Sacagawea

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Sacagawea
Sakakawea-statue-bismarck-nd-2004.jpg
"Sacagawea" (1910), North Dakota State Capitol, Leonard Crunelle, sculptor.
Born c. 1788
Lemhi River Valley
(near present-day Salmon, Idaho)
Died December 20, 1812 (aged 24)
Fort Lisa, present-day North Dakota (probable)
Other names Sakakawea, Sacajawea, Sakagawea
Ethnicity American Native (Shoshone)
Known for Accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Spouse(s) Toussaint Charbonneau
Children Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
Lizette Charbonneau

Sacagawea (/ˌsækəəˈwə/ see below; c. 1788 – December 20, 1812; see below for other theories about her death), also Sakakawea or Sacajawea, was a Lemhi Shoshone woman, who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition, acting as an interpreter and guide, in their exploration of the Western United States. She traveled thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean between 1804 and 1806.

Cultural significance

She has become an important part of the Lewis and Clark legend in the American public imagination. The National American Woman Suffrage Association of the early twentieth century adopted her as a symbol of women's worth and independence, erecting several statues and plaques in her memory, and doing much to spread the story of her accomplishments.[1]

In 2000, the United States Mint issued the Sacagawea dollar coin in her honor, depicting Sacagawea and her son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau. The face on the coin was modeled on a modern Shoshone-Bannock woman named Randy'L He-dow Teton. No contemporary image of Sacagawea exists.

In 2001, she was given the title of Honorary Sergeant, Regular Army, by then-president Bill Clinton.[2]

Biography

Early life

Reliable historical information about Sacagawea is very limited. She was born into an Agaidika (Salmon Eater) tribe of Lemhi Shoshone between Kenney Creek and Agency Creek about twenty minutes away from present-day Salmon in Lemhi County, Idaho.[citation needed] In 1800, when she was about twelve, she and several other girls were kidnapped by a group of Hidatsa (also known as Minnetarees) in a battle that resulted in the death among the Shoshone of four men, four women and several boys. She was taken as a captive to a Hidatsa village near present-day Washburn, North Dakota.[citation needed]

At about thirteen years of age, Sacagawea was taken as a wife by Toussaint Charbonneau, a Quebecer trapper living in the village. He had also taken another young Shoshone named Otter Woman as a wife. Charbonneau was reported to have purchased both wives from the Hidatsa, or won Sacagawea while gambling.

The Lewis and Clark expedition

Lewis and Clark on the Lower Columbia by Charles Marion Russell
Sacagawea with Lewis and Clark at Three Forks

Sacagawea was pregnant with her first child when the Corps of Discovery arrived near the Hidatsa villages to spend the winter of 1804–05. Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark built Fort Mandan. They interviewed several trappers who might be able to interpret or guide the expedition up the Missouri River in the springtime. They agreed to hire Charbonneau as an interpreter when they discovered his wife spoke Shoshone, as they knew they would need the help of Shoshone tribes at the headwaters of the Missouri.

Clark recorded in his journal[Note 1] on November 4, 1804:

a french man by Name Chabonah, who Speaks the Big Belley language visit us, he wished to hire & informed us his 2 Squars (squaws) were Snake Indians, we engau (engaged) him to go on with us and take one of his wives to interpret the Snake language[3]

Charbonneau and Sacagawea moved into the expedition's fort a week later. Clark nicknamed her "Janey".[Note 2] Lewis recorded the birth of Jean Baptiste Charbonneau on February 11, 1805, noting that another of the party's interpreters administered crushed rattlesnake rattles to speed the delivery. Clark and other European Americans nicknamed the boy "Little Pomp" or "Pompy".

In April, the expedition left Fort Mandan and headed up the Missouri River in pirogues. They had to be poled against the current and sometimes pulled from the riverbanks. On May 14, 1805, Sacagawea rescued items that had fallen out of a capsized boat, including the journals and records of Lewis and Clark. The corps commanders, who praised her quick action, named the Sacagawea River in her honor on May 20.

