Sacral nerves

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Nerve: Sacral nerves
Gray802.png
Areas of distribution of the cutaneous branches of the posterior divisions of the spinal nerves. The areas of the medial branches are in black, those of the lateral in red. Sacral nerves are those labelled S1-S5.
Latin Nervi sacrales
Gray's p.924

The sacral nerves are the five spinal nerves which arise from the sacrum at the lower end of the vertebral column. The roots of these nerves begin inside the vertebral column at the level of the L1 vertebra and extend until the sacrum forms a structure called the cauda equina.[1][2]

Anatomy[edit]

There are five paired sacral nerves, and half of them arise through the sacrum on the left side and the other half on the right side. Each nerve emerges in two divisions: one division through the anterior sacral foramina and the other division through the posterior sacral foramina of the sacrum.[3]

The nerves divide into branches and the branches from different nerves join with one another, some of them also joining with lumbar or coccygeal nerve branches. These anastomoses of nerves form the sacral plexus and the lumbosacral plexus. The branches of these plexus give rise to nerves that supply much of the hip, thigh, leg and foot.[4][5]

The sacral nerves have both afferent and efferent fibers, thus they are responsible for part of the sensory perception and the movements of the lower extremities of the human body. From the S2, S3 and S4 arise parasympathetic fibers whose electrical potential supply the descending colon and rectum, urinary bladder and genital organs. These pathways have both afferent and efferent fibers and, this way, they are responsible for conduction of sensory information from these pelvic organs to the central nervous system (CNS) and motor impulses from the CNS to the pelvis that control the movements of these pelvic organs.[6]

Anastomosis between first sacral nerve and sacral sympathetic

Clinical significance[edit]

There are several procedures used in sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of various related disorders.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1. Anatomy, descriptive and surgical: Gray's anatomy. Gray, Henry. Philadelphia : Courage Books/Running Press, 1974
  2. ^ 2. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Moore, Keith L. Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010 (6th ed)
  3. ^ 1. Anatomy, descriptive and surgical: Gray's anatomy. Gray, Henry. Philadelphia : Courage Books/Running Press, 1974
  4. ^ 1. Anatomy, descriptive and surgical: Gray's anatomy. Gray, Henry. Philadelphia : Courage Books/Running Press, 1974
  5. ^ 3. Human Neuroanatomy. Carpenter, Malcolm B. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins Co., 1976 (7th ed)
  6. ^ 3. Human Neuroanatomy. Carpenter, Malcolm B. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins Co., 1976 (7th ed)

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.