|Also known as||SoliPsiK, SepPuKu, Surgical Penis Klinik, System Planning Korporation, Sozialistisches Patienten Kollektiv|
|Origin||Sydney, New South Wales, Australia|
|Genres||Industrial, experimental, noise, synthpop, avant-garde|
|Labels||Side Effekts, M Squared, WEA, Industrial, Mute, Fresh Sounds|
|Past members||Graeme Revell
Karel van Bergan
SPK were an Australian industrial music and noise music group formed in 1978. They were fronted by mainstay member, Graeme Revell on keyboards and percussion. In 1980 the group travelled to the United Kingdom where they issued their debut album, Information Overload Unit. In 1983 Sinan Leong joined on lead vocals. The group disbanded in 1988, two years later Revell and Leong relocated to the United States, where Revell has worked as a Hollywood film score composer. According to Australian rock music historian, Ian McFarlane, SPK were "at the forefront of the local post-punk, electronic/experimental movement of the late 1970s ... [their] music progressed from discordant, industrial-strength metal noise to sophisticated and restrained dance-rock with strange attributes".
SPK was formed in 1978 in Sydney when New Zealand-born Graeme Revell (aka "EMS AKS", "Operator", "Oblivion") met Neil Hill (aka "Ne/H/il"). Revell was working as a nurse on a psychiatric ward at Callan Park Hospital where Hill was also working. Hill and Revell shared a house and an interest in the manifesto of the German radical Marxist group known as the Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv (SPK). The duo were influenced by Kraftwerk, Can, Neu!, Faust, and John Cage – they started playing their own variety of industrial music as SPK. According to rock music historian, Ian McFarlane the acronym SPK is variously given as "SoliPsiK, SepPuKu, Surgical Penis Klinik, System Planning Korporation and Sozialistisches Patienten Kollektiv". The band recruited two teenagers, Danny Rumour on lead guitar and David Virgin on bass guitar (both ex-Ugly Mirrors, and went on to form Sekret Sekret), on early recordings by SPK in 1979. In that year they independently released three 7" pressings: SoliPsiK as a three-track extended play in April, "Factory" as a single in August and "Mekano" in November.
Dominik Guerin (aka "Tone Generator") joined on synthesisers in 1980, and later concentrated on the band's visual content. In May they issued an EP, Meat Processing Section, as Surgical Penis Klinik. Without Hill, SPK relocated to London where Guerin and Revell recorded their debut album, Information Overload Unit, in a Vauxhall squat with the help of Revell's brother Ashley Revell (aka "Mr.Clean") and Mike Wilkins (guitar, bass guitar, backing vocals). The album's cover has System Planning Korporation with the initials SPK highlighted in red. In June 1980 they issued the single, "Slogun", with lyrics inspired by the Marxist manifesto: "Kill, Kill, Kill for inner peace / Bomb, Bomb, Bomb for mental health / Therapy through violence!" McFarlane suggested "[t]he album's harsh, thumping sound appealed to fans of Throbbing Gristle and early Cabaret Voltaire". Allmusic's John Bush felt it was "[a] noisy record basically comprised of guitar feedback, synthesizer distortion and rigid drum programming". Other musicians working with SPK included James Pinker (drums, percussion) and Karel van Bergan (violin, vocals), who toured with them to the United States. In July 1981 in Australia, the M Squared label released another single, "See Saw". The cover depicts SoliPsiK with members given as Kitka (aka Kit Katalog), Sushi (aka Margaret Hill), Charlyiev (aka Paul Charlier) and Skorne (Neil Hill). Both tracks are co-written by Charlier and Hill.
In 1982 SPK's Guerin and Revell were joined by Brian Williams (aka Lustmord), John Murphy of Forresta di Ferro (aka "Kraang") and Derek Thompson (who later had a brief stint in The Cure and went on to record as Hoodlum Priest). SPK's second album, Leichenschrei (English: The Scream of the Corpse) (1982), shows Sozialistisches Patienten Kollektiv (English: Socialist Patients' Collective). After its recording they were joined by Sinan Leong on vocals, who had initially auditioned for a planned SPK side-project, Dance Macabre. Leong and Revell later married. In 1983 Thompson left SPK because Revell "wanted to make a very commercial sounding album which I did not". McFarlane found that "SPK had softened the approach somewhat with discernible synth melodies and dance beats coming to the fore amongst the noise". In August 1983, the group issued a compilation album, Auto Da Fé, showing SepPuKu written with SPK in red capital letters. It included three studio tracks recorded in 1981. Bush suggested the album was the "beginning of a more organized approach for SPK material, Auto Da-Fé presents an intriguing industrial-disco fusion, reminiscent of prime contemporary material by Cabaret Voltaire and DAF ... Although fans probably thought of [it] as an unconscionable crossover attempt, it's still quite experimental in retrospect". The three-track EP, Dekompositiones (also by SepPuKu) followed soon after. Its tracks were added to a later version of Auto Da Fé.
In early February 1984, just before his 28th birthday, Neil Hill committed suicide. Two days later his wife Margaret Hill (nee Nikitenko) died as a result of complications from anorexia. In March SPK issued another single, "Metal Dance", which was co-written by Revell, Leong and Thompson. SPK returned to Australia for a tour and recorded their third album, Machine Age Voodoo, in Sydney which was issued in 1984 on WEA Records. For the album, SPK's Revell and Leong were joined by Jeff Bartolomei on keyboards, Mary Bradfield-Taylor on vocals, Graham Jesse on saxophone, James Kelly on guitar, Sam McNally on keyboards and Phil Scorgie on bass guitar. McFarlane saw the album as "mixed mainstream disco-pop and sweet vocals with electronic experimentation (sort of like Blondie meets Kraftwerk)". While Bush felt it was "another leap towards dance-rock and away from the group's industrial past". The album spawned a single, "Junk Funk" in 1985.