By August 1805, the corps had located a Shoshone tribe and was attempting to trade for horses to cross the Rocky Mountains. They used Sacagawea to interpret and discovered that the tribe's chief was her brother Cameahwait.

Lewis recorded their reunion in his journal:

Shortly after Capt. Clark arrived with the Interpreter Charbono, and the Indian woman, who proved to be a sister of the Chief Cameahwait. The meeting of those people was really affecting, particularly between Sah cah-gar-we-ah and an Indian woman, who had been taken prisoner at the same time with her, and who had afterwards escaped from the Minnetares and rejoined her nation.[4]

And Clark in his:

...The Intertrepeter & Squar who were before me at Some distance danced for the joyful Sight, and She made signs to me that they were her nation,...[4]

The Shoshone agreed to barter horses to the group, and to provide guides to lead them over the cold and barren Rocky Mountains. The trip was so hard that they were reduced to eating tallow candles to survive. When they descended into the more temperate regions on the other side, Sacagawea helped to find and cook camas roots to help them regain their strength.

As the expedition approached the mouth of the Columbia River on the Pacific Coast, Sacagawea gave up her beaded belt to enable the captains to trade for a fur robe they wished to give to President Thomas Jefferson.

Clark's journal entry for November 20, 1805 reads:

"one of the Indians had on a roab made of 2 Sea Otter Skins the fur of them were more butifull than any fur I had ever Seen both Capt. Lewis & my Self endeavored to purchase the roab with different articles at length we precured it for a belt of blue beeds which the Squar—wife of our interpreter Shabono wore around her waste...."[5] [sic]

When the corps reached the Pacific Ocean, all members of the expedition—including Sacagawea and Clark's black manservant York— voted on November 24 on the location for building their winter fort. In January, when a whale's carcass washed up onto the beach south of Fort Clatsop, Sacagawea insisted on her right to go see this "monstrous fish".

On the return trip, they approached the Rocky Mountains in July 1806. On July 6, Clark recorded "The Indian woman informed me that she had been in this plain frequently and knew it well.... She said we would discover a gap in the mountains in our direction..." which is now Gibbons Pass. A week later, on July 13, Sacagawea advised Clark to cross into the Yellowstone River basin at what is now known as Bozeman Pass. This was later chosen as the optimal route for the Northern Pacific Railway to cross the continental divide.

While Sacagawea has been depicted as a guide for the expedition, she is recorded as providing direction in only a few instances. Her work as an interpreter certainly helped the party to negotiate with the Shoshone. However, her greatest value to the mission may have been simply her presence during the arduous journey, which showed their peaceful intent. While traveling through what is now Franklin County, Washington, Clark noted, "The Indian woman confirmed those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a war party of Indians in this quarter," and, "the wife of Shabono our interpeter we find reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of peace."[6]

As he traveled downriver from Fort Mandan at the end of the journey, Clark wrote to Charbonneau:

"You have been a long time with me and conducted your Self in Such a manner as to gain my friendship, your woman who accompanied you that long dangerous and fatigueing rout to the Pacific Ocian and back diserved a greater reward for her attention and services on that rout than we had in our power to give her at the Mandans. As to your little Son (my boy Pomp) you well know my fondness of him and my anxiety to take him and raise him as my own child...If you are desposed to accept either of my offers to you and will bring down you Son your famn [femme, woman] Janey had best come along with you to take care of the boy untill I get him....Wishing you and your family great success & with anxious expectations of seeing my little danceing boy Baptiest I shall remain your Friend, William Clark"[7] [sic]

Later life and death

"Sacagawea & Jean Baptiste" (2001), National Cowgirl Hall of Fame, Fort Worth, Texas, Glenna Goodacre, sculptor. Sacagawea was posthumously inducted into the hall of fame in 1977.

After the expedition, Charbonneau and Sacagawea spent three years among the Hidatsa before accepting William Clark's invitation to settle in St. Louis, Missouri in 1809. They entrusted Jean-Baptiste's education to Clark, who enrolled the young man in the Saint Louis Academy boarding school.

Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lizette, sometime after 1810. According to Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker" Butterfield, historical documents suggest Sacagawea died in 1812 of an unknown sickness:

"An 1811 journal entry made by Henry Brackenridge, a fur dealer at Fort Manuel Lisa Trading Post on the Missouri River, stated that both Sacagawea and Charbonneau were living at the fort. He recorded that Sacagawea "…had become sickly and longed to revisit her native country." The following year, John Luttig, a clerk at Fort Manuel Lisa recorded in his journal on December 20, 1812, that "…the wife of Charbonneau, a Snake Squaw [the common term used to denote Shoshone Indians], died of putrid fever." He went on to say that she was "aged about 25 years. She left a fine infant girl".[8] Documents held by Clark show that her son Baptiste had already been entrusted by Charbonneau into Clark's care for a boarding school education, at Clark's insistence (Jackson, 1962)."[9]

A few months later, fifteen men were killed in an Indian attack on Fort Lisa, then located at the mouth of the Bighorn River.[8] John Luttig and Sacagawea's young daughter were among the survivors. Toussaint Charbonneau was mistakenly thought to have been killed at this time, but he apparently lived to at least eighty. He had signed over formal custody of his son to Clark in 1813.

As further proof that Sacagawea died in 1812, Butterfield writes: "An adoption document made in the Orphans Court Records in St. Louis, Missouri states, 'On August 11, 1813, William Clark became the guardian of 'Tousant Charbonneau, a boy about ten years, and Lizette Charbonneau, a girl about one year old.' For a Missouri State Court at the time, to designate a child as orphaned and to allow an adoption, both parents had to be confirmed dead in court papers."

The last recorded document citing Sacagawea's existence appears in William Clark's original notes written between 1825–1826. He lists the names of each of the expedition members and their last known whereabouts. For Sacagawea he writes: "Se car ja we au- Dead." (Jackson, 1962)."[9]

There is no later record of Lizette among Clark's papers. It is believed that she died in childhood.

Sacagawea's son Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau continued a restless and adventurous life. He carried lifelong celebrity status as the infant who went with the explorers to the Pacific Ocean and back. When he was 18, he was befriended by a German Prince, who took him to Europe. There, Jean-Baptiste spent 6 years living among royalty while learning 4 languages and fathering a child in Germany named Anton Fries.[10]

After his infant son died, Jean-Baptiste came back from Europe in 1829 to live the life of a Western frontiersman. He became a gold miner, hotel clerk, and in 1846, he led a group of Mormons to California. While in California he became a magistrate for the San Luis Rey Mission. He did not like the way Indians were treated in the Missions and left to become a hotel clerk in Auburn, California, once the center of gold rush activity.[11]

After working 6 years in Auburn, the restless son of Sacagawea left in search of riches in the gold mines of Montana. He was 61 years old, and the trip was too much for him. He became ill with pneumonia and died in a remote area near Danner, Oregon on May 16, 1866.[11]

An 1884 death?

Some American Indian oral traditions relate that rather than dying in 1812, Sacagawea left her husband Charbonneau, crossed the Great Plains and married into a Comanche tribe.[citation needed] She was said to have returned to the Shoshone in Wyoming, where she died in 1884.[citation needed]

The question of Sacagawea's final resting place caught the attention of national suffragists seeking voting rights for women, according to author Raymond Wilson.[12] Wilson argues that Sacagawea became a role model whom suffragettes pointed to "with pride." Wilson goes on to note:

"Interest in Sacajawea peaked and controversy intensified when Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, professor of political economy at the University of Wyoming in Laramie and an active supporter of the Nineteenth Amendment, campaigned for federal legislation to erect an edifice honoring Sacajawea's death in 1884."[12]
Marker of grave alleged to be Sacajawea's, Fort Washakie, Wyoming

