|Founder||Andimba Toivo ya Toivo
|Founded||19 April 1960|
|Think tank||SWAPO Think Tank|
|Women's wing||SWAPO Women's Council|
|Elder's wing||SWAPO Elders Council|
|Paramilitary wing||PLAN (integrated into Namibia Defence Force)|
|International affiliation||Socialist International|
|African affiliation||Former Liberation Movements of SA|
|Politics of Namibia
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The SWAPO Party of Namibia (SWAPO, [ˈswɑːpəʊ]), formerly South West Africa People's Organization (German: Südwestafrikanische Volksorganisation, SWAVO; Afrikaans: Suidwes-Afrikaanse Volk-Organisasie, SWAVO), is a political party and former national liberation movement in Namibia. It has been the governing party in Namibia since achieving independence in 1990. The party won 75.25% of the popular vote and 54 out of 72 seats in the parliamentary election held in November 2009.
Though the organisation rejected the term South West Africa and insisted on replacing it with Namibia, the organisation's own name—derived from the territory's old name—was already too deeply rooted to be changed. However, the original full name is no longer used and only the acronym remains.
After World War I the League of Nations gave South-West Africa, formerly a German colony, to the United Kingdom as a mandate under the title of South Africa. When the National Party won the 1948 election in South Africa and subsequently introduced apartheid legislation, these laws also extended into South-West Africa which was the de facto fifth province of South Africa.
SWAPO was founded on 19 April 1960 by Andimba Toivo ya Toivo and Sam Nujoma as the successor of the Ovamboland People's Congress, an organisation established in 1957 and renamed the Ovamboland People's Organization in 1959. The reason for the renaming was that although the organisation had its base among the Ovambo people of northern Namibia it wanted to be representative of all Namibians.
During 1962 SWAPO had emerged as the dominant nationalist organisation for the Namibian people, co-opting other groups such as the South West Africa National Union (SWANU), and in 1976 the Namibia African People's Democratic Organisation. SWAPO used guerrilla tactics to fight the South African Defence Force. On 26 August 1966 the first major clash of the conflict took place, when a unit of the South African Police, supported by the South African Air Force, exchanged fire with SWAPO forces. This date is generally regarded as the start of what became known in South Africa as the Border War. In 1972 the United Nations General Assembly recognised SWAPO as the 'sole legitimate representative' of Namibia's people. The Norwegian government began giving aid directly to SWAPO in 1974.
The country of Angola gained its independence on 11 November 1975 following its war for independence. The leftist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union, came to power. The MPLA offered SWAPO bases in Angola to launch attacks against the South African military in March 1976.
Controversy within the movement
Various groups have claimed that SWAPO committed serious human rights abuses against suspected spies during the independence struggle, one of which includes the Breaking the Wall of Silence (BWS), which was founded by those detainees to press the SWAPO-government on the issue. It is alleged that "In exile, hundreds of SWAPO dependants and members were detained, tortured and killed without trial." SWAPO denies serious infractions and claims anything that did happen was in the name of liberation. The stories of the detainees begins with a series of successful South African raids that made the SWAPO leadership believe spies existed in the movement. Hundreds of SWAPO cadres were imprisoned, tortured and interrogated.
In 2005 the P.E.A.C.E. Centre conducted an extensive study on the situation Namibian ex-fighters and their families fifteen years after Independence. The resultant ebook investigates the post-independence situation of those who fought on both sides of the Namibian Liberation War. Data from this research indicate that ex-fighters still[update] exhibit symptoms of long-term post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The findings indicate there is a correlation between the life circumstances of ex-fighters and their lack of resilience to traumatic war experiences, with resiliency being linked to a number of protective factors such as the socio-economic situation of the survivors, their socio-political environment, their social support networks and their cognitive processes.
It is argued that in the case of Namibian ex-fighters, long term psychological distress is different from a simple PTSD diagnosis because the survivor has almost invariably gone almost two decades without seeking treatment. Moreover, during this time, the ex-fighters have also been exposed to additional social and psychological stressors which, for a person not suffering from long-term psychological distress would only have a fleeting impact, but for a sufferer of long-term psychological distress, each life incident could reduce the survivor's resilience to trauma as well as triggering "flashbacks".
