|Minister of Justice|
28 October 2009 – 17 December 2013
|Preceded by||Brigitte Zypries|
|Succeeded by||Heiko Maas|
18 May 1992 – 17 January 1996
|Preceded by||Klaus Kinkel|
|Succeeded by||Edzard Schmidt-Jortzig|
26 July 1951 |
Minden, West Germany
|Political party||Free Democratic Party|
|Alma mater||University of Göttingen
Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger [zaˈbiːnə ˈlɔʏthɔʏsɐ ˈʃnaʀənˌbɛɐ̯ɡɐ] (born 26 July 1951) is a German politician of the liberal Free Democratic Party and a prominent advocate of human rights in Germany and Europe. Within the FDP, she is a leading figure of the social-liberal wing. She served as Federal Minister of Justice of Germany from 1992 to 1996 in the cabinet of Helmut Kohl and again in the second Merkel cabinet from 2009 to 2013. In 2013, the new German government announced Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger’s candidacy for the office of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
- 1 Early life and work
- 2 Political career
- 2.1 Member of the Bundestag and Minister of Justice, 1992 – 1996
- 2.2 Member of the Bundestag and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, 1996 – 2009
- 2.3 Minister of Justice, 2009 – 2013
- 3 Honorary offices
- 4 Awards
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Publications (selection)
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life and work
She was born in Minden, North Rhine-Westphalia. After graduating from gymnasium in Minden in 1970, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger started studying law in Göttingen and Bielefeld. In 1975 she passed the first state exam in Hamm, in 1978 the second state exam in Düsseldorf.
In addition to her mandate as a member of the German parliament (Bundestag), she has been working as a lawyer in Munich since 1997.
In 1978 Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger became a member of the Free Democratic Party (FDP). Since 1991 she has been a member of federal board of the FDP.
Member of the Bundestag and Minister of Justice, 1992 – 1996
From 12 December 1990 Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger was a member of the German Bundestag. On 18 May 1992 she was sworn in as Federal Minister of Justice of Germany.
Upon taking office, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger pushed for police receiving new training and equipment to counter extremism and tougher court sentences for those found guilty of extremist violence. In 1994, she publicly condemned a regional court for adulating radical rightist leader Günter Deckert after handing him a light sentence for denying that the Holocaust ever occurred, calling the judges’ decision "a slap in the face to all victims of the Holocaust". When Denmark agreed to extradite Gary Lauck, an American neo-Nazi charged with being the main supplier of illegal fascist propaganda to Germany, to German authorities in 1995, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger called the decision a "great victory against right-wing extremism." In 1995 there was a broad public discussion in Germany about the invulnerability of the private domain by means of acoustic observation (Großer Lauschangriff, literally "big eavesdropping attack"). In this argument Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger strongly objected to expanding the state's right to interfere in citizens' private domain. After the members of the FDP decided in a poll to support the conservative lead of the CDU in this matter, she resigned from her office on 1 January 1996.
From May 1997 Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger was a member of the Steering Committee of the FDP ("Präsidium"). On December 2, 2000 she also became FDP chairwoman for the Federal State of Bavaria. She served twice as Deputy Chairwoman of the FDP parliamentary group, from February 2, 2001 to October 2, 2002 and from September 27, 2005 until October 28, 2009.
Member of the Bundestag and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, 1996 – 2009
Following her time in government, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger sharpened her profile as deputy parliamentary leader of the FDP and high-profile civil rights campaigner. From 1999 to 2000 she was a member of an international inquiry commission of the United Nations to examine allegations of human rights violations in East Timor and submitted its report to secretary general Kofi Annan. During the 16th Legislative Term of the Bundestag she was spokeswoman on legal policy for the FDP parliamentary group, chairwoman of the FDP in the parliamentary committee on legal affairs and alternate member in the parliamentary committee on human rights and humanitarian aid.
Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger was also active in the Council of Europe. From 2003 to 2009 she was member of the German delegation at the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. As member of the Council of Europe's Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, she conducted an investigative trip to Russia and authored a critical report on the country's judicial system. In 2008, she presented a report to the Parliamentary Assembly on the investigation of the Gongadze case and other crimes of the Kuchma era in Ukraine. Titled Allegations of Politically Motivated Abuses of the Criminal Justice System in Council of Europe Member States, her 2009 report examined alleged abuses in Britain, Germany, France, and Russia.  Much of the document focused on Russia, detailing several recent cases that "give rise to concerns that the fight against 'legal nihilism' launched by President Medvedev is still far from won." During an April 2009 visit to Ukraine, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger, co-rapporteur of the Parliamentary Assembly's Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, cautiously encouraged reform of the parliamentary system in Ukraine. She also expressed regret that those who ordered Georgiy Gongadze's murder had still not been brought to justice.
