Sa'd ibn Ubadah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Sa'd ibn Ubadah ibn Dulaim (Arabic: سعد بن عبادة بن دليم‎) [1] was one of the prominent Sahabah and Ansar, the chief of the Banu Khazraj.[2] He was the first person who hailed from Medina to embrace Islam.

He participated in the secret second pledge at al-Aqabah. It was not after that the Medinan pilgrims had left the city, that the Meccans became aware of the meeting at Aqabah. They pursued the pilgrims but only managed to catch hold of Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah. They tortured him, but he was later rescued by Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi and Harith ibn Harb, with whom he had trade relations. He was also sent along with Sa'd ibn Muadh to the Jews of Banu Qurayzah to see if the Jews had broken their treaty with the Muslims.[1]

It is known that he did not accept the reign of caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar.[3] This created a major tension between him and the second caliph Umar. The second caliph recounts that during the conflict to choose the prophet's successor he had wished for Sa'd's death by announcing : "May God Kill Sa'd ibn Udabah".[4] Shortly after this Sa'd left Medina and stayed in modern day Syria. It is known that Umar ordered a delegate to go there and ask him to accept the new caliphs. When he refused the offer he was killed with an arrow.[5]

Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah died during the reign of caliph Abu Bakr. This is known from the following incident. One day, he divided all his wealth between his sons. After his death, his wife gave birth to a son. This took place during the reign of Abu Bakr. One morning Umar met Abu Bakr and said to him: "I spent a sleepless night on account of this new child of Saad, because his father left him nothing." Abu Bakr said: "And so did I. Let us go to Qais ibn Saad (son of Sa'd bin Ubadah) and speak to him about his brother." They went to Qais, himself a companion of Muhammad and a man of honor. When they spoke to him, Qais said: "As for what Saad has done, I will never invalidate; but I would like the two of you to witness that my share is for my young brother."[2]

Battle of Badr[edit]

He participated in the Battle of Badr. Muhammad's forces included Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Hamza, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam, Ammar ibn Yasir, and Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel.[6] However, many early Muslim sources indicate that no serious fighting was expected,[7] and the future Caliph Uthman stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of Muhammad.[8] Salman the Persian also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.[9]

Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayah ibn Khalaf, joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial interests in the caravan; others wanted to avenge Ibn al-Hadrami, the guard killed at Nakhlah; finally, a few must have wanted to take part in what was expected to be an easy victory against the Muslims.[10] Amr ibn Hishām is described as shaming at least one noble, Umayah ibn Khalaf, into joining the expedition. [11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Sealed Nectar The Second ‘Aqabah Pledge on sunnipath.com
  2. ^ a b Death of Sa'd bin Ubadah and sharing of his inheritance
  3. ^ Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah [1]
  4. ^ p2508 Sahih al-Bukhari
  5. ^ Genealogies of the Nobles p1/254 .
  6. ^ Lings, pp. 138–139
  7. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 287". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010. 
  8. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 53, Number 359". Usc.edu. Retrieved 16 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Witness-pioneer.org". Witness-pioneer.org. 16 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  10. ^ Martin Lings, p. 139–140.
  11. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 286". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.