Safety culture

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Explicit displays of attitudes towards safety are present in workplaces with positive safety cultures.

Safety culture is the ways in which safety is managed in the workplace, and often reflects "the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to safety"[1] In other words "the way we do safety around here[2]

Definition[edit]

The Chernobyl disaster highlighted the importance of safety culture and the impact of managerial and human factors on the outcome of safety performance.[3][4] The term ‘safety culture’ was first used in INSAG’s (1988) ‘Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident’ where safety culture was described as:

"That assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance."

Since then, a number of definitions of safety culture have been published. The U.K. Health and Safety Commission developed one of the most commonly used definitions of safety culture: "The product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organization’s health and safety management".[5] "Organizations with a positive safety culture are characterized by communications founded on mutual trust, by shared perceptions of the importance of safety and by confidence in the efficacy of preventive measures."

The Cullen Report into the Ladbroke Grove rail crash defines safety culture as "the way we typically do things around here". This relates to a full range of safety critical behaviors from the wearing of PPE (or not), the quality of delivery of a tool box talk – or the seriousness with which safety is discussed at a high level meeting. A new starter or recently arrived sub contractor will soon pick up what the local norms are and be heavily influenced by them. If a tipping point of around 90% compliance is observed then these individuals will be highly likely to comply too – but if these individuals observe a 50:50 split then they may feel they have free choice as whatever they do they wont stand out. From this perspective it's argued that every organisation has a safety culture – just some a better one than others.

Since the 1980s there has been a large amount of research into safety culture. However the concept remains largely “ill defined”.[6] Within the literature there are a number of varying definitions of safety culture with arguments for and against the concept. The above-mentioned definitions, from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and UK Health and Safety Commission (HSC), are two of the most prominent and most-commonly used definitions.[7] However, there are some common characteristics shared by other definitions. Some characteristics associated with safety culture include the incorporation of beliefs, values and attitudes. A critical feature of safety culture is that it is shared by a group.[8][9][10][11][12]

Reason[13] (p. 295) highlights that safety culture “is a concept whose time has come”, stating that there is both a challenge and an opportunity to “develop a clearer theoretical understanding of these organizational issues to create a principled basis for more effective culture-enhancing practices.”

There is a trend for safety culture to be expressed in terms of attitudes and/or behaviour (Cooper, 2000).[14] Glendon et al., (2006, p. 367) highlight that when defining safety culture the premise of some researchers is to focus on attitudes, where others emphasize safety culture being expressed through their behaviour and work activities.[15] In other words, the safety culture of an organization acts as a guide as to how employees will behave in the workplace. Of course their behaviour will be influenced or determined by safety guidelines contained in the safety management system, a person's propensity to take risks (risk appetite) and other psychological factors, and the persons reinforcement history (See Cooper, 2000). For example, Clarke (2006, p. 278) states that the safety culture is not only observed within the “general state of the premises and conditions of the machinery but in the attitudes and behaviours of the employees towards safety”.

It is important to assess organizational safety culture as it represents a critical factor influencing multiple aspects of human performance and organizational safety. There are many proprietary and academic methods available to assess safety culture, but very few have been validated against actual safety performance. The vast majority of surveys examine key issues such as leadership, involvement, commitment, communication, and incident reporting. There are also some safety culture maturity tools that are used in focus group exercises, although few of these (even the most popular) have been linked to company incident rates. Such measures imply that every organization has a safety culture, whether good, bad or indifferent. The purpose of the assessment is determine where a company is on its safety culture journey toward excellence.

Role in incident investigation[edit]

Although there is some uncertainty and ambiguity in defining safety culture, there is no uncertainty over the relevance or significance of the concept.[16] Mearns et al.[17] stated that “safety culture is an important concept that forms the environment within which individual safety attitudes develop and persist and safety behaviours are promoted”. Incidents like the 1988 Piper Alpha oil platform explosion and the 1987 Kings Cross underground station fire have raised awareness of the effect of organisational, managerial and human factors on safety outcomes. As several reports of major disasters have identified, safety culture is a factor that decisively affected the outcome.[18] Such reports include the Piper Alpha oil-platform explosion,[19] the 1987 Kings Cross underground station fire (Fennel, 1988), and the sinking of the MS Herald of Free Enterprise passenger ferry (Sheen, 1987). Although definitions vary there is a consensus towards safety culture being a proactive stance to safety.[20]

Over the years, a lot of attention has focused on the causes of occupational incidents.[21] When incidents occur in the workplace it is important to understand what factors (human, technical, organizational) may have contributed to the outcome in order to avoid similar incidents in the future. Through developing an understanding of why and how incidents occur, appropriate methods for incident prevention can be developed (Williamson and Feyer 2002). In the past, any attempt to improve workplace safety or to control workplace risks has focused on technical aspects (i.e. design of safer systems) and on the direct influence of human behaviour (i.e. operator error).[22] However, a number of major disasters have brought attention to the impact of organizational factors (i.e. policies and procedures) on the outcome of safety performance, with numerous inquiries identifying safety culture as having a definitive impact on the outcome of the disaster.[23] Such incidents as the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, King's Cross, and Piper Alpha are all examples of how organizational and human factors can have an impact on safety performance. Following the Piper Alpha explosion Lord Cullen said that, “it is essential to create a corporate atmosphere or culture in which safety is understood to be and is accepted as, the number one priority”(p. 300).[24] In that same year a report into the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster identified numerous “flawed” decisions on behalf of NASA and Thiokol management as contributing factors to the disaster.