In 1925, Dr. Charles Eastman, a Dakota Sioux physician, was hired by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to locate Sacagawea's remains. Eastman visited many different Native American tribes to interview elderly individuals who might have known or heard of Sacagawea, and learned of a Shoshone woman at the Wind River Reservation with the Comanche name Porivo (chief woman). Some of the people he interviewed said that she spoke of a long journey where she had helped white men, and that she had a silver Jefferson peace medal of the type carried by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He found a Comanche woman called Tacutine who said that Porivo was her grandmother. She had married into a Comanche tribe and had a number of children, including Tacutine's father Ticannaf. Porivo left the tribe after her husband Jerk-Meat was killed.[13]

According to these narratives, Porivo lived for some time at Fort Bridger in Wyoming with her sons Bazil and Baptiste, who each knew several languages, including English and French. Eventually she found her way back to the Lemhi Shoshone at the Wind River Indian Reservation, where she was recorded as "Bazil's mother".[13] This woman died on April 9, 1884, and a Reverend John Roberts officiated at her funeral.

It was Eastman's conclusion that Porivo was Sacagawea.[14] In 1963 a monument to "Sacajawea of the Shoshonis" was erected at Fort Washakie on the Wind River reservation near Lander, Wyoming on the basis of this claim.[15]

The belief that Sacagawea lived to old age and died in Wyoming was widely disseminated in the United States in the 1933 biography Sacajawea by University of Wyoming professor and historian Grace Raymond Hebard. Hebard's 30 years of research which led to the biography of the Shoshone woman is called into question by critics.[16] Hebard presents a stout-hearted woman in her portrayal of Sacajawea that is "undeniably long on romance and short on hard evidence, suffering from a sentimentalization of Indian culture".[17]

In her novel Sacajawea (1984), Anna Lee Waldo explored the story of Sacajawea's returning to Wyoming 50 years after her departure. The author was well aware of the historical research supporting an 1812 death, but she chose to explore the oral tradition.

Name

A long-running controversy has surrounded the correct spelling, pronunciation, and etymology of the woman's name. However, linguists working on Hidatsa since the 1870s have always considered the name's Hidatsa etymology essentially indisputable. The name is a compound of two common Hidatsa nouns, cagáàga [tsaɡáàɡa] 'bird' and míà [míà] 'woman'. The compound is written as Cagáàgawia 'Bird Woman' in modern Hidatsa orthography, and pronounced [tsaɡáàɡawia] (/m/ is pronounced [w] between vowels in Hidatsa). The double /aa/ in the name indicates a long vowel and the diacritics a falling pitch pattern. Hidatsa is a pitch-accent language that does not have stress, therefore in the Hidatsa pronunciation all syllables in [tsaɡáàɡawia] are pronounced with roughly the same relative emphasis. However, most English speakers perceive the accented syllable (the long /aa/) as stressed. In faithful rendering of the name Cagáàgawia to other languages, it is advisable to emphasize the second, long syllable, not the last, as is common in English.[18]

The name has several spelling traditions in English. The origin of each tradition is described in the following sections.

Sacagawea

Sacagawea /səˌkɑːɡəˈwə/ is the most widely used spelling of her name, and is pronounced with a hard "g" sound, rather than a soft "g" or "j" sound. Lewis and Clark's original journals mention Sacagawea by name seventeen times, spelled eight different ways, each time with a "g". Clark used Sahkahgarwea, Sahcahgagwea, Sarcargahwea and Sahcahgahweah, while Lewis used Sahcahgahwea, Sahcahgarweah, Sahcargarweah and Sahcahgar Wea.

The spelling Sacagawea was established in 1910 as the proper usage in government documents by the United States Bureau of American Ethnology, and is the spelling adopted by the United States Mint for use with the dollar coin, as well as the United States Board on Geographic Names and the U.S. National Park Service. The spelling is used by a large number of historical scholars.[19]

Sakakawea

Sakakawea /səˌkɑːkəˈwə/ is the next most widely adopted spelling, and the most often accepted among specialists.[20] Proponents say the name comes from the Hidatsa language tsakáka wía, "bird woman".[21][22] Charbonneau told expedition members that his wife's name meant "Bird Woman", and in May 1805 Lewis used the Hidatsa meaning in his journal:

"a handsome river of about fifty yards in width discharged itself into the shell river...this stream we called Sah-ca-gah-we-ah or bird woman’s River, after our interpreter the Snake woman."

