Sa'd ibn Mua'dh
Sa’d ibn Mu'adh (Arabic: سعد ابن معاذ) was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe in Medina and later converted to Islam. Sa'd was one of the chief of the Banu Aus, one of the two clans (non Jewish) settled in Medina.
Sa'd adopted Islam in 622 (1 AH), when Muhammad arrived in Medina, then known as Yathrib. He was among the leading figures among the Ansar, as Muhammad had dubbed the people of Aws and Khazraj from Medina who converted to Islam.
Prior to the Battle of Badr, Sa’d had visited Mecca once to perform his Umra with his non-Muslim friend Umayah ibn Khalaf, when they came across Abu Jahl. They had an argument, and as it became heated, Sa'd threatened Abu Jahl with stopping the Meccan trade route to Syria and informed Umayah that his life was threatened by Muhammad.
After the Battle of the Trench in 627 (5 AH), when Medina was unsuccessfully besieged by a Meccan army, the Muslims accused the Jewish Banu Qurayza of treacherous dealings with the enemy. They laid siege to their stronghold and the Banu Qurayza surrendered unconditionally after several weeks of siege.
Several members of the Banu Aus pleaded for their old Jewish allies and agreed to Muhammad's proposal that one of their chiefs should judge the matter. Muhammad appointed Sa'd, the Banu Qurayza agreed to his appointment. Sa'd had been wounded in the earlier battles, and was on the verge of death. He declared that they be judged by the laws of their own religion (Judaism). Invoking Torah law, Sa'd decreed that all adult male members of the tribe should be executed and all women and children enslaved.
Sa'd succumbed to the wounds and died after returning to Medina.
He dutifully served as a member of the Muslim community and even commanded military campaigns for the Prophet during his lifetime. Saad is said to have been a stern, just and passionate man, willing to impulsively fight for what he believed in. In Muslim history, he is well regarded as a noble companion who enjoyed a close relationship with the Prophet.
Narrated Jabir: I heard the Prophet saying, "The Throne (of Allah) shook at the death of Sad bin Muadh." Through another group of narrators, Jabir added, "I heard the Prophet : saying, 'The Throne of the Beneficent shook because of the death of Sad bin Muadh." [Sahih Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 58, Number 147]
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:286
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