Sac spider

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sac spiders
Clubiona trivialis2.jpg
Clubiona trivialis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Suborder: Araneomorphae
Section: Entelegynae
Superfamily: incertae sedis
Family: Clubionidae
Wagner, 1887[1]
14 genera, 541 species

The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae[2] have a very confusing taxonomic history. Once this family was a large catch-all taxon for a disparate collection of spiders, similar only in that they had eight eyes arranged in two rows,[3] conical anterior spinnerets that touched and were wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks. These are now recognized to include several families, some of which are more closely related to the three-clawed spiders, like lynx and wolf spiders, than to true "clubionoids."[4]


Among the families formerly classified as sac spiders, some of which have common names including the words "sac spider", include:

as well as the remnant Clubionidae (now consisting of a little over 500 species in 15 genera worldwide). However "sac spider" used on its own should imply a member of the family Clubionidae.

In North America the family as it is now recognised consists of only two genera, Clubiona and Elaver (formerly Clubionoides). Clubiona is nearly worldwide in distribution.

  • Eodeter Petrunkevitch, 1958 † (fossil)
  • Eomazax Petrunkevitch, 1958 † (fossil)
  • Eoversatrix Petrunkevitch, 1922 † (fossil, oligocene)
  • Machilla Petrunkevitch, 1958 † (fossil)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Platnick, N. I. (2010). Clubionidae. The world spider catalog, version 11.0. American Museum of Natural History.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Clubionidae. Version 25 March 2006 (temporary). in The Tree of Life Web Project,

External links[edit]