying levels of insulation or glazing. In addition, some solar thermal water disinfection processes are batch-based, while others (through-flow solar thermal disinfection) operate almost continuously while the sun shines. Water heated to temperatures below 100C is generally referred to as Pasteurized water.

Solar ultraviolet water disinfection, also known as SODIS, is a method of disinfecting water using only sunlight and plastic PET bottles. SODIS is a free and effective method for decentralized water treatment, usually applied at the household level and is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage.[1] SODIS is already applied in numerous developing countries. Educational pamphlets on the method are available in many languages,[2] each equivalent to the English-language version.[3]

Principle of SODIS[edit]

Exposure to sunlight has been shown to deactivate diarrhea-causing organisms in polluted drinking water. Three effects of solar radiation are believed to contribute to the inactivation of pathogenic organisms:

  • UV-A interferes directly with the metabolism and destroys cell structures of bacteria.
  • UV-A (wavelength 320–400  nm) reacts with oxygen dissolved in the water and produces highly reactive forms of oxygen (oxygen free radicals and hydrogen peroxides) that are believed to also damage pathogens.
  • Cumulative solar energy (including the infrared radiation component) heats the water. If the water temperatures rises above 50 °C (122 °F), the disinfection process is three times faster.

At a water temperature of about 30 °C (86 °F), a threshold solar irradiance of at least 500  W/m2 (all spectral light) is required for about 5 hours for SODIS to be efficient. This dose contains energy of 555  Wh/m2 in the range of UV-A and violet light, 350–450  nm, corresponding to about 6 hours of mid-latitude (European) midday summer sunshine.

At water temperatures higher than 45 °C (113 °F), synergistic effects of UV radiation and temperature further enhance the disinfection efficiency.

Photocatalyzed Processes[edit]

While Solar irradiation, UV-A in particular, can directly inactivate water-borne micro-organisms, photocatalysis based approaches have gained increased traction in recent years.[4] Titanium Dioxide, in its anatase and rutile phases is notably the most studied material for such applications. In photocatalyzed water decontamination the anti-microbial activity of solar irradiation is boosted by the presence of a stable semiconductor oxide (TiO2 or otherwise) in which electron-hole pairs (excitons) are photogenerated by irradiation exceeding the material's optical band-gap. While exciton recombination is predominant, this process has been shown to facilitate the photo-oxidation of pollutants at the photocatalyst surface.

A photocatalysis based water treatment process can be enhanced by

  • Increased photocatalyst surface area
  • Reduction of electron-hole recombination rate by doping
  • Band gap reduction, or introduction of inter-band gap states by doping
  • Increased irradiative flux by solar concentration

Photocatalysis based water decontamination has been demonstrated using titanium dioxide in the form of thin films, thick films,[5] particle suspensions and coated granular matter.[6] While efficiency is generally low, the stability of the materials involved and the absence of an energy input requirement help maintain interest in such processes, with emphasis toward application in remote areas.

Process for household application[edit]

SODIS instructions for using solar water disinfection
  • Colourless, transparent PET water or soda pop bottles (2 litre or smaller size) with few surface scratches are chosen for use. The labels are removed and the bottles are washed before the first use.
  • Water from contaminated sources is filled into the bottles. To improve oxygen saturation, bottles can be filled three-quarters, shaken for 20 seconds (with the cap on), then filled completely and recapped. Very cloudy water with a turbidity higher than 30 NTU must be filtered prior to exposure to the sunlight.
  • Filled bottles are then exposed to the sun. Bottles will heat faster and to higher temperatures if they are placed on a sloped sun-facing corrugated metal roof as compared to thatched roofs.
  • The treated water can be consumed directly from the bottle or poured into clean drinking cups. The risk of re-contamination is minimized if the water is stored in the bottles. Refilling and storage in other containers increases the risk of contamination.
Suggested treatment schedule[7]
Weather conditions Minimum treatment duration
Sunny (less than 50% cloud cover) 6 hours
Cloudy (50–100% cloudy, little to no rain) 2 days
Continuous rainfall Unsatisfactory performance, use rainwater harvesting

