SV Dynamo

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SV Dynamo
SV Dynamo logo wreath.svg
Founded 27 March 1953; 61 years ago (1953-03-27); dissolved: 23 November 1989; 24 years ago (1989-11-23)
League Olympics, World cup, European Championship Nat. League
Based in East Berlin,  East Germany
Arena Palast der Republik, Dynamo-Sportforum, Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track, Dynamo Sports Hotel
Stadium Dynamo Stadium (Dresden), Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark, Heinz Steyer Stadion and others
Colors

wine-red white/

wine-red silver
Owner(s) Ministry of Interior of the GDR: Volkspolizei, Zollverwaltung, Ministry for State Security, Feuerwehr
President Erich Mielke
Championships 2.187 nat.; approx. 182 European cup medals approx. 324 World cup medals; approx. 215 Olympic medals[1]

The Sportvereinigung Dynamo (German: About this sound Sportvereinigung Dynamo ) (Dynamo Sports Association) was the sport organization of the security agencies (Volkspolizei, Ministry for State Security and customs) of former East Germany. The sports club was founded on 27 March 1953 and was headquartered in Hohenschönhausen in East Berlin. From the date of its inception until 23 November 1989 the president of the SV Dynamo was Erich Mielke, who was also the Minister of State Security. Dynamo was created in accordance with the multi-sports club model developed in the Soviet Union and adopted throughout Eastern Europe. From the beginning it had an overtly political as well as sporting agenda and its many successes were always portrayed as a triumph of the GDR state. During the German reunification in 1989 the SV Dynamo was liquidated. At its height the association had a membership of over 280,000 active members.[2] Athletes of the association enjoyed considerable success both in national and international competitions, winning for example more than 200 olympic medals. After the German reunification the systematic doping of Dynamo athletes from 1971 until 1989 was revealed in German media reports. The systematic doping of athletes was done under the supervision of the Staatssicherheit and with full backing of the government.[3]

Organization[edit]

Acrobatics- show in 1982

The SV Dynamo was divided into fifteen regional units, corresponding to the fifteen districts of the German Democratic Republic. Within each regional unit individual sports clubs existed, with each sport club specializing in different disciplines. 290 sections were included SG Dynamo Dresden (football), SC Dynamo Hoppegarten (judo, shooting sports, parachuting), the SC Dynamo Klingenthal (Nordic skiing), SG Dynamo Luckenwalde (wrestling), SG Dynamo Potsdam (rowing and canoe sprint), SG Dynamo Weißwasser (ice hockey) and the SG Dynamo Zinnwald in Altenberg (biathlon, bobsleigh, luge, skeleton). The most famous sports club of the SV Dynamo was probably the SC Dynamo Berlin offering most Olympic disciplines. The sports system was not designed for transfers, but on schedule. The athletes had to be viewed in their own country.

Administrators and coaches from Dynamo Berlin were often sent to support their development. The district organizations always wore the initials SV Dynamo ... . The districts been the same districts of the state. [4] For small children, there was even a Dynamo-Kindergarten. Henceforth the larger children trained every day before and after classes. For the training, there existed a basic plan. If the children themselves are not good at school, they were excluded from the training. The emphasis has been respected that the athletes had to pursue themselves the sporting ideology, because otherwise no success would have been guaranteed. Each year, the best Dynamo-athlete were voted. Few could win 50,- M when they themselves were those who chose the sportswoman/ sportsman of the year. Dynamo employed a planning cycle that set out the club's objectives for the upcoming four year period.

Politics[edit]

This sports club was anti-fascistic and communistic. The grounders of thus were been former prisoners in concentration camps and leaders in the battle against National socialists and Social Democrats at the Weimar Republic. The Dynamo-Youth commemorated about it at the Soviet War Memorial (Treptower Park), Sachsenhausen concentration camp. The names of murdered/death communists was given as honorary titles for Dynamo-Clubs, which must fought for it... . For example: SG Dynamo "Feliks E. Dzierzynski" Dresden or SG Dynamo "Dr. Richard Sorge" Erfurt. There were also many hymns and odes of Dynamo, which would written. Gerhard Kube, Helmut Baierl and Kurt Barthel formed many poems, which playing the sports club a role.