Minister of Justice, 2009 – 2013
Between 2009 and 2013, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger served as Federal Minister of Justice again, this time in the second Merkel cabinet. Alongside four men, she was the only female FDP member in Merkel's cabinet and the only FDP member of the cabinet to have previously held government office.  During her time in office, she would often push the FDP’s pro-civil liberties agenda, but frequently encountered resistance from a conservatives-controlled interior ministry led by Thomas de Maizière and later Hans-Peter Friedrich.
In 2010, former president of the Federal Constitutional Court Jutta Limbach in an interview proposed that Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger be made a judge at the court, praising her "intellectual honesty"; instead, Andreas Voßkuhle was nominated by the SPD.
On the death penalty
Soon after taking office in 2009, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger demanded that US courts could not seek the death penalty for terrorists Zacarias Moussaoui and Ramzi Binalshibh in return for receiving evidence provided by German investigators. In order to verify that the US government keeps its word, she teamed up with the Foreign Ministry to send German observers to monitor the trial in New York. 
On data protection
In 2010, talking about issues like privacy and copyright, she complained about Google's instinct for "pressing ahead" and its "megalomania". That same year, she asked Apple Inc. to tell state data protection officials about the kind of data the company was gathering on individual iPhone users in Germany. In a case Leutheusser herself brought to the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, the judges eventually rejected a core piece of security legislation that requires data on telephone calls and e-mail traffic to be stored for up to six months for possible use by law enforcement and intelligence agencies. As part of the draft of a law governing workplace privacy, she proposed placing restrictions on employers who want to use Facebook profiles when recruiting. She also expressed her support for legislation that would punish officials who purchase illegally obtained data of German tax evaders in Switzerland.
On 2013 mass surveillance scandal
In response to the 2013 mass surveillance scandal, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger, in a guest editorial for the Web site Spiegel Online, called the revelations about the U.S. surveillance “deeply disconcerting” and possibly “dangerous.” A week before President Barack Obama's visit to Berlin in June 2013, she rejected Obama’s earlier statement that “you can’t have 100 percent security and also then have 100 percent privacy and zero inconvenience.” In her commentary she wrote: “I don’t share this assessment. A society is less free the more intensively its citizens are watched, controlled and observed. Security is not an end in itself in a democratic society, but rather serves the security of freedom.” 
Shortly after, she sent two letters to the British justice secretary, Chris Grayling, and the home secretary, Theresa May, stressing the widespread concern the disclosures about the GCHQ Tempora programme triggered in Germany and demanding to know the extent to which German citizens have been targeted. At the same time, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger demanded that the German intelligence service BND provide a full explanation after it admitted to passing on massive amounts of so-called "metadata" to the NSA.  When the United States approached E.U. justice ministers in October 2013 about signing an agreement to extradite former NSA contractor Edward Snowden to the U.S. should he step foot on their soil, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger refused to sign because she was not certain that Snowden had broken any laws and because he might make a good witness in a German parliamentary inquiry. 
On child abuse
Under legislation introduced by Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger following a wave of revelations about Catholic priest abusing minors in 2011, Germans who were sexually abused as children today have as long as 30 years after they turn 21 to bring accusations in court; the previous statute of limitations on civil abuse cases was three years. The minister also urged the church to compensate victims and participate in a “round table” with their representatives.
On LGBT rights
Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger long sought to make LGBT rights in Germany a key plank in the Free Democrats' platform. When the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in 2013 ruled that excluding same-sex couples from a tax benefit available for married partners is unconstitutional and said the government must retroactively change the 12-year-old legislation, she pressed for legislative action. Again, after the court decided that gays and lesbians should be allowed to adopt children already adopted by their partners, the minister argued that “[t]he decision to put civil unions and marriage on level footing needs a big push”; however, her party’s efforts failed due to opposing views of her conservative coalition partner.
