دکتر سعید حجاریان
|Deputy Chairman of City Council of Tehran|
|Political party||Islamic Iran Participation Front|
|Alma mater||University of Tehran|
Saeed Hajjarian (Persian: سعید حجاریان , born 1954) is an Iranian intellectual, prominent journalist, pro-democracy activist and university lecturer. He was an intelligence official, a member of Tehran's city council, and advisor to president Mohammad Khatami. On 12 March 2000, he was shot in the face by an assailant and severely disabled, an act many[who?] believe was in retaliation for his help in uncovering the chain murders of Iran and his significant help to the Iranian reform movement in general.
Early life and education
Hajjarian was born in Shiraz in 1954. He studied mechanical engineering at Tehran University. In 1977 Hajjarian was enrolled in mechanical engineering undergraduate program but then he shifted to political sciences and received his doctoral qualification from Tehran University in 2003. A young Iranian revolutionary during the 1979 Iranian Revolution, he was one of the students who took over the US embassy in Tehran in 1979.
After the revolution, Hajjarian involved in the formation of the intelligence apparatus of the newly founded Islamic Republic. Through the 1980s, he was working in the ministry of intelligence, where his positions included vice minister for political affairs. In the late 1980s, he left the ministry, and established Center for Strategic Research under the presidency. That was where he played an important role in creating a new discourse based on democracy and rule of law for his generation of revolutionaries.
When Mohammad Khatami was elected President in 1997, he appointed Hajjarian his political advisor. In 1999, he was elected to the city council of Tehran in the first city elections after the 1979 revolution. Hajjarian was also the editor of Sobh-e Emrooz newspaper, which was a strong advocate of Khatami's reforms. He was believed to be the source of information for many articles written by the investigative journalists, Akbar Ganji and Emadeddin Baghi. These included stories about the "Chain murders" of dissident intellectuals by members of Iran's intelligence ministry.
In March, 2000 he was shot in the face by a gunman on the doorstep of Tehran's city council. The would-be assassin fled on a motorcycle with an accomplice. The bullet entered through his left cheek and lodged in his neck, and put Hajjarian into a coma. During this time, groups of young Iranians kept vigil outside Sina hospital, where he was being treated. Hajjarian was badly paralyzed for life.
His assailant, Saeed Asgar, a young man who was reported to be a member of the Basij militia, was later arrested and sentenced to spend 15 years in jail. But he was released after spending only a short term in prison. Asgar was accompanied by Mohsen Morteza Majidi on a motorbike. Others, who were involved, include Mohammad Ali Moghaddami, Mehdi Rowghani, Mousa Jan Nesari, Ali Pourchaluei (possibly the one who shot Hajjarian), Saeed Golounani and Safar Maghsoudi.
His attempted assassination is thought to be associated with the exposure of the "Chain murders" in his Sobh Emrouz daily newspaper, and the "key role" he is believed to have played "in bringing about ... damaging disclosures," both as the editor of the exposing newspaper and one of the few reformists likely to be a source of information about activity in the intelligence ministry. Consequently, "some believe that remnants" of the chain murder "intelligence killer group may have been" behind his attempted assassination.
Hajjarian slowly recovered somewhat from the shooting. By 2005, Hajjarian was still unable to speak with a clear voice and still using the wheelchair, although could walk with help. As of 2009 he still spoke with difficulty and was "dependent on the constant care of doctors and family."
Research works and viewpoints
According to author Abbas Milani, Hajjarian argued that domination of politics by clerics was wrong, but could be gradually eroded by "mobilizing the masses and using them as bargaining chips with Iran's rulers." His strategy for the reform movement was described by another journalist as extending the reformists "reach by triangulating between the mass movement they represented and the autocratic state with which they shared power. He coined the phrase that would define the reformists’ strategy: Pressure from below, negotiation at the top.”
Hajjarian argued that there is a way of combating the predominance of Valiyat al-faqih (rule of the Islamic jurist) by underlining the de facto secularization of religion by the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic, Khomeini. He allegedly showed the supremacy of politics as such over any religious norm when he said that the interests of the Islamic Republic are paramount in Islam and that zakat, salat, hajj, and everything else in Islam, are subordinant. This kind of decision, he states, means that politics are more important than religion and that this acknowledges the secularization of religion. In this context, he argues, it is possible to reassess velayat faqih and to reject its supremacy within the political field in Iran.
On 16 June 2009, four days after the disputed presidential election, it was reported that Hajjarian had been arrested. It was reported that he died in Evin prison under torture on 7 July. However, it was later added that he was still alive but had suffered a nervous breakdown on 8 July and was in critical condition in a military hospital in Tehran. Later, there were reports that he was still in Evin Prison, possibly in a clinic there, and that according to his wife, physician Vajiheh Marsoussi, his medical condition was "deteriorating severely" while in prison. Hajjarian was accused of having links with the British intelligence service on 25 August 2009.
- Abbas Amir-Entezam
- Akbar Ganji
- Gholamhossein Karbaschi
- History of political Islam in Iran
- Human rights in Islamic Republic of Iran
- Iranian reform movement
- "Jailed Iranian reformist's life at risk: U.S. group". Reuters. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- Analysis: Who wanted Hajjarian dead? BBC
- Blanche, Ed (1 March 2001). "'Rogue agent' convictions leave many questions unanswered". The Middle East. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Sachs, Susan. "2 Trials Focus Attention on Iranian Justice". The New York Times.
- "Five Jailed Over Iran Shooting". The Independent.
- "Agency publishes names of suspects involved in Hajjarian case". BBC Monitoring Middle East.
- The New Yorker, "Protest Vote," 29 June 2009, p.23 Retrieved 11 July 2009
- Secor, Laura (2005-11-21). "New Yorker magazine, "Fugitives, Young Iranians confront the collapse of the reform movement", Laura Secor, 21 November 2005". Newyorker.com. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- The New Republic, "The New Democrats" by Abbas Milani, July 15, 2009 (not available for free online)
- Khosrokhavar, F. (2004). "The New Intellectuals in Iran". Social Compass 51 (2): 191. doi:10.1177/0037768604043006.
- "Leading Iranian reformist arrested, his office says". Reuters. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- "شهادت سعید حجاریان زیر دست مرتضوی و شریعتمداری". Peiknet.com. 7 July 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- Muhammad Sahimi (8 July 2009). "Reformist Strategist: Saeed Hajjarian". Teheran Bureau. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
- Robert Tait (21 July 2009). "Iran's illogical cruelty: The imprisonment of the frail reformer Saeed Hajarian exposes the callousness of Iran's leaders – and their lack of logic". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 July 2009.
- "Reports: 50 'political figures' among Iranian detainees. 30 July 2009. CNN". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- "No Operation". Presstv. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saeed Hajjarian.|
- (Persian) A Recent (2005) interview with Hajjarian by Vaghaye Ettefaghieh
- BBC News story on Hajjarian assassination attempt
- Al-Ahram Weekly story: Price of a reformist victory?
- Show Trials against Dissidents in Iran: Destruction of a Hero
- From Etelāʿāti to Eslāhtalabi: Saʿid Hajjarian, Political Theology and the Politics of Reform in Post-Revolutionary Iran, Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi, Iranian Studies, Volume 47, Issue 6, 2014