|P-500 Bazalt / P-1000 Vulkan
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-12 'Sandbox')
Eight SS-N-12 launchers on the aircraft carrier Kiev
|Type||Sub- or surface-to-surface missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||Since 1975|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russia|
|Manufacturer||OKB-52/NPO Mashinostroyeniya Chelomey|
1970–1987 (P-500)1985–1992 (P-1000)
|Weight||4,800 kg (10,600 lb)|
|Warhead||High explosive or nuclear|
|Warhead weight||1,000 kg (2,205 lb) (P-500)|
|Blast yield||350 kt|
|550 km (300 nmi) (P-500)
700 km (380 nmi) (P-1000)
|Semi-active, terminal active radar|
|Echo II & Juliett submarines
Kiev & Slava class ships
The P-500 Bazalt (Russian: П-500 «Базальт»; English: basalt) is a liquid-fueled, rocket-powered, supersonic cruise missile used by the Soviet and Russian navies. Its GRAU designation is 4K80 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-12 Sandbox.
Developed by OKB-52 MAP (later NPO Mashinostroyeniye), it entered service in 1973 to replace the SS-N-3 Shaddock. The P-500 Bazalt was first deployed in 1975 on the Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev, and was later added to both the Echo II class submarine and the Juliett class submarine. A version of the P-500 Bazalt with improved guidance and engines is used on the Slava class cruiser. The sixteen launchers dominate the decks of the class.
The P-500 Bazalt has a 550 km range and a payload of 1,000 kg, which allows it to carry a 350 kt nuclear or a 950 kg semi-armor-piercing high explosive warhead. The P-500 Bazalt uses active radar homing for terminal guidance, and can receive mid-course correction from the Tupolev Tu-95D, the Kamov Ka-25B and the Kamov Ka-27B.
The missiles were intended to be used in salvos; a submarine could launch eight in rapid succession, maintaining control of each through a separate datalink. In flight the group could co-ordinate their actions; one would fly up to 7,000 meters (23,000 feet) and use its active radar to search for targets, forwarding this data to the other missiles which remained at low altitude. The missiles were programmed so that half of a salvo would head for a carrier target, with the rest dividing between other ships. If the high flying missile was shot down another from the salvo would automatically pop up to take its place. All of the missiles would switch to active radar for the terminal phase of the attack.
An improved version of the P-500 was installed on three Echo II submarines towards the end of the Cold War. The P-1000 Vulkan (GRAU 3M70) flies faster (Mach 2.3–2.5) and its range has been extended to 700 km. It replaces steel components with titanium to reduce weight, and has an improved propulsion system. It appears to have used a similar fire-control system to the P-500, the Argon-KV and Argument radar.
The P-1000 was ordered on 15 May 1979 from NPO Mashinostroyeniya Chelomey; it first flew in July 1982 and was accepted for service on 18 December 1987. It was installed on three Echo II submarines of the Northern Fleet between 1987 and 1993; the conversion of two units of the Pacific Fleet, the K-10 and K-34, was abandoned due to lack of funds. Of the submarines that did receive the P-1000, the K-1 was decommissioned after a reactor accident in 1989, the K-35 was stricken in 1993 and the K-22 in 1995. It is believed that the P-1000 has been installed on the Slava class cruiser Varyag, and some sources report P-1000 missiles on her sister ship Moskva.
- (Russian) P-500 Bazalt
- Soviet-Russian Naval Cruise Missiles
- Friedman, Norman (1997). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1997-1998. Naval Institute Press. p. 246.
- Friedman, Norman (1997). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1997-1998. Naval Institute Press. p. 789.
- Wood, John (2009). Russia, the asymmetric threat to the United States: a potent mixture of energy and missiles. Praeger Security International. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-313-35941-5.
- "US Navy’s presence counters Russia’s Black Sea fleet". Georgia Today (566). 17 June 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to P-500 Bazalt.|
- MARITIME STRIKE The Soviet Perspective
- Russian/Sovjet P-500 Bazalt Page (with photos)
- Russian/Sovjet Sea-based Anti-Ship Missiles