Sakakawea is the official spelling of her name according to the Three Affiliated Tribes, which include the Hidatsa, and is widely used throughout North Dakota (where she is considered a state heroine), notably in the naming of Lake Sakakawea, the extensive reservoir of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River.

The North Dakota State Historical Society quotes Russell Reid's book Sakakawea: The Bird Woman:

Her Hidatsa name, which Charbonneau stated meant "Bird Woman," should be spelled "Tsakakawias" according to the foremost Hidatsa language authority, Dr. Washington Matthews. When this name is anglicized for easy pronunciation, it becomes Sakakawea, "Sakaka" meaning "bird" and "wea" meaning "woman." This is the spelling adopted by North Dakota. The spelling authorized for the use of Federal agencies by the United States Geographic Board is Sacagawea. Although not closely following Hidatsa spelling, the pronunciation is quite similar and the Geographic Board acknowledged the name to be a Hidatsa word meaning "Bird Woman."[23]

However, Irving W. Anderson, president of the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, argued:

...the Sakakawea spelling similarly is not found in the Lewis and Clark journals. To the contrary, this spelling traces its origin neither through a personal connection with her nor in any primary literature of the expedition. It has been independently constructed from two Hidatsa Indian words found in a dictionary titled Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians, published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1877. Compiled by a United States Army surgeon, Dr. Washington Matthews, 65 years following Sacagawea's death, the words appear verbatim in the dictionary as "tsa-ka-ka, noun; a bird," and "mia [wia, bia], noun; a woman.[24]

Sacajawea

The name Sacajawea or Sacajewea /ˌsækəəˈwə/, in contrast to the Hidatsa etymology, is said to be derived from Shoshone Saca-tzaw-meah, meaning "boat puller" or "boat launcher".[24] It is the preferred spelling used by the Lemhi Shoshone people, some of whom claim that her Hidatsa captors merely reinterpreted her existing Shoshone name in their own language, and pronounced it in their own dialect[25] – they heard a name that approximated "tsakaka" and "wia", and interpreted it as "bird woman", substituting the hard "g/k" pronunciation for the softer "tz/j" sound that did not exist in the Hidatsa language.

The usage of this spelling almost certainly originated from the use of the "j" spelling by Nicholas Biddle, who annotated the Lewis and Clark Expedition's journals for publication in 1814. This usage became more widespread with the publication of the 1902 novel The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark, written by Eva Emery Dye. It is likely Dye used Biddle's secondary source for the spelling, and her highly popular book made it ubiquitous throughout the United States (previously most non-scholars had never even heard of Sacagawea).[26]

Rozina George, great-great-great-great-granddaughter of Cameahwait, says the Agaidika tribe of Lemhi Shoshone do not recognize the spelling or pronunciation Sacagawea, and schools and other memorials erected in the area surrounding her birthplace use the spelling Sacajawea.

"The Lemhi Shoshone call her Sacajawea. It is derived from the Shoshone word for her name, Saca tzah we yaa. In his Cash Book, William Clark spells Sacajawea with a “J”. Also, William Clark and Private George Shannon explained to Nicholas Biddle (Published the first Lewis and Clark Journals in 1814) about the pronunciation of her name and how the tz sounds more like a “j”. What better authority on the pronunciation of her name than Clark and Shannon who traveled with her and constantly heard the pronunciation of her name? We do not believe it is a Minnetaree (Hidatsa) word for her name. Sacajawea was a Lemhi Shoshone not a Hidatsa."[27]

Idaho native John Rees explored the "boat launcher" etymology in a long letter to the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs written in the 1920s; it was republished in 1970 by The Lemhi County Historical Society as a pamphlet titled "Madame Charbonneau" and contains many of the arguments in favor of the Shoshone derivation of the name.[25][24]

The spelling Sacajawea, though widely taught until the late 20th century, is generally considered incorrect in modern academia. Linguistics professor Dr. Sven Liljeblad from the Idaho State University in Pocatello has concluded that "it is unlikely that Sacajawea is a Shoshoni word.... The term for 'boat' in Shoshoni is saiki, but the rest of the alleged compound would be incomprehensible to a native speaker of Shoshoni."[24] The spelling has subsided from general use, although the corresponding "soft j" pronunciation persists in American culture.

