Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission

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Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
خلائی و بالائی فضائی تحقیقاتی مأموریہ
State emblem of Pakistan.svg
Suparco logo
Acronym Suparco
Established September 16, 1961; 53 years ago (1961-09-16)
Headquarters Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Primary spaceport Sonmiani Terminal Launch
Motto "Strive to achieve self-reliance in space technology and applications for national security, economy and society."[1]
Administrator MGen Ahmad Bilal, CoSigs
Budget ₨. 6.88 Billion (2010-11)[2] ($75.1 million)
Website www.suparco.gov.pk

The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO; Urdu: خلائی و بالائی فضائی تحقیقاتی مأموریہ‎), is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research. Its mission statement and objective is to conduct peaceful research in space technology and promote the technology for socio-economic uplift of the country.[3]

Established in its modern form on 16 September 1961 by an executive order of President of Pakistan, it is headquartered in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan.[4] Part of the Strategic Plans Division (SPD) of Pakistan Armed Forces, which is currently headquarters at the Chakalala Military District under the control of the PAF;[5] the space programme recorded number of pioneering accomplishments in space flight during the initial years of its establishment.[5][6]

Since its creation in 1961, the Suparco has achieved numerous milestones, including the first successful spaceflight of country's first weather expendable launch rocket, Rehbar-I.[7] The country's first satellite, Badr-I, was built by the Suparco and launched by the People's Republic of China in 1990.[7] However during the mean time, the space programme suffered many setbacks, difficulties, and problems that partly slowed the progress of the space programme.[8] The bureaucratic influence and politicization further lagged the space programme and many projects were cancelled by the superior authorities.[8]

Over the years, SUPARCO expanded and has several well expanded installations all over the country as assets, and cooperates in peaceful use of space technology with the international community as a part of several bilateral and multilateral agreements.[9] SUPARCO's science and research is mainly focused and concentrated on better understanding of the Solar system,[10] Space weather,[11] astrophysics[12] (Big Bang Theory and Physical cosmology),[13] astronomical observation,[14] climatic studies,[15] space and telemedicine,[16] remote sensing[17] and the Earth observation.[13]

Aim and mission statement[edit]

The prime goal and mainstream functional objective of Suparco is to undertake research and develop space technology and associated technologies to be serve on the various task relating to national interest of the country.[18] Its official mission states its space policy:

"Strive to achieve self-reliance in space technology and applications for national security, economy and society."

—Mission statement of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, source[1]

History[edit]

Creation[edit]

The independent research in space sciences and aeronautical development was insued and goaded by the senior physicists at the Department of Physics of the Punjab University, in 1957, following the successful launch of Soviet Union's first artificial satellite, the Sputnik 1[19] However, due to the political instability, the serious initiatives to established the programme was not undertaken by the Government of Pakistan. Since 1958, Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam had played a major and influential role in the development of Pakistan's science policy. It was Salam's advice to the President, Field Marshal Ayub Khan, to establish a national space authority to oversaw the development on the space programme; this led the establishment of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (denoted as SUPARCO) on 16 September 16, 1961, with Abdus Salam being its first administrated director. It was decided to set up a committee dealing with space sciences, consequently, a Space Sciences Research Wing at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). In few week, the committee was established through the Presidential Executive Order (PEO) of President Ayub Khan which was addressed to co-chairman Ishrat Usmani, the Chairman of PAEC. The program of rocket test firings was entrusted to the Chairman of PAEC.[7]

1960s: Space flight programmes[edit]

One of the most earliest and notable achievement of Suparco activities was its unmanned space flight programme that was recorded on 7 June 1961.[7][20] Suparco took research in the development of first solid-fuel expandable rockets, an assistance provided by the United States.[7] On 7 June 1962, Suparco landed a record achievement when it had launched first unmanned solid-fuel sounding rocket and took its first initial space flight from the Sonmiani Terminal Launch.[20] The rocket was developed in a joint venture with air force in a team led by PAF's Air Commodore (Brigadier-General) WJM Turowicz.[7] Known as the Rehbar-I (lit. Teller of the way), Pakistan had secured its distinction as the third country in Asia and the tenth in the world to conduct successful spaceflight.[7] The unmanned spaceflight mission continued under Turowicz, and according to Suparco, from the period 1962 till the partial termination of mission in 1972, ~200 sounding rockets took high success space flights from Sonmiani terminal launch.[21] The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) publicly hailed the space flight programme as thebeginning of "a programme of continuing cooperation in space research of mutual interest.[22]"

An artistic diagram of Paksat-1E satellite.

