Sacred groves of India
Sacred groves of India are forest fragments of varying sizes, which are communally protected, and which usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community. Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these patches. Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and deadwood collection are sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis. Sacred groves did not enjoy protection via federal legislation in India. Some NGOs work with local villagers to protect such groves. Traditionally, and in some cases even today, members of the community take turns to protect the grove. However, the introduction of the protected area category community reserves under the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 has introduced legislation for providing government protection to community held lands, which could include sacred groves.
Indian sacred groves are sometimes associated with temples / monasteries / shrines or with burial grounds (which is the case in Shinto and Ryukyuan religion-based sacred groves respectively in Japan). Sacred groves may be loosely used to refer to other natural habitat protected on religious grounds, such as Alpine Meadows.
Beliefs and practices 
Typically, such groves are associated with the concept of a "presiding deity". While most of these sacred deities are associated with local Hindu gods, sacred groves of Islamic and Buddhist origins, and some based on smaller local religions and folk religions (like the folk deities ayyanar and amman ) are also known of. There are over 1000 deities associated with sacred groves in the states of Kerala and Karnataka alone. In Kodagu district in Karnataka from time immemorial the martial community of Kodavas had maintained over a 1000 Deva kadus dedicated to Aiyappa the forest god.
The Hindu tradition considers forests (Van/ Ban) to be of three types - Tapovan, Mahavan and Sreevan. Tapovan are forests associated with penance (Tapas), and are inhabited by saints and rishis. Mahavan refers to the grand natural forests. Tapovan and Mahavan are considered to be a Raksha ("sanctuary") for flora and fauna as ordinary human beings are not allowed to enter these forests. Sreevan, which means, "forests of prosperity", consists of dense forests and groves. From the former, people would collect dry wood, leaves, forest produce and a limited amount of timber, though natural ecosystem would not be unnecessarily disturbed. Groves were considered as spaces of forests from where harvesting could be done. Sometimes, specific trees like mango trees could be planted and nurtured here. Groves were associated with religious rites, festivals and recreation. Typical recreational activities associated with these groves included jhoola/ jhoolan. In the villages, Panchavati, or a cluster of five trees that represented the forests, were maintained. These trees represented the five elements of Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether.
Planting and nurturing of trees has been a highly evolved practice in ancient India. Vrukshayurveda, the science of plant life and also a 10th century treatise of that title on the subject ascribed to Surapala, dealt with various species of trees and their growth. Verses 9-23 from this text indicate how mystical beliefs and conservation of ecology was inter-connected.
He who plants even a single asvattha, wherever it may be, as per the prescribed mode, goes to the abode of Hari.
He who has planted dhatri has performed several sacrifices. He has donated the earth. He would be considered a celebate forever.
He who plant a couple of banyan trees as per the prescribed mode would go to the abode of Siva and many heavenly nymphs will attend upon him.
By planting four plaksa trees a person doubtlessly obtains the fruits of Rajasuya sacrifice.
One should plant seven palasa trees or even one. One attains the abode of Brahma and enjoys the company of gods by doing so.
He who himself plants eight udumbara trees or even prompts someone to plant them, rejoices in the lunar world He who has planted madhuka has propitiated Parvati, has become free from diseases, and has worshipped all deities.
If one plants ksirini, dadimi, rambha, priyala, and panasa, one experiences no affliction for seven births.
He who has knowingly or unknowingly planted ambu is respected as a recluse even while staying in the house.
By planting all kinds of other trees, useful for fruits and flowers, a person gets a reward of thousand cows adorned with jewels.
Sacred groves are scattered all over the country, and are referred to by different names in different parts of India. Sacred groves occur in a variety of places – from scrub forests in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan maintained by the Bishnois, to rain forests in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Himachal Pradesh in the north and Kerala in the south are specifically known for their large numbers of sacred groves. The Kodavas of Karnataka alone maintained over 1000 sacred groves in their region.
Around 14,000 sacred groves have been reported from all over India, which act as reservoirs of rare fauna, and more often rare flora, amid rural and even urban settings. Experts believe that the total number of sacred groves could be as high as 100,000.  