In entertainment

Fiction

Sakakawea Monument, Mobridge, South Dakota, 2003

Two early 20th-century novels shaped much of the public perception of Sacagawea. The Conquest: The True Story of Lewis and Clark, was written by American suffragist Eva Emery Dye and published in 1902 in anticipation of the expedition's centennial. The National American Woman Suffrage Association embraced her as a female hero, and numerous stories and essays about her appeared in ladies' journals. A few decades later, Sacagawea (1933) by Grace Hebard was published to even greater success.

Sacagawea has since become a popular figure in historical and young adult novels, including the long 1984 novel Sacajawea by Anna Lee Waldo.

Some fictional accounts of the expedition speculate that Sacagawea was romantically involved with Lewis or Clark during their expedition. While the journals show that she was friendly with Clark and would often do favors for him, the idea of a romantic liaison was created by novelists who wrote about the expedition much later. This fiction was perpetuated in the 1955 Western film The Far Horizons.

Film

Several movies, both documentaries and fiction, have been made about Sacagawea.[28]

Music

Sacagewea is referenced in the Stevie Wonder song "Black Man", from the album Songs in the Key of Life. In the "Piano Concerto No. 2 after Lewis & Clark", by Philip Glass, the second movement is titled "Sacagawea".

Sacagawea was mentioned in the Schoolhouse Rock song Elbow Room as the guide for Lewis and Clark.[29]

Memorials

The Sacajawea Center

The Sacajawea Interpretive, Cultural, and Educational Center is a 71-acre (290,000 m2) park located in Salmon, Idaho by the rivers and mountains of Sacajawea’s homeland. It is "owned and operated by the City of Salmon, in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Governor's Lewis & Clark Trail Committee, Salmon-Challis National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish & Game, and numerous non-profit and volunteer organizations".[30]

In sculpture

See also

Sacagawea's Nickname

Notes

  1. ^ Keep in mind that the journal entries by Clark, Meriwether, et al., are brief segments of "our nation's 'living history' legacy of documented exploration across our fledgling republic's pristine western frontier. It is a story written in inspired spelling and with an urgent sense of purpose by ordinary people who accomplished extraordinary deeds." Anderson, Irving W. "The Sacagawea Mystique". Retrieved 2012-12-22.
  2. ^ William Clark created the nickname "Janey" for Sacagawea, which he transcribed twice, November 24, 1805, in his journal, and in a letter to Toussaint, August 20, 1806. It is thought that Clark's use of "Janey" derived from "jane", colloquial army slang for "girl". Anderson, Irving W. "The Sacagawea Mystique". Retrieved 2012-12-22.