This cooperative agreement called for the training of Pakistan's scientists, engineers, and technicians at the specialized facilities in the United States.[22] Before the June 1962 space flight programme, NASA had began to train Pakistan's scientists at Wallops Island and the Goddard Space Flight Centres.[22] NASA also set up fellowships and research associate programmes at various American universities for "advanced training and experience."[22]

On 25 July 1964, Salam arranged an another meeting with President Ayub Khan where Suparco was placed under the direct control of the President of Pakistan; it was followed by constituting the Suparco as an executive but separate authority under the administrative control of Salam on 8 March 1966.[7] By the presidential decree, Salam was brought as its first and founding chairman and given the powers previously held by the PAEC Chairman.[7]

Abdus Salam laid foundation of space infrastructure in Karachi and Lahore, particularly establishing infrastructure for physics research. With the establishment of Suparco, Pakistan was the first South Asian country to start a space programme.[23] In 1967, Abdus Salam was succeeded by Air Commdore Władysław Turowicz, as he was made administrator of SUPARCO.[7] Air Commdore Turowicz led the foundation of research activities and rocketry development in Suparco to the field of aeronautics sciences.[7] The Doppler Radar Station (Islamabad Mission Control Center) was also established in a in the country as part of a global network.[8] In 1973, American Apollo 17 astronauts Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans and Harrison Schmitt paid a state visit to Karachi amid great fanfare, to see the Suparco's headquarters.[8] It was also during the early 1970s that the Islamabad Ionospheric Station within Quaid-e-Azam University was set up and the NASA Landsat ground station was established near Rawat.[8]

1970s–1980s: Bureaucratization and reorganization[edit]

Entering in the late 1970s era, the space programme suffered many setback and experience number of difficulties, including lack of government response, shortage of technical personnel and expert engineers needed for the country to have an effective space programme.[8] The space flight programme was abruptly ended due to lack of funds and lessening government response.[8] It was during this time the militarization of the space programme took place by Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto when many senior combatant officers were appointed at the administrative position in the space programme.[8] Many scientists involved in the programme were forcefully given transferred to PAEC and KRL to aid the success of the atomic bomb project.[8]

The Badr-I is displayed before its prior launch in 1990.

In 1981, reforms and re-organization of the space programme was carried out when Munir Ahmad Khan began to rebuild the space infrastructure, particularly in rocketry programme which would later form the basis of missile programme.[citation needed] On 13 December 1979, Munir Ahmad Khan arranged a meeting at bureaucratic level with President General Zia-ul-Haq where Khan persuaded the country's bureaucracy to put efforts to reestablished the space programme with an autonomous status without any political influence.[citation needed] Under taking the advice of Munir Khan, the space programme was again reorganized and appointed nuclear engineer dr. Salim Mehmud from PAEC as the chairman of the Suparco.[citation needed] The bureaucratization of the Suparco took place in 1981 when the secretariat level committee, the Executive Committee of the Space Research Council was established with its members containing the officials from the finance, science, and economics ministries, chaired by the Finance minister of the country.[24] The committee maintained its bureaucratic control over the space programme and had influence on wide range of policy measure programme relating the space facilities and financial and scientific development of the rocketry programmes.[7] In 1979-80s, Suparco launched the project to development and launch country's first artificial satellite and began sending hundreds of engineers to University of Surrey to participate in the development of UO-11 which was launched in 1984.[25] In 1983, a communication satellite project called Paksat was initiated, with the establishment of the 10-meter diameter satellite ground station for interception of satellite transmissions was set up that was mainly designed against India.[8] According to the scientists involved in this programme, the real aim was to launch a satellite that could stage a "cultural counter attack" on India with the influx of new Pakistan media channels.[8] But when Zia visited the Suparco, all projects were cancelled and abruptly ended the satellite programme, citing the lack of funds.[8] However, Munir Khan and others pressured Zia to continue the development of the satellite despite Zia's unwillingness.[8]

After participating in various projects with University of Surrey, the team of engineers returned to Pakistan in 1986.[25] Munir Ahmad Khan then returned to General Zia-ul-Haq and obtained his approval to began practical work on Badr-I.[26] The project was started by Suparco's Dr. Salim Mehmud as director of the project and was supported by the members of Pakistan Amateur Radio Society.[25] In short span of time, the Project Badr was completed, and the first satellite was named Badr-1.[25] In 1990, Badr-I — Pakistan's first locally built satellite — was launched by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) of People's Republic of China (PRC).[27]

1990s: Orbital slot crises and setbacks[edit]

Pakistan Mission Control Center (PMCC) controls one of many LEOSAR satellite (as one illustrated above) with close coordination with Russia, France, and member of the International Cospas-Sarsat Programme.