It is estimated[by whom?] that around 1000 km² of unexploited land is inside sacred groves. Some of the more famous groves are the kavus of Kerala, which are located in the Western Ghats and have enormous biodiversity; and the law kyntangs of Meghalaya – sacred groves associated with every village (two large groves being in Mawphlang  and Mausmai) to appease the forest spirit.
Among the largest sacred groves of India are the ones in Hariyali, near Ganchar in Chamoli District of Uttarakhand, and the Deodar grove in Shipin near Simla in Himachal Pradesh. Kodagu, a small region of about 4000 km² in Karnataka, had over 1000 sacred groves.
|State||No of groves||Local name||References|
|Andhra Pradesh||750||B. R. P. Rao |
|Arunachal Pradesh||65||Gumpa forests
|Dudley et al.|
|Goa||NA*||SERBC document |
|Himachal Pradesh||5000||Deo bhumi|
more than 500 " Jaherthan" in Godda of Jharkhand
|Marine Carrin |
|Gadgil et al.|
|Kerala||2000||Kavu, Sarpa Kavu||M. Jayarajan |
|Madhya Pradesh||21*||Devkot, Matikot,
||Waghchaure et al.|
|Khumbongyam et al.|
|Upadhyay et al.|
|Puducherry||108||Kovil Kadu||Ramanujam et al.|
Shamlat deh, Devbani
|S. S. Dash 
Dudley et al.
|Tamil Nadu||503||Kovil Kadu||M. Amrithalingam |
|Anthwal et al.|
|West Bengal||670*||Garamthan, Harithan,
|R. K. Bhakat |
All numbers are quoted from the records of the C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre of the Government of India. Starred numbers are likely to increase. The centre also maintains a complete list of identified sacred groves in India, most of which is online.
Traditional uses: One of the most important traditional uses of sacred groves was that it acted as a repository for various Ayurvedic medicines. Other uses involved a source of replenishable resources like fruits and honey. However, in most sacred groves it was taboo to hunt or chop wood. The vegetation cover helps reduce soil erosion and prevents desertification, as in Rajasthan. The groves are often associated with ponds and streams, and meet water requirements of local communities. They sometimes help in recharging aquifers as well.
Modern uses: In modern times, sacred groves have become biodiversity hotspots, as various species seek refuge in the areas due to progressive habitat destruction, and hunting. Sacred groves often contain plant and animal species that have become extinct in neighboring areas. They therefore harbor great genetic diversity. Besides this, sacred groves in urban landscapes act as "lungs" to the city as well, providing much needed vegetation cover.
Threats to the grove include urbanization, over-exploitation of resources (like overgrazing and excessive fuelwood collection), and environmental destruction due to religious practices. While many of the groves are looked upon as abode of Hindu gods, in the recent past a number of them have been partially cleared for construction of shrines and temples. Other threats to the sacred groves include invasion by invasive species, like the invasive weeds Chromolaena odorata, Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora.
A large number of distinct local art forms and folk traditions are associated with the deities of sacred groves, and are an important cultural aspect closely associated with sacred traditions. Ritualistic dances and dramatizations based on the local deities that protect the groves are called Theyyam in Kerala and Nagmandalam, among other names, in Karnataka. Often, elaborate rituals and traditions are associated with sacred groves, as are associated folk tales and folk mythology.