References

  1. ^ Fresonke, Kris and Spence, Mark David. Lewis & Clark: Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives. University of California Press, February 25, 2004. ISBN 978-0-520-23822-0
  2. ^ "Sergeant Sacagawea". Lewisandclarktrail.com. 2009-01-04. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  3. ^ Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, et al. (1804). "The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online: November 4, 1804". University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Retrieved 2012-12-22. 
  4. ^ a b Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, et al. (1804). "The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online: August 17, 1805". University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Retrieved 2012-12-22. 
  5. ^ The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online: November 20, 1805
  6. ^ 'The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Online: October 13, 1805
  7. ^ "Sacagawea in primary sources". Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  8. ^ a b Drumm, Stella M., ed. (1920). Journal of a Fur-trading Expedition on the Upper Missouri: John Luttig, 1812–1813, St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society.
  9. ^ a b Butterfield, Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker". "Sacagawea: Captive, Indian Interpreter, Great American Legend: Her Life and Death".
  10. ^ "Sacagawea's Shoshone People". Bonniebutterfield.com. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  11. ^ a b "What Happened After The Expedition: Sacagawea's Death". Bonniebutterfield.com. 1963-07-02. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  12. ^ a b Wilson, Raymond (1999-05-25). Ohiyesa: Charles Eastman, Santee Sioux,. ISBN 978-0-252-06851-5.  by Raymond Wilson. University of Illinois Press, 1999. ISBN 0-252-06851-3
  13. ^ a b Clark, Ella E. and Edmonds, Margot. Sacagawea of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. University of California Press, September 15, 1983. ISBN 978-0-520-05060-0
  14. ^ "University of Wyoming American Heritage Center". Ahc.uwyo.edu. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  15. ^ "Lewis and Clark Trail". Lewis and Clark Trail. 2001-01-17. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  16. ^ Sandy Mickelson, "Sacajawea legend may not be correct," The Messenger; Fort Dodge, Iowa. The reporter recounts the findings from Thomas H. Johnson, "Also Called Sacajawea: Chief Woman’s Stolen Identity." Johnson argues that Hebard had the wrong woman when she relied upon oral history that an old woman who died and is buried on the Wyoming Wind River Reservation was Sacajawea, the Shoshone woman who participated in the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
  17. ^ Virginia Scharff, "Grace Raymond Hebard: The Independent and Feminine Life; 1861–1936," in Lone Voyagers: Academic Women in Coeducational Universities. 1870 – 1937, Ed. Geraldine Joncich Clifford. New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1989.
  18. ^ Park, Indrek. 2012. A Grammar of Hidatsa. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington. p. 36.
  19. ^ "Reading Lewis and Clark – Thomasma, Clark, and Edmonds", Idaho Commission for Libraries
  20. ^ Koontz, John. Etymology. Siouan Languages. Retrieved 2007-04-01
  21. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names in the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 413
  22. ^ Hartley, Alan H. (2002). Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter 20.4:12–13
  23. ^ Reid, Russell. Sakakawea: The Bird Woman. Bismarck: State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1986, as quoted in the State Historical Society of North Dakota document Language Authority, Rev. C. L. Hall, Retrieved 2007-12-12
  24. ^ a b c d Anderson, Irving W. "The Sacagawea Mystique: Her Age, Name, Role and Final Destiny", COLUMBIA Magazine, Fall 1999; Vol. 13, No. 3 (archive URL)
  25. ^ a b "The Legend of Her Name", Lemhi County Historical Museum
  26. ^ "[The Lewis and Clark Expedition] merited less than a single paragraph in John Clark Ridpath's 691-page Popular History of the United States of America (1878)." [...] "Within three years of publication of Dye's novel the first book devoted exclusively to Sacagawea, Katherine Chandler's The Bird-Woman of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, appeared as a supplementary reader for elementary school students." [Chandler's book used the "Sacajawea" spelling.] Dippie, Brian W. "Sacagawea Imagery", Chief Washakie Foundation
  27. ^ George, Rozina. "Agaidika Perspective on Sacajawea", Life Long Learning: The Lewis and Clark Rediscovery Project.
  28. ^ Sacagawea at the Internet Movie Database
  29. ^ "Schoolhouse Rock 'Elbow Room' on YouTube". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  30. ^ "Sacajawea Interpretive, Cultural, and Educational Center". Sacajaweacenter.org. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  31. ^ Biography and Photo of the Statue of Sacagawea, at the National Statuary Hall in Washington D.C.
  32. ^ "'Clark's Point, Case Park'". Lewis and Clark Trail.com. 2008-06-29. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  33. ^ "Sacajawea and Jean-Baptiste", sculpted by Alice Cooper
  34. ^ "Sculpture of Sacagawea and Jean Baptiste". Lclark.edu. 2004-09-05. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  35. ^ "Late May 1805" diorama by Harry Weber.

External links

Media related to Sacagawea at Wikimedia Commons