In the 1990s era, the space programme experienced a number of orbital slot crises and failures, just like the one experience in the Soviet space program. In 1991, Suparco launched another satellite project, Badr-B, with the technical assistance provided by the United Kingdom.[citation needed] The spacecraft's sub-systems were developed and manufactured by Pakistan-based DESTO, SIL, and British Rutherford Laboratory, while the spacecraft integration was performed by SUPARCO.[25] The programme was completed in 1994, and it was expected to launch the same year.[25] However, the space programme began to suffer much more serious trouble and lacked the technical assistance to launch the satellite on its own.[8] The target to complete the satellite could not be achieved on time,[25] and in 1994, plans to launch the spacecraft did not materialise, and the launch was halted and delayed long to 2001.[25] Unlike its competitor Indian space programme which had ISRO to control over the space programme, Pakistan's space programme was now split between the competition with PAEC, NDC, DESTO, PAF Missile Command, and the KRL.[28] Despite its success in its space flight programme in the 1960s, Suparco began to face intense competition from its rival organizations to build the space boosters.[28] In the 1980s, Suparco largely took participation in building the first space booster, Hatf-I, but lost its credibility to KRL who had derived the space vehicle into an operational missile.[29] As early as in 1995, Suparco lost its major contract to NDC bureau to developed the country's first space booster, Shaheen-I.[28] Although, Suparco helped build the solid-fuel engine of the rocket and its space launch pad was also used for the spaceflights.[30] Suparco failed to impress the government of its capabilities, and the control of the Shaheen expandable programme was handed over to NDC bureau as its executive authority.[30]

In 1999, Abdul Qadeer Khan attempted to persuade President Pervez Musharraf but was unable to convince him to launch the satellite from Flight Test Center as Ghauri-I as its space booster.[31] In 2001, after long negotiation with the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Badr-B took its first successful flight with Meteor-3M, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, as Ukrainian Zenit-2 rocket as its boost launcher.[25] While the satellite was operated successfully, Suparco could not successfully sustain the control of the satellite.[8] The Suparco suffered a major setback and failure in its satellite programme when the satellite, two years after its launch, was lost in deep space and failed to reassure its orbital slots and reentry.[8] According to an insider within Suparco, the satellite was launched in two years despite its designated life was near five years, and to this day, "no one in Suparco really knows what exactly happened to the satellite when contact was lost with it."[8] Because of the surrounded secrecy and classified status, and for propaganda value, the details of the missions were covered up and buried deeply; the government never fully investigated the incident.[8]

In 1993, the Paksat programme was again restarted but terminated in 1994 after Suparco lost the two orbital slots 38°E longitude and 41°E longitude, which was acquired for it in the Geo-synchronous orbit expired.[8] In 2002, Suparco again applied for a new application for the allocation of five GSo slots (38°E, 41°E, 30°E, 88°E and 101°E) was filed.[8] Although granted, Suparco faced the risk of losing its priority 38°E slot, if it didn’t launch its own satellite by April 2003.[8] Under pressure and understanding the substantial negative impact on the space programme, Suparco made a move to acquire an American satellite-building firm, Hughes Satellite Systems (HGS), at a cost of around $5 million. This second-hand satellite had originally designed for Indonesia, but after a battery problem occurred making it useless during certain hours of the day, the firm correct the problem and sold the satellite to Pakistan as Paksat-1.[8]

2000s: Recent developments and revitalisation[edit]

In 2000, Suparco was brought under the National Command Authority in order focus on "real development" to begin, as its chairman maintained.[32] Under the privileges and opportunities awarded by the economic liberalisation policies of Prime minister Shaukat Aziz, Suparco pushed itself to gain the support from the local government and the private-sector.[32]

In 2003, Pervez Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz began to forcefully push Suparco to pursue and deliver an active space programme.[33] Funding and government support was increased personally by Pervez Musharraf as he goaded the space programme as "next logical frontier".[33] In 2004, Suparco launched an ambition project to developed country's first Geo-stationary satellite; the new project was known as Paksat-1Replacement.[34] In 2007, Shaukat Aziz paid a state visit to Beijing where he successfully persuaded the China to joined the project, and to provided its financial assistance to succeed the project on time.[35]

In 2005, then-President Pervez Musharraf outlined his vision for SUPARCO by laying down a clearly defined agenda for the national space agency to pursue and deliver in minimum time. Musharraf had made it clear that:

.

