SPYDER

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SPYDER
SPYDER.jpg
A missile firing unit (MFU) of the SPYDER-SR system
Type Short and medium range air defence system
Place of origin Israel
Service history
Used by See Operators
Wars Russo-Georgian War (unconfirmed)
Production history
Designer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Israel Aerospace Industries
Manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Produced 2005–Present
Variants SPYDER-SR
SPYDER-MR
Specifications (SPYDER-SR)
Weight 105 kg (231 lb) (Python-5)
118 kg (260 lb) (Derby)
Length 3.1 m (10 ftin) (Python-5)
3.62 m (11 ft 11 in) (Derby)
Diameter 160 mm (6.3 in) (both)
Warhead 11 kg (24 lb) (Python-5)
23 kg (51 lb) (Derby)
Detonation
mechanism
Active laser and electromagnetic proximity fuse with back-up impact fuse

Main
armament
×4 Python-5 or Derby missiles in any combination per MFU
Wingspan 640 mm (2 ft 1 in) (both)
Operational
range
1–15 km (0.62–9.32 mi)
Flight altitude 20–9,000 m (66–29,528 ft)
Speed Mach 4
Guidance
system
Infrared homing and electro-optical imaging (Python-5)
Active radar homing (Derby)
Launch
platform
Tatra truck
Mercedes-Benz Actros truck
MAN TGS truck

The SPYDER (Surface-to-air PYthon and DERby) is an Israeli short and medium range mobile air defence system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems with assistance from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). Rafael is the prime contractor and IAI is the major subcontractor for the SPYDER program. This system achieved a notable milestone in 2005 when missiles were fired against test targets in Shdema, Israel and scored direct hits. Since then, it has been showcased in multiple military exhibitions throughout the world.

The SPYDER is a low-level, quick-reaction surface-to-air missile system capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones, and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area defence for mobile forces in combat areas. The system is fitted atop a Tatra truck, a Mercedes-Benz Actros truck, or a MAN TGS truck. It implements the Python-5 and Derby missiles of the same company. The SPYDER launcher is designed to fire Python-5 and Derby surface-to-air missiles which share full commonality with the air-to-air missiles. There are two variants of the SPYDER: the SPYDER-SR (short range) and the SPYDER-MR (medium range). Both systems are quick reaction, all weather, network-centric, multi-launchers, and self-propelled. A typical battery consists one central command and control unit, six missile firing units, and a resupply vehicle. The SPYDER-SR uses the EL/M-2106 ATAR radar while the SPYDER-MR incorporates the EL/M-2084 MMR radar. The latter is the same radar used by the Iron Dome system currently in service with the Israel Defence Forces.

Current operators of the SPYDER missiles system include India and Singapore. The former operates the SPYDER-MR variant while the latter fields the SPYDER-SR variant. Peru's order for the SPYDER was pending as of 2012. There are reports that claim that Georgia operated the SPYDER-SR during the 2008 Russo-Georgian War but these allegations and assumptions have never been verified.

Development[edit]

In 2005, a milestone for the SPYDER air defence system was achieved. The SPYDER successfully fired the Python 5 and Derby in a test range located in Shdema, Israel. The results were two direct kills against a couple of targets. At the trial, the radar and command and control unit engaged the targets at long and short ranges. The trial was part of a greater series of missile firings.[1]

Exhibitions[edit]

The SPYDER air defence system has been showcased in 29 military exhibitions throughout the world. These exhibitions are:

  • 2004 DEFEXPO[2]
  • 2006 DEFEXPO[3]
  • 2006 Asian Aerospace[4]
  • 2006 International Defense Exhibition Bratislava[5]
  • 2006 Eurosatory[6]
  • 2007 AeroIndia Aerospace Exhibition[7]
  • 2007 IDET[8]
  • 2007 IDEF[9]
  • 2007 Paris Air Show[10]
  • 2007 MSPO International Defence Industry Exhibition[11]
  • 2007 Korean Aerospace and Defense Exhibition[12]
  • 2007 Expomil[13]
  • 2008 DEFEXPO[14]
  • 2008 Singapore International Air Show[15]
  • 2008 FIDAE[16]
  • 2008 Land Warfare Conference and Exhibition[17][18]
  • 2009 Aero India Aerospace Exhibition[19]
  • 2009 Australian Air Show[20]
  • 2009 Paris Air Show[21]
  • 2009 MSPO International Defence Industry Exhibition[22]
  • 2009 Expomil[23]
  • 2010 Singapore Air Show[24]
  • 2010 DEFEXPO[25]
  • 2010 FIDAE[26]
  • 2010 Eurosatory[27]
  • 2011 Aero India Aerospace Exhibition[28]
  • 2011 Latin America Aero & Defence[29]
  • 2011 SITDEF[30]
  • 2011 Paris Air Show[31]

Description[edit]

Command and control[edit]

EL/M-2106 ATAR[edit]

Main article: EL/M-2106

The Elta EL/M-2106 Advanced Tactical Acquisition Radar (ATAR) 3D Active electronically scanned array (AESA) surveillance radar is the Command and Control Unit (CCU) for the SPYDER-SR. This radar can track and engage multiple targets simultaneously and can control the missile firing units at a distance of up to 10 km away from the CCU.[32] The E/LM-2106 ATAR is a fourth generation defence radar designed by Elta and operates in the L-band wavelength. It is a field proven design that has operated in undesirable environments according to the designers and manufacturers. The range of detection for a fighter aircraft is 70–110 km. It can detect hovering helicopters at a range of 40 km and UAVs at 40–60 km.[33]

EL/M-2084 MMR[edit]

Main article: EL/M-2084

The radar sensor unit of the SPYDER-MR comprises the EL/M-2084 Multi Mission Radar (MMR) 3D AESA radar. The EL/M-2084 operates in the S-band. It can process up to 1200 targets when in air surveillance mode and also detects targets located 250 km away. When the radar is static, it covers 120° in the azimuth.[34]

Surface-to-air missiles[edit]

Further information: Python (missile)

Ranges of Interception[edit]

As a short range air defence system, the SPYDER-SR has a short range of interception. The maximum altitude of interception is 9 km and the maximum range of interception is 15 km.[32] The SPYDER-MR has a greater operation range of 35 km and an altitude engagement of 16 km due to the missiles being equipped with boosters.[35][a]

Python-5[edit]

The Python-5 is currently the most capable air-to-air missile (AAM) in Israel's inventory and one of the most advanced AAMs in the world. As a beyond-visual-range missile, it is capable of "lock-on after launch" (LOAL), and has all-aspect/all-direction (including rearward) attack ability. The missile features an advanced electro-optical infrared homing (with imaging infrared) seeker which scans the target area for hostile aircraft, then locks-on for terminal chase.[37]

  • Length: 310 cm
  • Span: 64 cm
  • Diameter: 16 cm
  • Weight: 105 kg
  • Guidance: infrared homing + electro-optical imaging
  • Warhead: 11 kg
  • Speed: Mach 4

Derby[edit]

The Derby is an active radar homing AAM that provides the SPYDER missile system with a fire-and-forget option due to its active radar guidance.[38]

  • Length: 362 cm
  • Span: 64 cm
  • Diameter: 16 cm
  • Weight: 118 kg
  • Guidance: Active radar homing
  • Warhead: 23 kg
  • Speed: Mach 4

Comparison to air defence systems of a similar role and era[edit]