Leong and Revell returned to Australia and added Karina Hayes as vocalist. They issued Zamia Lehmanni: Songs of Byzantine Flowers in 1986 which provided a single, "In Flagrante Delicto". It was followed by Digitalis Ambigua: Gold & Poison in 1987. Allmusic's Sean Carruthers observed that Revell "was in a period of transition... [s]omewhere between the industrial noise of the early years and his later soundtrack work". In 1988, the band issued a live album, Oceania... In Performance 1987 but disbanded during the year. In 1989, Revell moved into work on scores and soundtracks. SPK's track "In Flagrante Delicto" was used by Revell for his work on the soundtrack for the 1989 film, Dead Calm. By 1991 Leong and Revell had moved to Los Angeles.
McFarlane regarded SPK to be "at the forefront of the local post-punk, electronic/experimental movement of the late 1970s ... [their] music progressed from discordant, industrial-strength metal noise to sophisticated and restrained dance-rock with strange attributes".
The meaning of the SPK abbreviation is deliberately unclear; the album covers suggest several different alternatives. The most well known is Sozialistisches PatientenKollektiv, but there are also others, such as Surgical Penis Klinik, System Planning Korporation, SePuKku, Selective Pornography Kontrol, Special Programming Korps and SoliPsiK
The most notable recordings of SPK are early: Information Overload Unit, Leichenschrei and AutoDaFe. SPK's music is best described as disturbing and psychologically disorienting, in line with their nihilistic, subversive philosophy. Live performances included video backing (some of which was issued in two Twin Vison videos, Despair and Two Autopsy Films), transgressive performances with animal carcasses and other attempts to make the audience uncomfortable. The group issued manifestos, such as DoKuments 1 and 2, "The Post-Industrial Strategy", which appeared in RE/Search's Industrial Culture Handbook. There is a clear dichotomy between early industrial SPK (1978–83) and the more commercial music later favoured by Revell. Later releases, such as Machine Age Voodoo (1984), were more synthpop-oriented than industrial. Still later, the group moved into electronic orchestral work, with the release of Zamia Lehmanni: Songs of Byzantine Flowers (1986).
- Information Overload Unit - LP/CD - 1981
- Leichenschrei - LP/CD - 1982
- Machine Age Voodoo - LP - 1984
- Zamia Lehmanni: Songs of Byzantine Flowers - LP/CD - 1986
- Digitalis Ambigua: Gold & Poison - LP/CD - 1987
- Oceania Live - LP/CD - 1988
- Auto-Da-Fé - LP/CD - 1983
- Box - CD - 1992
Singles, EPs, cassettes 
- "No More/Kontakt/Germanik" - Single - 1979
- "Factory"/Retard/Slogun" - Single - 1979
- "Mekano/Kontakt/Slogun" - Single - 1979
- "Meat Processing Section" EP (Slogun/Mekano) - Single – 1980
- "See Saw/Chambermusik" (as SoliPsiK) - Single - 1981
- "At The Crypt" - Cassette - Sterile Records - 1981
- "Last Attempt at Paradise" - Cassette - 1982
- "Dekompositiones" - 12"EP - 1983
- "From Science To Ritual" - Cassette - 1983
- "Metal Dance" - Single - 1984
- "Junk Funk" - Single - 1984
- "Flesh & Steel" – Single - 1985
- "In Flagrante Delicto" - Single – 1986
- "Off the Deep End" - Single - 1987
- "Breathless" - Single - 1987
- "Digitalis Ambigua: Gold & Poison" - Single - 1987
Videos and films 
- "Despair" - SPK Video by Twin Vision - 1982
- "Two Autopsy Films" - SPK Video by Twin Vision - 1983
- "Despair" - Digitally extracted DVD by Twin Vision - 2007
- Blake, Trevor (September 2000). "Part 2: Post-industrial Band SPK/Graeme Revell, Australia/England/USA, 1978 – present". SPK – Krankheit Im Recht. Heidelberg, Germany: KRRIM - PF-Verlag fuer Krankheit. ISBN 978-3-926491-26-8.
- McFarlane, Ian (1999). "Encyclopedia entry for 'SPK'". Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-072-1. Archived from the original on 6 August 2004. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- Bush, John. "Information Overload – SPK". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- "'Chambermusik' at APRA search engine". Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA). Retrieved 29 February 2012. Note: User may click on 'Search again' and enter other titles by SoliPsiK e.g. See Saw or Zombod.
- "Interview with Derek Thompson of Hoodlum Priest". 7 January 1998. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- Bush, John. "Auto Da Fé – SPK". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "'Metal Dance' at APRA search engine". Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA). Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- Bush, John. "Machine Age Voodoo – SPK". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- Carruthers, Sean. "Digitalis Ambigua, Gold and Poison – SPK". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- "Panelist Bios: Graeme Revell". Survival Research Labs (Mark Pauline). Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- Austin, Mark; et al (1983). V. Vale, Andrea Juno, ed. Industrial Culture Handbook: Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, SPK, Z'ev, Non, Monte Cazazza, Mark Pauline, Sordide Sentimental, Johanna Went. San Francisco, CA: RE/Search. ISBN 0-940642-07-7.