In 2011, Suparco launched country's first satellite on schedule from China and was deployed successfully at 38°E in the Geo-stationary orbit.[37][38][39] The new satellite took over the existing satellites of the country in orbit.[40] Despite its initiatives to make the space programme more extended to private-sector, it was reportedly revealed by the chairman of Suparco in 2012 that "despite its initiatives and undertaking numerous development projects and joint ventures", but the efforts are seemingly wasted and work suffers from co-ordination failures at the local government level.[32]

Test facilities and Space centers[edit]

The headquarters of the Suparco are located in Karachi, Sindh Province near at the Karachi University; while its administrative infrastructure is well developed and expanded all over the country. As early as the 1980s, Suparco joined the International Cospas-Sarsat Programme of Soviet Union and finally inaugurated the facility at the Suparco Headquarters.[41] Known as "Pakistan Mission Control Center", the first commissioning test was carried out from 10 November 2009 at 0500Hrs.[41]

The SUPARCO Plant located at Hub (a township of coastal Balochistan near Karachi), the Paksat-1R ground Control Station (near PCSIR Laboratories) and FTR (Flight Testing Range) located in Sonmiani, also in Balochistan, near Karachi.

Facility Locations Primary Functions
SUPARCO Plant Karachi, Sindh Province The SUPARCO plant in Karachi was built in the mid-1980s to manufacture sounding rockets for upper atmosphere research. Pakistan's Hatf-I and Hatf-II ballistic missiles are believed to be derivatives of French sounding rockets built by or with assistance from the ESA.\
SUPARCO Institute of Technical Training (SITT) Karachi, Sindh Province SITT induces Matriculates all over the Pakistan and train them with Diploma of Associate Engineering (D.A.E).
Instrumentation Laboratories (IL) Karachi, Sindh Province The laboratories are responsible for the design and fabrication of data sensors for rockets, satellites, and ground equipment.
Aerospace Institute (AI) Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad The Aerospace Institute is Pakistan's sole institution for training personnel in the fields of space technology. It also serves as a recruiting and training ground for engineers, scientists, and personnel involved in Pakistan's space programme.
Satellite Research and Development Center (SRDC) Lahore, Punjab province The research and satellite engineering development centre responsible for the design and development of satellites.
Satellite Ground Station (SGS) Rawat, Islamabad Capital Territory The SUPARCO-controlled earth observation and remote sensing satellite control space centre.
Flight Test Range (FTR) Sonmiani Beach, Balochistan Province The oldest and main launch facility of SUPARCO.
Mashhood Test Firing Range (MTFR) Jhelum City, Punjab Province The second orbital launch facility.
PAKSAT Ground Control Station (PGCS-L) Lahore, Punjab Province The SUPARCO's ground control facility to control PAKSAT-1R satellite.
PAKSAT Ground Control Station (PGCS-K) Karachi, Sind Province The SUPARCO's Ground Control facility to control PAKSAT-1R satellite.

Notable projects and achievements[edit]

Main article: Abdali-I

Rehbar spaceflight programme[edit]

Main articles: Rehbar-I and Nike-Cajun

On 7 June 1962 at 19:53 hours (PST), the Rehbar-I took its first successful spaceflight in deep space from the Sonmiani Termial Launch. The rocket soared to about 130 km into the atmosphere, making Pakistan the third country in Asia and the 10th in the world to conduct such a launch. This was followed by the second booster, the Rehbar-II, which was also successfully launched from Sonmiani terminal launch on 9 June 1962. The data received from Rehbar-I and Rehbar-II gave scientists information on wind shear and structure of layers of the upper atmosphere extending beyond the stratosphere.[42] The successful launch carried a payload of 80 pounds of sodium and it streaked up about 130 km into the atmosphere. SUPARCO tested its Rehbar rocket series for more than a decade. The space flight program was terminated on 8 April 1972.

