Sistema Sac Actun
|Sistema Sac Actun|
|Location||Tulum Municipality, Quintana Roo, Mexico|
|Depth||101.2 meters (332 ft)|
|Length||underwater: 228.354 kilometers (141.893 mi)
total: 316.601 kilometers (196.727 mi)
|Discovery||November 26, 1987|
|Difficulty||Advanced cave diving|
Sistema Sac Actun (from Spanish and Yucatec Maya meaning "White Cave System") is an underwater cave system situated along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula with passages to the north and west of the village of Tulum. Exploration started from Gran Cenote 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) west of Tulum. The whole of the explored cave system lies within the Municipality of Tulum (state of Quintana Roo).
In early 2007, the underwater cave Sistema Nohoch Nah Chich was connected into and subsumed into Sac Actun making it the longest surveyed underwater cave system in the world for some months. Sac Actun measures 228.3 kilometers (141.9 mi) (after connecting Sistema Aktun Hu with 34 kilometers (21 mi) in January 2011) and is second surpassed by Sistema Ox Bel Ha at 256.7 kilometers (159.5 mi). These two cave systems since early 2007 have been frequently exchanging the title as the longest underwater cave system in the world. Including connected dry caves and Sistema Dos Ojos makes Sistema Sac Actun with 317 kilometers (197 mi) the longest cave in Mexico and the second longest worldwide.
In March 2008, three members of the Proyecto Espeleológico de Tulum and Global Underwater Explorers dive team, Alex Alvarez, Franco Attolini, and Alberto Nava, explored a section of Sistema Aktun Hu known as the pit Hoyo Negro. At a depth of 57 meters (187 ft) the divers located the remains of a mastodon as well as at 43 meters (141 ft) a human skull that might be the oldest evidence of early man in this area to date.
- "List of Long Underwater Caves in Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society (NSS). September 30, 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "Dry Caves and Sumps of Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society. September 30, 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- John Roach (March 5, 2007). "World's Longest Underground River Discovered in Mexico". National Geographic News (National Geographic). Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Michael Poucher, Bob Gulden (September 16, 2013). "World longest underwater caves". Geo2 Committee on Long and Deep Caves. NSS. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Bob Gulden (September 16, 2013). "Worlds longest caves". Geo2 Committee on Long and Deep Caves. NSS. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- Fabio Esteban Amador (February 18, 2011). "Skull in Underwater Cave May Be Earliest Trace of First Americans". NatGeo News Watch (National Geographic). Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- Steve Gerrard (2000). The Cenotes of the Riviera Maya. ISBN 0-9677412-0-3. online Version. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
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