On rule of law in Russia
After a Russian court found deceased lawyer Sergei Magnitsky guilty of tax evasion in 2013, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger condemned the verdict, saying on Twitter: “The conviction of the dead Magnitsky is further evidence of the Sovietization of Russia.” A presidential human rights commission headed by former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev had found in 2011 that the charges against the lawyer had been fabricated.
With regard to the Russian LGBT propaganda law introduced in 2013, she commented in Welt am Sonntag that "Russia is taking another big step towards becoming a flawless dictatorship in ostracizing homosexuals". Unlike German chancellor Angela Merkel and foreign minister Guido Westerwelle at the time, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger later suggested that the newly enacted law, which discriminates against gays and lesbians, could be grounds for boycotting the 2014 Winter Olympics.
On the fight against terrorism
After then-Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble confirmed in late 2005 that, under the previous government led by Gerhard Schröder, German agents had interviewed Mohammed Haydar Zammar, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger condemned these methods: "If you're not allowed to torture, then you're not allowed to profit from information that may have been obtained through kidnapping and torture."
During a domestic debate on anti-terrorism legislation, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger in 2010 warned that passenger profiling in German airports where passengers are categorized as high or low risk based on, among other things, their ethnic background, might fall foul of German and European law.
On the eurozone crisis
During the 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger broke new ground by calling directly on European Union leaders to do more to defend Germany’s role in helping the weaker Eurozone members.
In 2011, Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger became one of the first prominent Free Democratic politicians to suggest a change in the party's top leadership. She recommended that the incumbent Guido Westerwelle be replaced by Christian Lindner, then the party’s general secretary.
- Member of the Executive Committee ("Vorstand") of the Theodor Heuss Foundation
- Club nember of the Gegen das Vergessen – Für Demokratie e.V.
- Patron ("Schirmherrin") and member of Dunkelziffer e.V. – Hilfe für sexuell missbrauchte Kinder (Help against Child Abuse)
- Member of the German Child Protection Agency (Deutscher Kinderschutzbund e.V.)
- Member of the Weißer Ring e.V. (Support for victims and crime prevention)
- Council member of the Sebastian Cobbler Foundation
- Member of the Pro Justitia Foundation (Promoting Research in the field of Law)
- Board member of the Humanist Union Bavaria
- Member of the Advisory Board of the Global Panel Foundation
- 1995 – Hamm-Brücher Medal
- 1996 – Paul-Klinger Prize by the Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft
- 1997 – Mona Lisa Woman of the Year
- 2002 – 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 2002 – Bavarian Order of Merit
- 2010 – “Kompassnadel” of the Gay of Network in North Rhine-Westphalia
- 2011 – Silver Bavarian Constitutional Medal (Bayerische Verfassungsmedaille)
Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger lives in Feldafing. She is widowed, after her husband, Ernst Schnarrenberger, died in 2006. Her father, Dr. Horst Leutheusser, was also a lawyer, and deputy mayor of Minden as member of the CDU. Her uncle, Wolfgang Stammberger, was one of her predecessors as minister of justice (from 1961 to 1962).
- "Gegenkurs. Plädoyer für eine selbstbewusste Politik der Freiheit" (96).
- Zwischen Einbürgerung und politischer Partizipation 'ausländischer Mitbürger'. Welchen Spielraum gewährt der demokratische Rechtsstaat in Deutschland? In: Büttner, Christian / Meyer, Berthold (eds.): Integration durch Partizipation. 'Ausländische Mitbürger' in demokratischen Gesellschaften. Campus Publisher 2001, pp. 31–43
- Vorratsdatenspeicherung – Ein vorprogrammierter Verfassungskonflikt. In: Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik, 2007, p. 9 ff.
- Auf dem Weg in den autoritären Staat. In: Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, Edition 1/2008, pp. 62–70
- Germany’s Justice Minister Hails Three European Courts as “Shining Stars” Columbia Law School, press release of December 2, 2011.
- Stefan Braun (November 26, 2013), Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger kandidiert für Posten beim Europarat Süddeutsche Zeitung.
- Juncker seen as possible candidate for Council of Europe post EurActiv, July 19, 2013.
- Tyler Marshall (November 25, 1992), Bonn Moving to Get Tough on Violence Los Angeles Times.
- Marjorie Miller (August 11, 1994), German Court Chastised for Giving Extremist Slap on Wrist Los Angeles Times.
- VICTORY IN EUROPE: Denmark Decides to Extradite American Neo-Nazi to Germany Los Angeles Times, May 9, 1995.