Hatf Programme[edit]

The Hatf programme was developed with the contribution of the Suparco's scientists with collaboration with scientists from the KRL. The program was developed in extreme secrecy and was finally revealed in 1989 by the Pakistan Army. In January 1989, the rocket took its first maiden spaceflight which was dubbed by the army as "indigenous multistage rocket into deep space"; it was said to have reached an altitude of more than 480 km. Earlier in 1981, the Suparco had announced plans to test a launcher by 1986, and the Pakistan's press reported in early 1989 that a multi-stage rocket had successfully launched a 150-kilogram payload over 600 kilometers into "deep space.[22]"

Shaheen-III[edit]

Main article: Shaheen-III
The preparations are being made to launched the Pakistan-based Rehbar Nike-Cajun in launch position in the 1961.

Suparco, which had participated earlier in the development of the Shaheen-I, began to take research on developing the first space-expandable vehicle, sometime in 1998. On March 2001, Science Advisor to the President Abdul Qadeer Khan publicly announced that Suparco's scientists were in the general process of building the country's first expendable launch vehicle, and that the contract has been awarded to Suparco rather than NDC.[43]

Abdul Qadeer Khan also cited the motivation that "India had made rapid advances in launch technology" and satellite manufacturing as another motivation for developing an indigenous launch capabilities. Suparco's previous chairman dr. Abdul Majid confirmed Khan's statement and said "Pakistan envision a low-cost satellite rocket-booster in order to launch light-weight satellites into low-earth orbits. Abdul Qadeer Khan close his statement by adding that "Pakistan has very robust IRBMs which can launch geostationary orbiting satellites. All Pakistan has to do is to erase Delhi or Kolkota from the target and point it towards the sky. Instead of Hydrogen bombs and Atomic bombs the missiles can easily carry a payload of a satellite".[43] During the IDEAS 2002, the journalists took pictures of the two possible and similar models of the satellite launch booster of Suparco.

It was widely speculated in 2002 by the international media that the country was deriving its missiles into an effective space boosters as most likely "the second model might also be based on one of ballistic missiles operational with Pakistan Armed Forces.[44]

On 18 August 2009, Samar Mubarak Mand reported that "Pakistan would launch its own satellite in April 2011 it made some things seem all to obvious to analyst familiar with the subject".[45] According to Global Security.org, it is expected the satellite would be launched from Shaheen-III booster from unknown Pakistan's space facility.[45] However, the satellite was launched by using the Long March 3B as its vehicle. The status of Shaheen-III remains unclear and any details of such rocket is yet to be disclosed by the government at an official level.

Satellite-control programmes[edit]

Since early 1960s, when the second spaceflight of Rehbar-II weather rocket successfully took place to measure up the upper atmosphere; the program on other hand gradually improved.[46] In the 1980s, the Badr satellite program took place to counter the Rohini satellite, and was eventually launched by Suparco in 1990 in China. Since then, Suparco has an active satellite control program and controls various satellites, under the mutual agreement with the international community, from the Pakistan Mission Control Center (PMCC) located in Suparco headquarters.[47]

Communication and geosynchronous satellites[edit]

Badr-1A[edit]

Main article: Badr-1

In 1986, Suparco took initiatives to locally built country's first digital communication satellite, with the financial support of ministries of telecommunication and science.[48] Initially, the government wanted Suparco to held talks with NASA but after the Challenger disaster, the U.S Government halted all major spaceflights. Instead China voluntarily offered Pakistan to launch its satellite, using its Long March 2 rockets. In 1990, the satellite was immediately airlifted to China with Suparco personnel. In July 1990, nation's first satellite was launched from China as, Badr-1, aboard a Long March 2E from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, China. The satellite successfully completed its designed life and it was termed by the government as "key success "to Suparco.

PakSat-1Extended[edit]

Main article: Paksat-1

The PakSat program was originally conceived in the 1980s but it due to its first technical failure, the program was terminated in 1994. In 2003, Suparco held talks with Hughes Space and Communications Company to lease the one of the Palapa satellite that it placed in ego-synchronous orbit for Indonesia. After Indonesia publicly declaring that the satellite unusable after an electric power anomaly; the Hughes Space paid the insurance claims and sold the satellite to Suparco as renaming it as "PakSat-IE".[49] The HGS-3 was then acquired by Pakistan from M/s Hughes Global Services on "Full Time Leasing " and relocated to Pakistan's reserved slot at 38°East. After a series of orbital maneuvers, the satellite was stabilized at the final location on 20 December 2002 with 0°inclination. The satellite is in position at the Pakistan-licensed orbital location, 38°east longitude. In 2012. The PakSat-IE was decommissioned later after the second satellite was launched in 2011.