SPYDER-SR Pantsir-S1 Sky Dragon 12 Tor-M1
Missile Python-5 or Derby 57E6-E ? 9M331
Missiles per system 4 missiles 12 missiles 12 missiles 8 missiles
Maximum Altitude of Interception 9 km (5.6 mi) 15 km (9.3 mi) 5.5 km (3.4 mi) 6 km (3.7 mi)
Maximum Range of Interception 15 km (9.3 mi) 20 km (12 mi) 12 km (7.5 mi) 12 km (7.5 mi)
Radar EL/M-2106 ATAR 1RS2-1E and Passive IR detection  ?  ?
SPYDER-MR Buk-M1-2 SAMP/T Sky Dragon 50 KM-SAM Type 3 Chū-SAM
Missile Python-5 or Derby with Booster 9М38M1 Aster-30 SD-10A Variant ? ?
Missiles per Transporter launcher erector 8 missiles 4 missiles 8 missiles 4 missiles 8 missiles 6 missiles
Altitude of Interception 16 km (9.9 mi) 0.015–25 km (0.0093–15.5343 mi) 0.05–20 km (0.031–12.427 mi) 0.03–20 km (0.019–12.427 mi) 15 km (9.3 mi) 10 km (6.2 mi)
Range of Interception 35 km (22 mi) 3–42 km (1.9–26.1 mi) 50–100 km (31–62 mi) 3–50 km (1.9–31.1 mi) 40 km (25 mi) 50 km (31 mi)
Acquisition Radar EL/M-2106 ATAR 9S18М1-1 ARABEL multi-function electronic scanning radar IBIS-150
IBIS-200
 ? Unnamed AESA radar

Operational use[edit]

During the Russo-Georgian war of 2008, it was believed that Georgia operated the SPYDER-SR.[39][40][41] The Georgian air force could have operated up to four launchers of the SPYDER-SR and it is likely that the system was lost in the conflict.[41]

Operators[edit]