When Namibia gained its independence in 1990 SWAPO became the dominant political party, with its head, Sam Nujoma, elected as Namibia's first President. Nujoma had the constitution changed so he could run for a third term in 1999, but in 2004 he was replaced as the SWAPO presidential candidate by Hifikepunye Pohamba, who was described as Nujoma's hand-picked successor.
SWAPO's top position is that of the party president; it is currently held by Namibia's president Hifikepunye Pohamba. Vice-president is Hage Geingob who was elected into that position in 2007 and reconfirmed at the SWAPO congress in December 2012. Number three in SWAPO ranks is the Secretary-General, a position currently held by Nangolo Mbumba, and number four is the Deputy Secretary-General, currently Omaheke Governor Laura McLeod-Katjirua.
- the party president Hifikepunye Pohamba and vice-president Hage Geingob
- Secretary-General Nangolo Mbumba and his deputy, Laura McLeod-Katjirua
- two members appointed by the party president: Helmut Angula and Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila
- 18 members elected by the SWAPO's Central Committee:
SWAPO's Central Committee consists of:
- President, Vice-President, Secretary-General, and Deputy Secretary-General,
- the SWAPO coordinator of every Region of Namibia,
- people elected at the party congress
- Founding president Sam Nujoma and SWAPO founder Andimba Toivo ya Toivo as permanent members, and
- ten president-appointed members.
- Hifikepunye Pohamba (ex officio, SWAPO President)
- Hage Geingob (ex officio, SWAPO Vice-President)
- Nangolo Mbumba (ex officio, SWAPO Secretary-General)
- Laura McLeod-Katjirua (ex officio, SWAPO Deputy Secretary-General)
- Elected members:
- Mzee Kaukungwa, a founding member of SWAPO
- Namibia African People's Democratic Organisation
- Namibian War of Independence
- Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
- South African Border War
- South West Africa National Union
- SWAPO for Justice
- Tötemeyer, Gerhard (December 2007). "The Management of a Dominant Political Party system with particular reference to Namibia". Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Dauth, Timothy (17 January 1995). "From Liberation Organisations to Ruling Parties: The ANC and SWAPO in Transition". NamNet Digest, Vol. 95, no. 3. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- "Observer report cov". Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- Matundu-Tjiparuro, Kae (19 April 2010). "The founder of Swapo". New Era.
- Eerikäinen, Marjo (14 July 2008). "The South Africa Mandate 1915–1989". Vantaa. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "Formation of the South African Republic". South Africa History Online. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Namibia: Apartheid, resistance and repression (1945–1966)". Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa. August 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Google Books, A History of Resistance in Namibia, Page 99, Peter H. Katjavivi, ISBN 0-86543-144-2
- BBC News – Timeline: Namibia
- Eriksen, Tore Linné. Norway and National Liberation in Southern Africa. p. 90.
- Church council's stance on detainees revives apartheid rhetoric, charges the NSHR The Namibian, 18 November 2003
- Ex-detainee issue still runs deep The Namibian, 4 October 2005
- Gewald, Jan-Bart (September 2004). "Who Killed Clemens Kapuuo?". Journal of Southern African Studies 30 (3). doi:10.1080/0305707042000254100. ISSN 0305-7070.
- Leys, C.; S. Brown (2005). Histories of Namibia. London: Merlin Press. ISBN 0-85036-499-X.
- LeBeau, Debie (September 2005). "An Investigation into the lives of Namibian Ex-fighters fifteen years after Independence". People's Education, Assistance and Counselling for Empowerment (P.E.A.C.E.). Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- "NAMIBIA: Election expected to be low-key". IRIN. 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- "Elections in Namibia". Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- Immanuel, Shinovene; Shipanga, Selma (3 December 2012). "Moderates prevail". The Namibian.
- Immanuel, Shinovene (19 February 2014). "Kazenambo joins Swapo's politburo". The Namibian.
- "Newly elected members of the Swapo Politburo". The Namibian. 12 December 2012.
- Poolman, Jan. "New blood in Swapo CC". The Namibian. Retrieved 3 December 2012. The offline version of the article contains the list of elected CC members.
- "Matter of Fact". The Namibian. 4 December 2012. This erratum was only published offline.
- List of Socialist International parties in Africa,
- External links
- Website of SWAPO
- Website of the SWAPO Youth League
- "Namibian Voters Deny Total Power to SWAPO," by Michael Johns, The Wall Street Journal, 19 November 1989.