PakSat-1Replacement[edit]

Main article: Paksat-1R

On 14 August 2011, PakSat-1R was launched by China using Long March 3B rocket. The 11,000 lb Satellite was built by China Academy of Space Technology on DFH-4 space platform; this satellite replaced PakSat-1E.[50][51][52] The PakSat-1R is program to support all conventional and modern Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) applications including broadband, E-learning, telemedicine, digital TV and emergency communications. The PakSat-1R satellite is program to control the total of up to 30 transponders: 18 in Ku-band and 12 in C-band. To ensure high degree of reliability and availability of the system, Suparco has two fully redundant and operational Mission control centers were established in Karachi and Lahore, one to act as the Main control facility and the other as Backup respectively.[53][54]

Weather and earth observation[edit]

Badr-B[edit]

Main article: Badr-B

In 1992 SUPARCO was given orders to develop its first LEO-based Earth observation satellite. According to the director of this program dr. Abdul Majid, the satellite was to launch on June 1996 but the orbital crises and delayed the launch the satellite until it was agreed to launch on 10 December 2001 at 17:19 hours UT, Pakistan, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan aboard a Russian Zenit-2 rocket, Russia.

Although it was successfully put in orbit by Suparco in 2003, but according to an insider in Suparco, the satellite ended up in a major disaster in mere two years after its launch despite its five year designated life. The satellite was lost in deep space after it failed to reassure its orbital slot and failed to make its reentry in Earth's orbit.

Remote sensing satellites[edit]

In 2006-07, SUPARCO launch the physical development on high-resolution and the series of the remote-sensing weather satellties to meet the national and international user requirements in the field of satellite imagery.[55] This dual purpose remote-sensing and the weather satellite program is known as the PRS program, and in January 2007, a feasibility and system definition study was concluded by Suparco, which recommended the launch of an optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite to ensure that the domestic and international user requirements are competitively met. In July 2007, the first prototype of the first optical satellite in this PRS program, and the launch of the manufacturing of the satellite was planned in the third quarter of year 2008.[55] Initially, SUPARCO plans to launch an optical satellite with payload of 2.5-meter PAN in 700 km sun-synchronous orbit, which will be followed by a series of optical and SAR satellites in the future. The satellite is underdevelopment process and it is being developed by SUPARCO and it is expected to be launched in 2014.[55]

Planetary sciences and scientific missions[edit]

Each and every year, Suparco holds and sponsors the World Space Week (WSW) to promote the understanding of the Earth science in all over the country.[56] Suparco works with number of universities and research institutions to engage in research in observational astronomy and astrophysics.[57] The Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics (ISPA) of the Karachi University conducts key and co-sponsors the international level research in astrophysics, with the joint venture of Suparco.[58]

With the continuous development of the indigenous, self-reliant and introduction of the state-of-the-art technologies of the space program, Suparco offers its services to private sector consortium to satisfy the industrial and environmental needs and to support economic competitiveness.[59]

Suparco operates a national balloon launching facility in Karachi to conduct studies in atmospheric sciences to determine the vertical profile of ozone up to 30–35 km.[60] This balloon sounding facility has been extensively used for carrying out research in better understanding of the meteorology and how the ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere vary seasonally.[60] The Ionospheric Station at Karachi operates an Ionosonde Observation facility, and as of recent the balloon flight mission was carried out by the station on 16 January 2004, up to an altitude of about 36 km to measure the vertical profile of the O3 trends.[60] The maximum O3 observed 12.65 mPa at 27 km.[60] One of the most notable mission of Suparco is its Lunar program that conducts observational studies on the activity of Lunar phases and distributes its publications as public domains.[61]

Research facilities[edit]

Facility Location Description
Institute of Space Technology Islamabad a research and development facility. The IST was established and founded by the government of United Kingdom. Institute of Space Technology offers degree programs in Aerospace Engineering, Communication systems engineering, Material Engineering, Space Sciences and Mechanical Engineering.
SUPARCO Institute of Technical Training (SITT) Karachi a teaching and technical training facility. SUPARCO Institute of Technical Training (SITT) offers diploma programs in Mechanical and Electronics Technology.
Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics (ISPA) Karachi University ISPA is the nations leading and one of the oldest astronomical facility that was built and constructed by the United States. The ISPA is responsible for space and planetary science research.[57] A number of foreign scientists have used and research the ISPA facility where they published numerous articles in the field of space sciences.[62] The ISPA has also a powerful telescope and astronomical observatory which was last provided by the United States Government in late 1950s.[57]
Department of Space Science University of Punjab The facility carries out a wide variety of research programs in the field of solar physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, remote sensing and planetary sciences.[57] The Department of Space Science has a small space observatory. It is the oldest space observatory in the country and has remained a center of learning for more than 75 years.

