SUMKA

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For tributary of Volga, see Sumka River.

SUMKA was an Iranian neo-Nazi group that is otherwise known as Hezb-e Sosialist-e Melli-ye Kargaran-e Iran or the Iran National-Socialist Workers group.

Foundation[edit]

The group was formed in 1952 by Davud Monshizadeh, a professor at Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, who served with the SS and had been injured fighting in Berlin. Before this the name had been used informally to refer to those in Iran who supported and help funded Adolf Hitler during the Second World War. Monshizadeh would go on to serve as a Professor of Persian Studies at Alexandria University and Uppsala University.[1] Despite building up a minor support base in Iranian universities, the party did not last long.[2] It has been claimed that the party enjoyed funding directly from Mohammad Reza Pahlavi for a time.[3] Funding was also provided indirectly by the United States government through their operation in the area codenamed BEDMAN.[4]

Development[edit]

The group briefly attracted the support of young nationalists in Iran, with Daryoush Homayoun, who would later rise to prominence, an early member.[3] Monshizadeh was known as something of a Hitler worshipper and was fond of many of the ways of the Nazi Party, such as their militarism and salute, as well as attempting to approximate Hitler's physical appearance.[3] On this basis the group adopted the swastika and black shirt as part of their uniforms.[5] Alongside this, however, the part was also known for their loyalty to the monarchy and were branded "Shah worshippers".[3]

They were firmly opposed to the rule of Mohammed Mossadegh during their brief period of influence and the group worked alongside Fazlollah Zahedi in his opposition to Mossadegh. Indeed in 1953 they were part of a large crowd of Zahedi supporters who marched to the palace of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi demanding the ousting of Mossadegh.[6] The party would become associated with street violence against the supporters of Mossadegh and the Tudeh Party.[7]

The party eventually passed out of existence, although much of their membership was absorbed by the 'Arya' movement of Brigadier General Hasan Arfa, a largely military-based group that had some pro-Nazi tendencies.[3]

Current group[edit]

A group calling itself SUMKA and claiming to be direct heirs of the original still exists. Although it remains to be seen how far this revival extended beyond the internet. They now present their main enemy as being Arabs in keeping with the anti-Islamic and Aryan identity politics of the original party. This group is not connected to the equally minor Iranian National Socialist Party [8] or the Aryan League. This party is against any form of Communism.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leonard Binder, Iran: Political Development in a Changing Society, University of California Press, 1962, p. 217
  2. ^ 'Iranian National Socialist Movement (A History)'
  3. ^ a b c d e Hussein Fardust, The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty: Memoirs of Former General Hussein, p. 62
  4. ^ 'Oil and Revolution'
  5. ^ Homa Katouzian, Musaddiq and the Struggle for Power in Iran, I.B. Tauris, 1990, p. 89
  6. ^ Mark J. Gasiorowski, 'The 1953 Coup D'etat in Iran', International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, No. 3. (Aug., 1987), p. 270
  7. ^ 'Is the blood of grapes, not of you (the people)'
  8. ^ INSP website

External links[edit]