- Presentation with Germany's Federal Minister of Justice, Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger, November 3, 2011 Columbia University, New York.
- http://www.tagesschau.de/aktuell/meldungen/0,1185,OID3037054_TYP1_NAVSPM2~3036854_REF1,00.html Zehn Jahre Diskussion um den Großen Lauschangriff (German)
- Oliver Samson (August 23, 2006), Striking the Right Balance Between Freedom and Security Deutsche Welle.
- UN probes Timor rights abuses BBC News, October 15, 1999.
- Erin E. Arvedlund (March 29, 2005), Critics Say a Jailed Yukos Lawyer Is a 'Hostage' New York Times.
- Philip Pan (June 24, 2009), European Investigator Alleges Widespread Corruption in Russian Courts Washington Post.
- Jason Bush (June 24, 2009), Report Slams Moscow: No Justice for Business in Russia Der Spiegel.
- World Report 2009: Ukraine Human Rights Watch.
- Marcel Fürstenau (May 3, 2013), Liberal Free Democrats set to launch election offensive Deutsche Welle.
- German FDP plumbs new lows after attack on leader Reuters, May 29, 2010.
- Chris Bryant (September 28, 2009), FDP leader tipped as foreign minister Financial Times.
- Heribert Prantl (May 17, 2010), [Interview mit Jutta Limbach: "Weil sie dem Rechtsstaat Ehre macht"] Süddeutsche Zeitung.
- John Goetz and Marcel Rosenbach (November 23, 2009), The Death Penalty Problem: 9/11 Trial Puts German-US Relations Under Strain Der Spiegel.
- Adam Nichols (November 22, 2009), Germans weasel in on 9/11 trial New York Post.
- Eric Pfanner (February 2, 2010), Europe Looms as Major Battleground for Google New York Times.
- Kevin J. O'Brien (June 28, 2010), Germany Asks Apple About iPhone’s Data-Gathering New York Times.
- Judy Dempsey (March 2, 20100), German Court Orders Stored Telecom Data Deleted International Herald Tribune.
- David Jolly (August 25, 2010), Germany Plans Limits on Facebook Use in Hiring New York Times.
- German minister calls for punishing tax CD purchases Deutsche Welle, September 1, 2012.
- James Kanter (June 11, 2013), E.U. Official Pushes U.S. to Explain Its Surveillance New York Times.
- Matt Spetalnick and Steve Holland (June 7, 2013), Obama defends surveillance effort as 'trade-off' for security Reuters.
- Patrick Donahue (June 12, 2013), German Justice Minister Demands U.S. Explanation on Surveillance Bloomberg.
- Alan Travis, Kate Connolly and Nicholas Watt (June 26, 2013),  The Guardian.
- German justice minister demands answers about BND's role in NSA snooping Deutsche Welle, August 5, 2013.
- Alan Travis, Kate Connolly and Nicholas Watt (June 26, 2013), NSA denials are ‘implausible,’ France says Washington Post.
- Germany: Change to Abuse Statute New York Times, March 23, 2011.
- Abuse and counterabuse The Economist, March 11, 2010.
- David Crawford and Vanessa Fuhrmans (August 22, 2012), Gay-Rights Bill Highlights German Coalition Split Wall Street Journal.
- Stefan Nicola (June 6, 2013), German Constitution Court Backs Equal Tax Rights for Gay Couples Bloomberg.
- Karen DeYoung and Michael Birnbaum (October 31, 2013), Gay Rights Emerge as Campaign Issue in Germany New York Times.
- Courtney Weaver and Charles Clover (July 11, 2013), Russia convicts Magnitsky of tax evasion in posthumous trial Financial Times.
- Andreas Rinke (August 12, 2013),  Reuters.
- Kristen Allen (August 19, 2013), Anti-Gay Law: Shunning Sochi Hurts Olympians, Merkel Says Der Spiegel.
- David Crossland (December 20, 2005), Letter from Berlin: Germany Talks Torture, and Finds Hypocrisy Der Spiegel.
- Row over German airport profile bid Al Jazeera, December 29, 2010.
- Melissa Eddy (March 27, 2013), Cypriots’ Criticism of Bailout Rattles Nerves and Raises Ire in Germany New York Times.
- Judy Dempsey (January 3, 2011), Coalition Partner Becomes Liability for Merkel Government International Herald Tribune.
- This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.
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