Functions[edit]

Revitalisation and research program of SUPARCO[edit]

In 2005, then-President Pervez Musharraf outlined his vision for SUPARCO by laying down a clearly defined agenda for the national space agency to pursue and deliver in minimum time. Musharraf had made it clear that:

.

In his book, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir, Musharraf has expressed his desired that "SUPARCO has suffered severe economic and global sanctions but in future Pakistan will send its satellites from its soil". Revitalization, restructuring, reorientation and modernization of SUPARCO are the main objectives outlined by President Musharraf. SUPARCO is to be brought at par with other strategic organizations around the world. Specific objectives include research and development of communication satellites, remote sensing satellites and satellite launch vehicles, with the objective of bringing rapid growth and socio-economic development in the fields of education, astronomy, Cosmology, Exobiology, Stellar science, Planetary science, Planets, Extrasolar Planet, dwarf planets, Comets, Asteroids, astrophysics, astrobiology, astrochemistry, aerospace engineering, rocket propellent engineering, information technology, communications, agriculture sector, mineral excavation and atmospheric sciences.[63][64]

  • Development of state policy concepts in the sphere of research and peaceful uses of space, as well as in the interests of national security
  • Organization and development of space activities in Pakistan and under its jurisdiction abroad
  • Contributing to state national security and defence capability
  • Organization and development of Pakistan's cooperation with other states and international space organizations

Specific programs and missions[edit]

  • Scientific space research
  • Remote sensing of Earth
  • Satellite telecommunication systems
  • Geographic Information System
  • Natural Resource Surveying
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Acquisition of data for atmospheric/meteorological studies
  • Development of the ground-based infrastructure for navigation and special information system
  • Space activities in the interests of national security and defence
  • Development of research, test and production base of the space sector

Administrators of SUPARCO[edit]

Number Name Term Started Term Ended Alma Mater Field(s) Educational Background
1 Dr Abdus Salam 1961 1967 Imperial College Theoretical Physics Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
2 Air Commodore Dr Władysław Turowicz 1967 1979 Warsaw University of Technology Aeronautical Engineering Ph.D
3 Air Commodore K. M. Ahmad 1979 1980 Pakistan Air Force Academy Flight Instructor Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI)
4 Dr Salim Mehmud 1980 1989 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nuclear Engineering, Electrical engineering, Physics, Mathematics, Electronics engineering Ph.D
5 Dr M. Shafi Ahmad 1989 1990 University of London Astronomy Ph.D
6 Engr.Sikandar Zaman 1990 1997 University of Leeds Mechanical Engineering Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
7 Dr Abdul Majid 1997 2001 University of Wales Astrophysics Ph.D
8 Major General Raza Hussain 2001 2010 Pakistan Army Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Electrical Engineering B.S.
9 Major General Ahmed Bilal 2010 Present Pakistan Army Corps of Signals Engineering Computer Engineering Master of Science (M.S)

Global participation[edit]

People's Republic of China[edit]

In August 2006, Peoples Republic of China signed an agreement with Pakistan to conduct joint research in space technology and committed to work with Pakistan to launch three Earth-weather satellites over the next five years.[65] In May 2007, China (as a strategic partner) publicly signed an with Pakistan to enhance cooperation in the areas of space science and technology. The Pakistan-China bilateral cooperation in the space industry span a broad spectrum, including climate science, clean energy technologies, atmospheric and earth sciences, and marine sciences. On the occasion of Chinese launch of PakSat-1R, Pakistan's ambassador to China expressed the natural desire of Pakistan for China to send a first officially designated Pakistan astronaut to space aboard a Chinese spacecraft.[66]

Turkey[edit]

In December 2006, Turkey showed interest to form a joint-venture with Pakistan in its space programme, particularly in the development of satellites.[67] In 2006, Turkish minister of science, accompanied by the Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan, signed the Memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Pakistan to form a joint-venture with Pakistan in the development of satellite technology.[67] The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and Turkish Aerospace Industries's senior ranking officials and representative signed a separate accord with the SUPARCO to enhance the cooperation in the satellite development program.[67]

International collaboration and MoU[edit]