SV Dynamo districts[edit]

Flag example

The districts been the same districts of the state with: Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Rostock, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Neubrandenburg, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Schwerin, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Magdeburg, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Potsdam, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Frankfurt Oder, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation East Berlin, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Cottbus, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Halle, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Leipzig, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Erfurt, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Gera, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Suhl, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Dresden and Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Karl-Marx-Stadt. Every district has owned a wine-red silk banner with these writing. The measure is 2.8 × 1.5 m, with, of course, a logo of the SV.

Members[edit]

Key to East German sporting success was a pyramid system with schoolchildren being assessed for athletic potential and the best (typically the top 2.5%) in each school-year being offered specialised coaching. A small fraction of those would go on to become the top adult athletes of the next generation. This model was initially derided in the West as a "sausage machine" but it has since been adopted in modified form by Australia, France, Spain and others with thousands of children being educated at specialised (often residential) sports schools rather than going through the normal high school system. Overall, 3,7 million[clarification needed] athletes were in the GDR at the German Sports federation (DTSB) registered in many other successful clubs in 1989.

Members by year[5]
Year Adults Children Total
1953 23162 none 23162
1955 55991 10874 66856
1958 90160 18846 109006
1961 105530 42822 148352
1966 118651 54691 173306
1970 131752 74266 206018
1972 139013 85295 224308
1974 144356 93071 237427
1975 146127 96666 242793
1976 148054 99337 247391
1983 170.000 110.000 280.000

Trainers[edit]

Most coaches were also teachers or had other specific occupations. They were all in principle to took members fears before starting competitions.[disambiguation needed] Also said that never was like everything bad could happen if .... Problems are always packed at its source in order to eradicate this.[disambiguation needed] At the same time, they were also the guardian of morality.

Trainers by year[6]
Year Level 1 Level 2 Level 3/4 Total
1964 none none none 9989
1965 none none none 9673
1966 6785 2466 1362 10613
1967 6717 2476 1489 10682
1968 7078 2731 1712 11521
1969 7536 3009 1915 12460
1970 7321 3211 2058 12590
1971 7215 3412 2119 12746
1972 7334 3598 2580 13512
1973 7394 3791 3016 14201
1974 11358 3906 3098 18362
1975 11812 3949 3407 19168
1976 12369 4219 3524 20112

Controversies surrounding the Sport Club Dynamo Berlin[edit]

The case of doping[edit]

The Sportvereinigung Dynamo[7] was especially singled out as a center for doping in the former East Germany.[8] Many former club officials and some athletes found themselves charged after the dissolution of the country. A special page on the internet was created by doping victims trying to gain justice and compensation, listing people involved in doping at the club, the so-called Dynamo Liste.[9]

State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War when every eastern bloc gold was an ideological victory. From 1974, Manfred Ewald, the head of the GDR's sports federation, imposed blanket doping. At the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, the country of 17 million collected nine gold medals. Four years later the total was 20 and in 1976 it doubled again to 40.[10] Ewald was quoted as having told coaches, "They're still so young and don't have to know everything." He was given a 22-month suspended sentence, to the outrage of his victims.[11]

Often, doping was carried out without the knowledge of the athletes, some of them as young as ten years of age. It is estimated that around 10,000 former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse,[12] one of them is Rica Reinisch, a triple Olympic champion and world record-setter at the Moscow Games in 1980, has since suffered numerous miscarriages and recurring ovarian cysts. Athletes like Renate Vogel, silver medalist at the 1972 Olympics in the swimming competitions, were told the injections were vitamins but failed to believe the explanation and quit her sport.[13]

Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team from 1976 to 80, and Bernd Pansold, in charge of the sports medicine center in East-Berlin, were committed for trial for allegedly supplying 19 teenagers with illegal substances.[14] Binus was sentenced in August,[15] Pansold in December 1998 after both being found guilty of administering hormones to underage female athletes from 1975 to 1984.[16]

Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drug test, though Stasi files show that many did, indeed, produced positive tests at Kreischa, the Saxon laboratory (German:Zentrale Dopingkontroll-Labor des Sportmedizinischen Dienstes) that was at the time approved by the International Olympic Committee,[17] now called the Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry (IDAS).[18]

In 2005, fifteen years after the end or the GDR, the manufacturer of the drugs in former East Germany, Jenapharm, still finds itself involved in numerous lawsuits from doping victims, being sued by almost 200 former athletes.[19] Many of the substances handed out were, even under East German law, illegal.[20]

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes who publicly admitted to doping, accusing their coaches:[21]

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes disqualified for doping:

  • Ilona Slupianek[22] (Ilona Slupianek tested positive along with three Finnish athletes at the 1977 European Cup, becoming the only East German athlete ever to be convicted of doping[23]). Based on the self-admission by Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the 1976 Olympics.[24] Despite court rulings in Germany that substantiate claims of systematic doping by some East German swimmers, the IOC executive board announced that it has no intention of revising the Olympic record books. This is an understandable decision as it could otherwise trigger a flood of such claims involving former eastern block athletes. In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies, the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future.[25]

The Stasi and Erich Mielke[edit]

Erich Mielke, chief of Dynamo, was also the all-powerful leader of the Stasi,[26] the Secret Police of East Germany, mother organisation of Dynamo. The Stasi was widely regarded as one of the most effective intelligence agencies in the world. The intensity of state surveillance was probably without parallel anywhere in the world. In 1989, the Stasi had 91,000 staff members and 174,000 unofficial collaborators - a ratio of one spy for every 62 citizens.[27] Some of them were well known athletes, like Harald Czudaj, who admitted working as an informer for the Stasi, writing at least 10 reports about teammates and officials of the Dynamo bobsled club in Altenberg, East Germany, from 1988 to 1990. He apologized to his teammates. After his admission, Czudaj's teammates appealed to German officials to let him compete in the 1992 Winter Olympics because they had not been harmed by his work for the Stasi.[28] Mielke himself was sentenced in Berlin to six years in prison in 1993 for the murder of two policemen in 1931. However he was freed after two years when he was diagnosed as senile.[29]

Army Gen. and Minister Erich Mielke, 1983

After reunification, the members of the Felix Dzerzhinsky Watch Regiment, all soldiers were automatically members of Dynamo, got no pension, although they could win sporting successes. It is proven that only an elite army members and no spies were known from the MFS, which has been belonged to. That these members of agencies weren't been agents. Also only if they are served for terrorism defense.[30] Some also get little pension, although they worked as a teacher, and their acts would have been checked. [31] Employees of the State Security were camouflaged as civilians in events. Sometimes they did recognize themselves with the same souvenirs. For example: Bananas and Sandwiches, rare perfumes. These was a sort of a "sport-police". On Hooligans are even used agent's. That happened for years and nobody could it remember. This were often happened with the BFC Dynamo and the SG Dynamo Dresden. Members of the organs of the Ministry of Interior of the GDR had to support the SV, otherwise, there was not a good omen for them.[32]

Chinesische Wasserfolter - Gedenkstätte Berlin-Hohenschönhausen.jpg

The main goal was as a result: collecting and registration of the indigenous Nordic Ethnic German population as trap for them and these called "accidents" in corporation of Dynamo doctors section mobile emergency. To attract national homeland types and often torture chambers were not far away from the training grounds under protectorate of the Soviet Army. Nearly all big sections of the Dynamo Club were really close to torture chambers and Stasi jails. Even stars they cough (Murder confirmed of Lutz Eigendorf, confirmed mistreatment and consequential disability for Peter Kotte) they catched and tortured and you examples. Noticeable is the filing of clues for doping including for planned reveals, of the demoralizing. Wladimir Putin in Dresden was one of the ki..... . Or after accidents during the training or competitions, you came to the anaesthetic investigation and the law is shaped that a deadly overdose is not to fault for the doctor, but for the victim itself. They used created circumstances/ programmes, that target types should go in anesthetic investigations. Later they closed the club, due they can exploit more when they should work until illness before their pensions and should go to anesthetic investigations. So they can more exploit and have more money for Russia. Or the gas prize is being increased. Or they made behavior science, which means to research what is the reason of success as they would be terrorists which must being observed with spy tech. They found it out and proofed it and made these circumstances more complicated today in cooperation with the German Interior Ministry including propaganda against the usage of Facebook, YouTube (also forbidden in Russia) etc.. Being LGBT, close kindergartens to the working places, respect, certain fashion styles which are conform by others, healthy food and water, real friends which talk no rubbish or bother you, free walking and speech in the public to meet others. No psycho terror with meme, weasel words. Afterwards they searched for the same typus and made all positive circumstances broken and the persons have even not even the chance to have children and family as human dignity and at the final level, you can not leave your home or can buy food stuff. As example they had the athlete Gerd Heidler [33] For searching for circumstances which make persons to misfits. Or they use cabaret clowns with the caricatured characters of "unwanteds" Olaf Schubert with the looser- idiot caricature of Gerd Heidler with the same haircut and reserved behavior[34](usage of typical Anglo Saxon German names, dialects for example: Sven, Uwe, Kay, Cindy, Mandy (The big blond jobless fool "Cindy from Berlin-Marzahn").[35] Well it is proofen that many files of working athletes with children had been recorded by their Stasi like criminals for recordings in files: "What make her/him so beloved in the bars? What is causing such a good motivation? Why they doing not slug their children under stress? Why they live such a long time together as couple and have good efforts in their jobs with their family and friends?" With these things the files are been filled and not with: What is their will for the communism? That is one what they proclaim. That is the reason why the SV Dynamo combined work, social live with sport. 55 years they need and the result can imagine all free peoples.