The most favorable regions for application of the SODIS method are located between latitude 15°N and 35°N, and also 15°S and 35°S.[3] These regions have high levels of solar radiation, with limited cloud cover and rainfall, and with over 90% of sunlight reaching the earth's surface as direct radiation.[3] The second most favorable region lies between latitudes 15°N and 15°S. these regions have high levels of scattered radiation, with about 2500 hours of sunshine annually, due to high humidity and frequent cloud cover.[3]

Local education in the use of SODIS is important to avoid confusion between PET and other bottle materials. Applying SODIS without proper assessment (or with false assessment) of existing hygienic practices & diarrhea incidence may not address other routes of infection. Community trainers must themselves be trained first.[3]

Applications[edit]

SODIS is an effective method for treating water where fuel or cookers are unavailable or prohibitively expensive. Even where fuel is available, SODIS is a more economical and environmentally friendly option. The application of SODIS is limited if enough bottles are not available, or if the water is highly turbid. In fact, if the water is highly turbid, SODIS cannot be used alone; additional filtering is then necessary.[8]

A basic field test to determine if the water is too turbid for the SODIS method to work properly is the newspaper test.[2] For the newspaper test place the filled bottle upright on top of a newspaper headline. Look down through the bottle opening. If the letters of the headline are readable, the water can be used for the SODIS method. If the letters are not readable then the turbidity of the water likely exceeds 30 NTU, and the water must be pretreated.

In theory, the method could be used in disaster relief or refugee camps. However, supplying bottles may be more difficult than providing equivalent disinfecting tablets containing chlorine, bromine, or iodine. In addition, in some circumstances, it may be difficult to guarantee that the water will be left in the sun for the necessary time.

Other methods for household water treatment and safe storage exist (e.g., chlorination) different filtration procedures or flocculation/disinfection. The selection of the adequate method should be based on the criteria of effectiveness, the co-occurrence of other types of pollution (turbidity, chemical pollutants), treatment costs, labor input and convenience, and the user’s preference.

When the water is highly turbid, SODIS cannot be used alone; additional filtering or flocculation is then necessary to clarify the water prior to SODIS treatment.[9][10] Recent work has shown that common table salt (NaCl) is an effective flocculation agent for decreasing turbidity for the SODIS method in some types of soil.[11]

SODIS may alternatively be implemented using plastic bags. SODIS bags have been found to yield as much as 74% higher treatment efficiencies than SODIS bottles, which may be because the bags are able to reach elevated temperatures that cause accelerated treatment.[12] SODIS bags with a water layer of approximately 1 cm to 6 cm reach higher temperatures more easily than SODIS bottles, and treat Vibrio cholerae more effectively.[12] It is assumed this is because of the improved surface area to volume ratio in SODIS bags. In remote regions plastic bottles are not locally available and need to be shipped in from urban centers which may be expensive and inefficient since bottles cannot be packed very tight. Bags can be packed into much smaller areas than bottles, and can be shipped at lower cost representing an economically preferable alternative to SODIS bottles in remote communities. The disadvantages of using bags are that they can give the water a plastic smell, they are more difficult to handle when filled with water, and they typically require that the water be transferred to a second container for drinking.

Another important benefit in using the SODIS bottles as opposed to the bags or other methods requiring the water to be transferred to a smaller container for consumption is that the bottles are a point-of-use household water treatment method.[13] Point-of-use means that the water is treated in the same easy to handle container it will be served from, thus decreasing the risk of secondary water contamination.

Cautions[edit]

The PET recycling mark shows that a bottle is made from polyethylene terephthalate, making it suitable for solar water disinfection[14]

If the water bottles are not left in the sun for the proper length of time, the water may not be safe to drink and could cause illness. If the sunlight is less strong, due to overcast weather or a less sunny climate, a longer exposure time in the sun is necessary.