 Georgia
  • Georgian Air Force – There were reports that a battery of the SPYDER missile system was operated in 2008.[39] No official confirmation exists and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) arms transfer database cannot confirm this.[42] Jane's Missiles & Rockets magazine previously cited a Rafael representative claiming that one of the two export customers of the SPYDER missile system already has theirs deployed.[39]
 India
  • Indian Air Force – In 2006, India planned to acquire 18 SPYDER-MR systems at a cost of $395.2 million (Rs. 1800 crore) for its air force.[43] The contract was reviewed by the Central Vigilance Commission, the government’s anti-corruption agency, before the agreement was signed in September 2008.[44][45] In August 2009, the multi-billion dollar contract for Israeli anti-aircraft missiles was cleared by the Defence Acquisition Council headed by defence minister AK Antony.[43][46] Although previous estimates of the contract's value was 18 billion rupees ($395.2 million), recent reports indicate a lower value of $260 million.[42][43] The Jerusalem Post contradicts these figures and mentions a price of $1 billion for the purchase of the surface-to-air missiles.[47] The SPYDER systems were delivered starting in 2012. Six SPYDER-MRs along with 300 Python-5 surface to missiles (SAMs) and 300 Derby SAMs were delivered by 2013.[42]
 Peru
  • Peruvian Air Force – In March 2012, Peru chose the winners of a $140 million competition meant to upgrade its ageing air defence systems out of the group of 20 defence companies.[48] Amidst the presence of Russia's Rosoboronexport and Chinese firms, the winners were Poland's Bumar Group, Israel's Rafael Advanced Defence Systems, and the USA's Northrop Grumman.[49] Rafael industries is expected to supply six SPYDER-SR systems in this deal.[50]
 Singapore
  • Republic of Singapore Air Force – In 2008, the Ministry of Defence ordered two SPYDER-SR batteries along with 75 Python-5 SAMs and 75 Derby SAMs. They were all delivered during 2011 and 2012.[42] Some SPYDER-SRs were operated by the 165 Squadron in 2011.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The official brochure of the SPYDER missile system by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems contradicts the figures for the interception range for both the SPYDER-SR and SPYDER-MR. The brochure mentions that the interception range of the SPYDER-SR is 20 km instead of the 15 km and 50 km instead of 35 km for the SPYDER-MR.[36]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "RAFAEL’S SPYDER Catches Its Prey". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 6 February 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "RAFAEL Introduce New Integrated Business Areas at DEFEXPO 04". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 22 January 2004. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  3. ^ "DEFEXPO 2004, New Delhi, India". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "Asian Aerospace 2006". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  5. ^ "IDEB 2006 Bratislava, Slovak Republic". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 3 May 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  6. ^ "Eurosatory 2006, Paris France". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  7. ^ "AeroIndia 2007 - Bangalore, India". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  8. ^ "IDET 2007 - Brno, Czech Republic". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  9. ^ "IDEF 2007 - Ankara, Turkey". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 22 May 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  10. ^ "Paris Air Show 2007 - Le Bourget, France". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 18 June 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "MSPO 2007 - Kielce, Poland". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 3 September 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  12. ^ "Korean Aerospace and Defense Exhibition 2007 - Seoul, Korea". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 16 October 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  13. ^ "Expomil 2007 - Bucharest, Romania". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 18 October 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Defexpo 2008 - New Delhi, India". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 16 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  15. ^ "Singapore Int'l Air Show - Singapore". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  16. ^ "FIDAE 2008 - Santiago, Chile". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "Multi-tiered Air Defense at LWC". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 19 October 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  18. ^ "Land Warfare Conference (LWC) - Brisbane, Australia 2008". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  19. ^ "Bangalore, India 11-15 February, 2009". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  20. ^ "Australian Air Show 2009 - Avalon, Australia". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  21. ^ "Paris Air-Show 2009". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  22. ^ "MSPO 2009, Kielce, Poland". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "Expomil, Romania, November 2009". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 11 November 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  24. ^ "Singapore Airshow 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  25. ^ "Rafael at Defexpo 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  26. ^ "FIDAE 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  27. ^ "Eurosatory 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  28. ^ "Aero India 2011". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  29. ^ "LAAD 2011 - Brazil". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  30. ^ "SITDEF 2011 - Peru". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  31. ^ "PARIS AIR SHOW 2011". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  32. ^ a b "SPYDER-SR ADS". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  33. ^ "Medium Range 3D Tactical Air Defense Radar EL/M-2106 ATAR". Israel Aerospace Industries. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  34. ^ "Multi–Mission Radar (MMR) Family - EL/M-2084". Israel Aerospace Industries. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  35. ^ "SPYDER-MR ADS". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  36. ^ "Spyder-SR / MR – Short and Medium Range Mobile Air Defense Systems". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  37. ^ "Python-5 – Full Sphere IR Air-to-Air or Surface-to-Air Missile". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  38. ^ "Derby – Active Radar BVR Air-to-Air or Surface-to-Air Missile". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  39. ^ a b c Aminov, Said (21 August 2008). "Analysis: Georgia's Air Defence in the August War". Defence Web. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  40. ^ Cohen, Ariel; Hamilton, Robert E. (June 2011). The Russian Military and the Georgia War: Lessons and Implications. Stractegic Studies Institute. p. 40. ISBN 1-58487-491-0. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  41. ^ a b Barabanov, M.S.; Lavrov, A.V.; Tseluiko, V.A. (2010). The Tanks of August. Moscow: Centre of Analysis of Strategies and Technologies. pp. 20, 81. ISBN 978-5-9902320-1-3. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  42. ^ a b c d "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  43. ^ a b c "India Buys Israeli "SPYDER" Mobile Air Defense System". Defense Industry Daily. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  44. ^ Pandit, Rajat (18 August 2008). "IAF to add teeth with Israeli missile system". The Times Of India. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  45. ^ "IAF orders Israeli Spyder Missile". India Strategic. September 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  46. ^ "Army acquires anti-aircraft missiles". The Times of India. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  47. ^ Katz, Yaakov (23 August 2009). "India to buy Rafael's Spyder missile systems in $1 billion deal". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  48. ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (19 March 2012). "Rafael, Bumar, Northrop Win $140M Peru Contract". Defense News. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  49. ^ "Peru upgrades air defense with $140M plan". United Press International. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  50. ^ "Peru’s Next-Generation Air Defenses". Defense Industry Daily. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  51. ^ Tat, Ong Hong (17 June 2011). "No escape from the SPYDER". MINDEF. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 

External links[edit]