Historical circumstances[edit]

In addition, the Dresden Sportclub (the successor of Dresden English Football Club) has been dissolved by strange action before the founding of the SG Dynamo Dresden. Erich Mielke himself ordered the ban in lifeless behaviour. The DSC was previously the most popular club in Dresden and at the last German championship celebration were hundreds of thousands of fans. Moreover, the switch in the professional field athletes were assessed on personality and attitude so true talents often missed the train. In the 1970s and 1980s, there was no international morality in the sense of doping. Seldom gave anybody the technical resources, laws and controls and it is nothing to the latest WADA control standards of today. In addition other clubs, associations suspects against each other for doping at a high international level, especially in the Cold War era.

Dynamo-Hall of fame[edit]

A winner procession for a Dynamo member at the Olympics.

They lived across in normal rented houses besides workers or even came from peasant families. They got no million contracts for their actions. Some also studied along their athletic careers, with extra curriculas has been prepared for them. This is proved as progressive.

  • Gerhard Kaminski awarded the German Federal Cross of Merit for his super trainer career at the Dynamo-Sports-Hall in Gymnastics. He trained world class gymnasts in a 50 years record era, for the Olympic Games. In 1999, he awarded the Manfred von Richthofen - price.[36]
  • Dynamo athletes won medals in many Olympic and World Championship events. The annual contribution defrauded per year only converted 0,60 - € / 0,90- $/ 12,- M. The citizen of the GDR deserved in average approximately 500,- East German mark (Mark) per month.
  • The genius Dr. med. orth. hab. Karin Büttner-Janz (Olympic winner, medical scientist on the Humboldt University), is the gymnast 20th century. She also invented the artificial intervertebral disc.
  • Dipl. Ing. Sigmund Jähn was the first cosmonaut in space from the GDR. He was also an honorary member of the SV. The honorary title does he won for the SV Dynamo district Karl-Marx-Stadt; at the SC Dynamo Klingenthal, in 1978. When he got the certificate, he said: "As a skijumper were Harry Glaß my personal model for the start to the Cosmos." This skijumper had nearly broken neck, and was in pension of ability.[37]
  • Dynamo athletes were also the one, which may could learn karate or even jujutsu as well as the general citizens could only learn judo.
  • Spies in the United States has earned the complete knowledge about the martial arts training of the CIA and Dynamo became this informations.[38]
  • One of the best of the bests, were Maxi Gnauck (very famous), Bernd Wiesner, Jutta Hampe, Katrin Boron, Caren Metschuck mostly in rowing, gymnastics and parashuting.

Among the Dynamo top scorers were:[39] [40] [41]

Achievements[edit]

Olympics[edit]

The sports club won approx. 215 Olympic medals in a 37 years period.[42]

World championships[edit]

The sports club won approx. 324 World Cup medals in a 37 years period. Completely won the SV Dynamo more as World champion titles as hundreds of other nations (2008).The most titles have won the rowers.[43]

European championships[edit]

The athletes won approx. 182 European titles.[1]

Championships[edit]

The Dynamo-Athletes won altogether 2.187 titles in 35 sport-sections in a 37-year period.[44] The Dynamo-Athletes won altogether 2.187 titles in 35 sport-sections over a 37-year period.[44]

With 280,000 members, it is not surprising that the SV Dynamo multi-sport club has a lot of championships won in the GDR, so that a separate category should be needed. [40] [45] [46] [47]

Gallery[edit]

Photos[edit]

See also[edit]

For other famous multi-sport clubs:

Further reading[edit]