The following issues should also be considered:

Bottle material
Some glass or PVC materials may prevent ultraviolet light from reaching the water.[15] Commercially available bottles made of PET are recommended. The handling is much more convenient in the case of PET bottles. Polycarbonate blocks all UVA and UVB rays, and therefore should not be used. Bottles that are clear are to be preferred over bottles that have been colored. For example: the green of some lemon/lime soda pop bottles.
Aging of plastic bottles
SODIS efficiency depends on the physical condition of the plastic bottles, with scratches and other signs of wear reducing the efficiency of SODIS. Heavily scratched or old, blind bottles should be replaced.
Shape of containers
The intensity of the UV radiation decreases rapidly with increasing water depth. At a water depth of 10  cm (4  inches) and moderate turbidity of 26 NTU, UV-A radiation is reduced to 50%. PET soft drink bottles are often easily available and thus most practical for the SODIS application.
Oxygen
Sunlight produces highly reactive forms of oxygen (oxygen free radicals and hydrogen peroxides) in the water. These reactive molecules contribute in the destruction process of the microorganisms. Under normal conditions (rivers, creeks, wells, ponds, tap) water contains sufficient oxygen (more than 3  mg/L of oxygen) and does not have to be aerated before the application of SODIS.
Leaching of bottle material
There has been some concern over the question of whether plastic drinking containers can release chemicals or toxic components into water, a process possibly accelerated by heat. The Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research have examined the diffusion of adipates and phthalates (DEHA and DEHP) from new and reused PET-bottles in the water during solar exposure. The levels of concentrations found in the water after a solar exposure of 17 hours in 60 °C (140 °F) water were far below WHO guidelines for drinking water and in the same magnitude as the concentrations of phthalate and adipate generally found in high-quality tap water. Concerns about the general use of PET-bottles were also expressed after a report published by researchers from the University of Heidelberg on the release of antimony from PET-bottles for soft drinks and mineral water stored over several months in supermarkets. However, the antimony concentrations found in the bottles are orders of magnitude below WHO[16] and national guidelines for antimony concentrations in drinking water.[17][18][19] Furthermore, SODIS water is not stored over such extended periods in the bottles.
Regrowth of bacteria
Once removed from sunlight, remaining bacteria may again reproduce in the dark. A 2010 study showed that adding just 10 parts per million of hydrogen peroxide is effective in preventing the regrowth of wild Salmonella.[20]
Toxic chemicals
Solar water disinfection does not remove toxic chemicals that may be present in the water, such as factory waste.

Health impact, diarrhea reduction[edit]

Only forty-six percent of people in Africa have safe drinking water

According to the World Health Organization, more than two million people per year die of water-borne diseases, and one billion people lack access to a source of improved drinking water.[21][22]

It has been shown that the SODIS method (and other methods of household water treatment) can very effectively remove pathogenic contamination from the water. However, infectious diseases are also transmitted through other pathways, i.e. due to a general lack of sanitation and hygiene. Studies on the reduction of diarrhea among SODIS users show reduction values of 30–80%.[23][24][25][26]

The effectiveness of the SODIS was first discovered by Professor Aftim Acra at the American University of Beirut in the early 1980s. Substantial follow-up research was conducted by the research groups of Martin Wegelin at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and Dr Kevin McGuigan at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Clinical control trials were pioneered by Professor Ronan Conroy of the RCSI team in collaboration with Michael Elmore-Meegan.

Currently, a joint research project on SODIS is implemented by the following institutions:

The project has embarked on a multi-country study including study areas in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Kenya.

Other developments include the development of a continuous flow disinfection unit[27] and solar disinfection with titanium dioxide film over glass cylinders, which prevents the bacterial regrowth of coliforms after SODIS.[28] Research has shown that a number of low-cost additives are capable of accelerating SODIS and that additives might make SODIS more rapid and effective in both sunny and cloudy weather, developments that could help make the technology more effective and acceptable to users.[29] A 2008 study showed that natural coagulants (powdered seeds of five natural legumes (peas, beans and lentils)—Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus mungo (black lentil), Glycine max (soybean), Pisum sativum (green pea), and Arachis hypogaea (peanut)—were evaluated for the removal of turbidity), were as effective as commercial alum and even superior for clarification in that the optimum dosage was low (1  g/L), flocculation was rapid (7–25 minutes, depending on the seed used) and the water hardness and pH was essentially unaltered.[30] Later studies have used chestnuts, oak acorns, and Moringa oleifera (drumstick tree) for the same purpose.[31][32]

Other research has examined the use of doped semiconductors to increase the production of oxygen radicals under solar UV-A.[33] Recently, researchers at the National Centre for Sensor Research and the Biomedical Diagnostics Institute at Dublin City University have developed a novel printable UV dosimeter for SODIS applications that can be read using a mobile phone.[34] The camera of the phone is used to acquire an image of the sensor and custom software running on the phone analyses the sensor colour to provide a quantitative measurement of UV dose.