Invited by Soviet Union, Suparco joined the COSPAS-SARSAT program in 1990, after receiving the approval of the Government of Pakistan.[68] Since 1990, Suparco has been controlling and hosting many Soviet-Russian COSPAS-SARSAT satellites.[68] The Pakistan Mission Control Center in Karachi serves as headquarter of the region to control the Cospas satellites, and over the years Suparco has emerged as lead agency to provide the ground and satellite transmissions to Cospas-Sarsat program.[68] Pakistan is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO).[69] SUPARCO and the Department of Space have signed formal Memorandum of Understanding agreements with a number of foreign political entities:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ 135% increase in funds for space programme likely
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  4. ^ "SUPARCO Headquarters". 
  5. ^ a b Sikander-Shaheen (18 September 2012). "Pakistan joins hands with developed states to explore space prospects". The Nation, Sikander-Shaheen. Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  6. ^ See:Chronology of Pakistan's rocket tests
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://www.suparco.gov.pk/pages/history.asp
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  9. ^ "International Cooperation with Suparco". Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  10. ^ "Our solar system". Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Suparco. "Space Weather". Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  12. ^ Zareen, Razia (13 April 2012). "Suparco: Astrophysics". SUPARCO Journal of Astrophysics and Mathematics 1 (5): 10. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  13. ^ a b SUPARCO; et al (1 2008–2009). "The Space Research in Pakistan". Journal of Space Sciences (SUPARCO). 1 1 (1): 43. 
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  15. ^ "Climate Change Study Program". SUPARCO. 
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  19. ^ Fayyazuddin, Professor Abdus Salam as I know him, National Center for Physics
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  23. ^ http://worldofaerospace.googlepages.com/Aerospace.htm
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  28. ^ a b c Kiran Krishan Nair, IAF (Squadron leader); introduction by Jasjit (1 December 2008). "A Stiff Challenge: Pakistan and Space Race with India". Space : the frontiers of modern defence. New Delhi: Knowledge World in association with Centre for Air Power Studies. pp. 133–199. ISBN 978-8187966449. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
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  30. ^ a b Hanif Khalid (19 April 1999). "How 'Shaheen' Was Developed". The News International, 1999. p. 10. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  31. ^ Abdul Qadeer Khan, The Past and the Present.
  32. ^ a b c Farva Kaukab (21 February 2012). "Suparco finds it hard to deal with local govt". Dawn Newspapers (Karachi, Sindh). Dawn News Group. p. 1. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  33. ^ a b Staff Correspondents (3 February 2005). "Musharraf outlines agenda for expediting Pak's space program". Pakistan Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  34. ^ Suparco. "PakSat-IR" (google docs). SUPARCO SAtellites. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
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  39. ^ Siddiqui, Salman (12 August 2011). "PAKSAT-1R: China launches Pakistan’s ‘first’ communications satellite". Tribune Express. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  40. ^ APP (11 August 2011). "Pakistan’s first Communications Satellite PAKSAT-1R launched". Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  41. ^ a b SUPARCO. "Successful Commissioning of the upgraded COSPAS-SARSAT Mission Control Center in Pakistan". SUPARCO-COSPAS. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  42. ^ Welcome to SUPARCO – The National Space Agency of Pakistan
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  44. ^ Image of Shaheen-III SLV
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  48. ^ http://www2.arrl.org/news/features/2003/07/10/1/
  49. ^ Palapa-C 1, 2 / HGS 3 / Anatolia 1 / Paksat 1
  50. ^ http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n1108/11longmarch/
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  53. ^ http://www.suparco.gov.pk/pages/paksat1r.asp?satlinksid=1
  54. ^ Pakistan to launch satellite in 2011
  55. ^ a b c http://www.suparco.gov.pk/pages/prss.asp
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  59. ^ "Services to Private industrial sector". SUPARCO. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  60. ^ a b c d "Space and Atmospheric Research". SUPARCO. Karachi Ionospheric Station. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  61. ^ See :Lunar prediction program
  62. ^ http://www.suparco.gov.pk/pages/wsw08-kar.asp
  63. ^ http://www.suparco.gov.pk/pages/atmospheric-research.asp
  64. ^ Pakistan News Service – PakTribune
  65. ^ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news – China, Pakistan cooperate in space
  66. ^ http://nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/08-Aug-2011/Paksat1R-launch-in-China-this-week
  67. ^ a b c Turkey joins Pakistan, China in joint efforts for Space Technology. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
  68. ^ a b c SUPARCO-COSPAS-SARSAT Program. "Search & Rescu". SUPARCO-COSPAS-SARSAT Program. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  69. ^ APSCO Member States. Retrieved 29 December 2010.

External links[edit]