Even though the protein has been identified earlier, its function was unknown until recently. In 2005, it was discovered that STIM1 functions as a calcium sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum. Upon activation of the IP3 receptor, the calcium concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum decreases, which is sensed by STIM1, via its EF hand domain. STIM1 activates the "store-operated" ORAI1 calcium ion channels in the plasma membrane, via intracellular STIM1 movement, clustering under plasma membrane and protein protein interaction with ORAI isoforms.2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol (4-CEP) cause STIM1 clustering in a cell and prevent STIM1 moving toward plasma membrane.
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^Soboloff, Jonathan; Rothberg, B. S., Madesh, M., Gill, D. L. "STIM proteins: dynamic calcium signal transducers". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol13 (9): 549–65. doi:10.1038/nrm3414. PMID22914293.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Liou J, Kim ML, Heo WD, Jones JT, Myers JW, Ferrell JE Jr, Meyer T. (2005). "STIM is a Ca2+ sensor essential for Ca2+-store-depletion-triggered Ca2+ influx". Curr. Biol.15 (13): 1235–41. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.05.055. PMID16005298.