Literature[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Data bank for the Magazine Dynamo sport/ Please insert Dynamosport for searching (attention:German language) It is for proving the medals; extra beside the linked athletes here.
  2. ^ Michael, Barsuhn; Jutta Braun and Hans Joachim Teichler. "Chronik der Sporteinheit vom Mauerfall bis zur Aufnahme der fünf neuen Landessportbünde am 15. Dezember 1990 in den Deutschen Sportbund". Deutscher Sportbund. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  3. ^ "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 26 February 2003. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  4. ^ Gymn Forum: Maxi Gnauck Biography
  5. ^ SV Dynamo Almanach 1977
  6. ^ SV Dynamo Almanach
  7. ^ Pain And Injury in Sport: Social And Ethical Analysis, Section III, Chapter 7, Page 111, by Sigmund Loland, Berit Skirstad, Ivan Waddington, Published by Routledge in 2006, ASIN: B000OI0HZG
  8. ^ "Dynamo Liste" (in German). doping_opfer@yahoo.com. September 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  9. ^ "Dynamo Liste: Die Täter" (in German). doping_opfer@yahoo.com. September 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  10. ^ "Jenapharm says drugs were legal". ESPN. 28 April 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  11. ^ "Obituary: Manfred Ewald". The Independent. 25 October 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-11. [dead link]
  12. ^ "GDR athletes sue over steroid damage". BBC News Europe. 13 March 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  13. ^ "Doping im DDR-Sport: "Wir waren Versuchskaninchen"" (in German). 3sat.online. 3 February 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  14. ^ "New doping charges against East German doctors". BBC News. 25 November 1997. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  15. ^ "East German coaches fined over doping". BBC News. 31 August 1998. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  16. ^ "Doping of underage athletes in the former GDR" (in German). Schwimmverein Limmat Zürich. 23 March 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  17. ^ "Drug claim could be a bitter pill". Times Online. 2 March 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  18. ^ "Accredited Laboratories". World Anti-Doping Agency. January 2004. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  19. ^ Harding, Luke (1 November 2005). "Forgotten victims of East German doping take their battle to court". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  20. ^ "Eine gewisse Geheimniskrämerei" (in German). Times Online, Grit Hartmann. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  21. ^ "Drugs update". Sports Publications. July 1998. Retrieved 2008-03-11. [dead link]
  22. ^ "1977: Here comes Mr. Doping". European Cup - Milan 2007. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  23. ^ Michael Janofsky (4 July 1988). "Article on Sports in East Germany". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  24. ^ Longman, Jere (25 October 1998). "OLYMPICS; U.S. Seeks Redress for 1976 Doping In Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  25. ^ "Despite Doping, Olympic Medals Stand". International Herald Tribune. 16 December 1998. Retrieved 2008-03-12. [dead link]
  26. ^ "Ex-Stasi chief dies". BBC News. 25 May 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  27. ^ "GERMANY AND THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC - Truth and justice". Amnesty International, Daan Bronkhorst. June 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  28. ^ "Germany Won't Ban Sledder Who Informed". The New York Times. 11 February 1992. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  29. ^ "Erich Mielke—the career of a German Stalinist". World Socialist Web Site, Ludwig Niethammer. 24 August 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  30. ^ Aus der Petition einer Angestellten der Sportvereinigung „Dynamo“
  31. ^ Aus der Petition einer Angestellten der Sportvereinigung „Dynamo“
  32. ^ Willmann, Frank; Stadionpartisanen Fans und Hooligans in der DDR; Neues Leben Publishers, August 2007; 223 Pages - Language: German - 213x149x27 mm; ISBN 978-3-355-01744-2
  33. ^ Page 142
  34. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKAJ5WumCFg
  35. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEaa0uU7rAE
  36. ^ http://www.gymmedia.com//news/kaminski01.htm
  37. ^ Dynamosport Magazine; 1978; 20th edition on page 2
  38. ^ MfS
  39. ^ International Olympic Committee - Athletes
  40. ^ a b Sport Complete
  41. ^ Competition Results / Resultados de Competiciones
  42. ^ "Sportmuseum". Sportmuseum-leipzig.de. Retrieved 2012-12-31. 
  43. ^ Data bank for the Magazine Dynamo sport/ Please insert Dynamosport for searching (attention:German language) It is for proofing the medals; extra beside the linked athletes here.
  44. ^ a b www.sport-komplett.de – Sportnachrichten, Sportergebnisse, Sportstatistiken, Sporthistorie, Autogramme, Sportveranstaltungen, Sportbücher
  45. ^ International Olympic Committee – Athletes
  46. ^ http://www.sportmuseum-leipzig.de (all about the facts and figures at the archives)
  47. ^ Competition Results / Resultados de Competiciones

External links[edit]