A significant health problem in isolated regions of Africa is the effects of wood smoke and lung disease due to the constant need for building fires to boil water and cook. Research groups have often found that boiling of water is neglected due to the cumbersome task of gathering wood, which may not be readily available in many areas due to continuing depletion of wood sources. When presented with basic household water treatment options residents in isolated regions in Africa have shown a preference for the SODIS method to boiling or other basic water treatment methods.

Promotion[edit]

The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), through the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), coordinates SODIS promotion projects in 33 countries including Bhutan, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Perú, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Togo, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.[35]

SODIS projects are funded by, among others, the SOLAQUA Foundation,[36] several Lions Clubs, Rotary Clubs, Migros, and the Michel Comte Water Foundation.

SODIS has also been applied in several communities in Brazil, one of them being Prainha do Canto Verde, Beberibe west of Fortaleza. Villagers there using the SODIS method have been quite successful, since the temperature during the day can go beyond 40 °C (104 °F) and there is a limited amount of shade.[citation needed]

One of the most important things to consider for public health workers reaching out to communities in need of suitable, cost efficient, and sustainable water treatment methods is teaching the importance of water quality in the context of health promotion and disease prevention while educating about the methods themselves. Although skepticism has posed a challenge in some communities to adopt SODIS and other household water treatment methods for daily use, disseminating knowledge on the important health benefits associated with these methods will likely increase adoption rates.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Household water treatment and safe storage". World Health Organization. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  2. ^ a b "Training material". Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Meierhofer R, Wegelin M (October 2002). Solar water disinfection — A guide for the application of SODIS. Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). ISBN 3-906484-24-6. 
  4. ^ "Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: A review". Water Research 44 (10). 2010. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.02.039. 
  5. ^ Hanaor, D.; Michelazzi, M.; Leonelli, C.; Sorrell, C.C. (2011). "The effects of firing conditions on the properties of electrophoretically deposited titanium dioxide films on graphite substrates". Journal of the European Ceramic Society 31 (15): 2877–2885. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2011.07.007. 
  6. ^ "Sand as a low-cost support for titanium dioxide photocatalysts". Wiley VCH. 
  7. ^ "How does it work?" (PDF). sodis.ch. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  8. ^ Limitations of SODIS
  9. ^ "Treating turbid water". World Health Organization. 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  10. ^ Clasen T (2009). Scaling Up Household Water Treatment Among Low-Income Populations. World Health Organization. 
  11. ^ B. Dawney and J.M. Pearce "Optimizing Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method by Decreasing Turbidity with NaCl", The Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development 2(2) pp. 87-94 (2012). open access
  12. ^ a b Plastic Bags for Water Treatment: A new Approach to Solar Disinfection of Drinking Water. University of British Columbia (Vancouver). 2011. 
  13. ^ Mintz E; Bartram J; Lochery P; Wegelin M (2001). "Not just a drop in the bucket: Expanding access to point-of-use water treatment systems.". American Journal of Public Health, 91(10), 1565-1570. 
  14. ^ "Plastic Packaging Resins". American Chemistry Council. 
  15. ^ "SODIS Technical Note # 2 Materials: Plastic versus Glass Bottles" (PDF). sodis.ch. 20 October 1998. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  16. ^ "Guidelines for drinking-water quality" (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 304–6. 
  17. ^ Kohler M, Wolfensberger M. "Migration of organic components from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to water" (PDF). Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA). Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. 