- Gadgil, M. and Vartak, V.D. ; Sacred groves of India : A plea for continued conservation Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 72 : 314-320, 1975
- Sudha, P., Rekha, P. V., Gunaga, V. S., Patagar, S., Naik, M. B., Indu, K. M., and N. H Ravindranath, Community Forest Management and Joint Forest Management: An Ecological, Economic and Institutional Assessment in Western Ghats, India, Presented at "Crossing Boundaries", the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 10–14, 1998
- Ranchor Prime, Vedic Ecology: Practical Wisdom for Surviving the 21st Century, Mandala Publishing, Novato, CA, 2002
- Vrukshayurveda, authored by Surapala, translated by Nalini Sadhale, Agri-History Bulletin No.1, Asian Agri-History Foundation, Secunderabad
- A series of articles in the journal Down to Earth on sacred groves
- Malhotra, K. C., Ghokhale, Y., Chatterjee, S. and Srivastava, S., Cultural and Ecological Dimensions of Sacred Groves in India, INSA, New Delhi, 2001
- Ramachandra Guha, The Unquiet Woods, University of California Press, 2000 (ISBN 978-0520222359)
- Eco Destination . Mawphlang Sacred Forest
- B. Ravi Prasad Rao, Conservation of threatened flora in sacred groves of Southern Andhra Pradesh, Symposium On National Biodiversity and Ecosystem Information Infrastructure (NBEII): Challenges and Potentials, Pune, 2006
- Ed. N. Dudley, L. Higgins-Zogib, and S. Mansourian; The Arguments for Protection Series - Beyond Belief: Linking faiths and protected areas to support biodiversity conservation, pp. 91-95; World Wide Fund for Nature, 2005 (ISBN 2-88085-270-6)
- Website of the Sacred Grove Restoration Project, Society for Ecological Restoration
- Marine Carrin, Santal autonomy as a social ecology, 16th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies, Edinburgh, 2000
- Gadgil, M., D. Subash Chandran, Sacred Groves and Sacred Trees of Uttara Kannada, Lifestyle and Ecology, edited by Baidyanath Saraswati. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts 1998
- M. Jayarajan, Sacred Groves of North Malabar, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram (ISBN 81-87621-95-8)
- Waghchaure, Chandrakant K.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Gunale, Venkat R.; Antia, Noshir H.; Birdi, Tannaz J., Sacred Groves of Parinche Valley of Pune District of Maharashtra, India and their Importance, Anthropology & Medicine, Volume 13, Number 1, April 2006, pp. 55-76(22)
- Khumbongmayum, M.D., Khan, M.L., and Tripath, R.S, Sacred groves of Manipur – ideal centres for biodiversity conservation, Current Science, Vol 87, No 4, 25 Aug 2004
- Upadhaya, K.; Pandey, H.N. 2; Law, P.S.; Tripathi, R.S; Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India, Biodiversity and Conservation, Volume 12, Number 3, March 2003, pp. 583-597(15)
- M.P. Ramanujam and K. Praveen Kumar Cyril, Woody species diversity of four sacred groves in the Pondicherry region of South India, Biomedical and Life Sciences and Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 12, Number 2 / February, 2003, Springer Netherlands
- S. S. Dash, Kabi sacred grove of North Sikkim Current Science, Vol 89, No 3, 10 Aug 2005
- M. Amirthalingam, Sacred Groves of Tamil Nadu – A Survey, CPR Environmental Education Centre, Chennai, India, p. 191, 1998
- Ashish Anthwal, Ramesh C. Sharma, and Archana Sharma, Sacred Groves: Traditional Way of Conserving Plant Diversity in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal, The Journal of American Science, 2(2), 2006, Anthwal et al., Sacred Groves: Conserving Plant Diversity
- Ram Kumar Bhakat, Socio-religious and ecological perspective of a sacred grove from Midnapore district, West Bengal, Science and Culture (Sci. Cult.), 2003, vol. 69, no 11-12, pp. 371-374
- Database at the CPR Environmental Education Centre
- Chris A. Gregory, The Oral Epics of the Women of the Dandakaranya Plateau: A Preliminary Mapping, J. Soc. Sci., 8(2): 93-104 (2004)
- Shifting Cultivation, Sacred Groves and Conflicts in Colonial Forest Policy in the Western Ghats. M,D. Subash Chandran; CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO. PDF 
- CULTURAL AND ECOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF SACRED GROVES IN INDIA By Kailash C. Malhotra., Yogesh Gokhale Sudipto Chatterjee., Sanjeev Srivastava.; Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi & Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal; June, 2001. Published by: Indian National Science Academy, Bhopal. Printed at : Nirmal Vijay Printer, New Delhi. PDF 
- SACRED GROVES OF INDIA : AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY; By Kailash C. Malhotra., Yogesh Gokhale., Ketaki Das.; INDIAN NATIONAL SCIENCE ACADEMY AND DEVELOPMENT ALLIANCE; © Development Alliance, New Delhi (www.dev-alliance.com); August, 2001. PDF 
- SACRED GROVES SOURCES; ENVIS; C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre is a Centre of Excellence of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
- ENVIS Centre on Conservation of Ecological Heritage and Sacred Sights of India; ENVIS; C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre is a Centre of Excellence of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Home page