  18. ^ William Shotyk, Michael Krachler and Bin Chen (2006). "Contamination of Canadian and European bottled waters with antimony from PET containers". Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8 (2): 288–292. doi:10.1039/b517844b. PMID 16470261. Lay summary. 
  19. ^ "Bottled Waters Contaminated with Antimony from PET" (Press release). University of Heidelberg. 26 January 2006. 
  20. ^ Sciacca F, Rengifo-Herrera JA, Wéthé J, Pulgarin C (2010-01-08). "Dramatic enhancement of solar disinfection (SODIS) of wild Salmonella sp. in PET bottles by H(2)O(2) addition on natural water of Burkina Faso containing dissolved iron". Chemosphere (Epub ahead of print) 78 (9): 1186–91. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.12.001. PMID 20060566. 
  21. ^ "Household water treatment and safe storage". Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  22. ^ The WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (2000). Global water supply and sanitation assessment 2000 report. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-156202-1. 
  23. ^ Conroy RM, Elmore-Meegan M, Joyce T, McGuigan KG, Barnes J (1996). "Solar disinfection of drinking water and diarrhoea in Maasai children: a controlled field trial". Lancet 348 (9043): 1695–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)02309-4. PMID 8973432. 
  24. ^ Conroy RM, Meegan ME, Joyce T, McGuigan K, Barnes J (October 1999). "Solar disinfection of water reduces diarrhoeal disease: an update". Archives of Disease in Childhood 81 (4): 337–8. doi:10.1136/adc.81.4.337. PMC 1718112. PMID 10490440. 
  25. ^ Conroy RM, Meegan ME, Joyce T, McGuigan K, Barnes J (October 2001). "Solar disinfection of drinking water protects against cholera in children under 6 years of age". Archives of Disease in Childhood 85 (4): 293–5. doi:10.1136/adc.85.4.293. PMC 1718943. PMID 11567937. 
  26. ^ Rose A, Roy S, Abraham V, et al. (February 2006). "Solar disinfection of water for diarrhoeal prevention in southern India". Archives of Disease in Childhood 91 (2): 139–41. doi:10.1136/adc.2005.077867. PMC 2082686. PMID 16403847. 
  27. ^ Caslake LF, Connolly DJ, Menon V, Duncanson CM, Rojas R, Tavakoli J (February 2004). "Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2): 1145–50. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.2.1145-1150.2004. PMC 348911. PMID 14766599. 
  28. ^ Gelover S, Gómez LA, Reyes K, Teresa Leal M (October 2006). "A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight". Water Res. 40 (17): 3274–80. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.07.006. PMID 16949121. 
  29. ^ Fisher MB, Keenan CR, Nelson KL, Voelker BM (March 2008). "Speeding up solar disinfection (SODIS): effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, pH, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli". J Water Health 6 (1): 35–51. doi:10.2166/wh.2007.005. PMID 17998606. 
  30. ^ Mbogo SA (March 2008). "A novel technology to improve drinking water quality using natural treatment methods in rural Tanzania". J Environ Health 70 (7): 46–50. PMID 18348392. 
  31. ^ Šćiban M, Klašnja M, Antov M, Škrbić B (2009). "Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.". Bioresource technology 100 (24): 6639–43. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.06.047. PMID 19604691. 
  32. ^ Nkurunziza, T; Nduwayezu, JB; Banadda, EN; Nhapi, I (2009). "The effect of turbidity levels and Moringa oleifera concentration on the effectiveness of coagulation in water treatment.". Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research 59 (8): 1551–8. doi:10.2166/wst.2009.155. PMID 19403968. 
  33. ^ Byrne JA; Fernandez-Ibañez PA; Dunlop PSM; Alrousan DMA; Hamilton JWJ (2011). "Photocatalytic Enhancement for Solar Disinfection of Water: A Review". International Journal of Photoenergy. doi:10.1155/2011/798051. 
  34. ^ Copperwhite, R; McDonagh, C; O'Driscoll, S (2011). "A Camera Phone-Based UV-Dosimeter for Monitoring the Solar Disinfection (SODIS) of Water.". IEEE Sensors Journal. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2011.2172938. 
  35. ^ Contact addresses and case studies of the projects coordinated by the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) are available at sodis.ch.
  36. ^ "SOLAQUA". Wegelin & Co. Archived from the original on 2008-05-04. 

External links[edit]