With every major disaster a large amount of resources are set aside in order to establish exactly what factors contributed to the outcome of the event. These inquiries pay particular attention to detail and prove to be an invaluable source of information in identifying factors that “make organizations vulnerable to failures”(p. 3).[25] From such inquiries, there are some clear observations that can be drawn, for example, organizational accidents are not a result of ‘operator error’, chance environmental or technical failures alone. Rather, the disasters are a result of a breakdown in the organization’s policies and procedures that were established to deal with safety. The Piper Alpha disaster, for example, was a fatal combination of failure of individuals to perform their duties, breakdown in documented systems and managerial failure.

There is now a move to apply the concept of safety culture at the individual level. Mearns et al.[26] highlight that although safety culture was a concept originally used to describe the inadequacies of safety management that result in major disasters, it is interesting that the concept is now being applied to explain accidents at the individual level. As worker’s behaviour is influenced by the safety culture of an organization, such culture could become a determinant of worker injury involvement.[27] Although the overall culture of an organization may have an impact on the behaviour of employees, much research has focused on the impact of more localised factors (i.e. supervisors, interpretation of safety policies) in the specific culture of individual workplaces. Glendon et al., (2006) refer to this as the “Local safety climate, which is more susceptible to transition and change” (p. 367).[28] This would also suggest that safety climate operates on a different level than safety culture. Though Mearns et al. (2006) emphasize, “The validity of the safety culture concept with regard to individual accidents is yet to be ascertained” (p. 643).

Positive characteristics[edit]

Several papers have sought to identify specific safety management practices that act as a predictor of safety performance.[29] Through examining organizations with good safety performance, it was intended to identify common features that are associated with good safety performance. Some examples of studies that have examined the safety performance of organizations include:

  • Cohen (1977) reviewed four organizations;
  • Shafai-Sahrai (1971) examined 11;
  • Cohen et al. (1975) and Smith et al. (1975) examined 42;
  • Shannon et al. (1996) conducted a postal survey of over 400 manufacturing companies;
  • Shannon et al.[30] reviewed 10 studies.

Reason[31] considers an ideal safety culture to be “the ‘engine’ that drives the system towards the goal of sustaining the maximum resistance towards its operational hazards”. (p. 294) Reason[32] maintains this goal should be achieved irrespective of the organization's leader or current commercial concerns. What drives the system is a constant level of respect for anything that may bypass organizational safety systems. In other words, it is important to remember what can go wrong. It is very dangerous to think that an organization is safe because no information is saying otherwise. Reason[33] believes in periods of good safety performance, the best way to stay cautious is “to gather the right kind of information”, which means creating an informed culture. An informed culture requires safety management to be aware of the numerous factors that have an impact on the safety systems (i.e. human, technical, organizational, and environmental). In this sense, Reason believes “an informed culture to be a safety culture” (p. 294).

An organization’s safety culture is ultimately reflected in the way in which safety is managed in the workplace. It is important to note that an organization's safety management system cannot consist of a set of policies and procedures on a bookshelf. The safety management system is the manner in which safety is handled in the workplace and how those policies and procedures are implemented into the workplace.[34] Kennedy and Kirwan[35] also assert that the nature by which safety is managed in the workplace (i.e. resources, policies, practices and procedures, monitoring, etc.) will be influenced by the safety culture/climate of the organization. The Health and Safety Executive (2000) believe that safety management should be integrated into the organizational system and management practice (HSG65, HSE 2000). Certainly in high-risk industries, safety should be considered number one priority. It is easy to see how the management system and culture of an organization are closely related.

It is argued “a ‘good’ safety culture might both reflect and be promoted by at least four factors” (Pidgeon and O’Leary 1994). These four factors include “senior management commitment to safety, shared care and concern for hazards and a solicitude for their impacts on people, realistic and flexible norms and rules about hazards, and continual reflection upon practice through monitoring, analysis and feedback systems (organizational learning)”.[36] It has also been argued that fundamentally leadership is the key to affecting a safety culture.[37] Broadbent,[38] in his vocal support of Burman et al.[39] has specifically recorded the influences of transformational leadership within safety culture development and coined the phrase "transformational safety leadership" to describe the application of his principles.

Shannon et al.[40] conducted a review of ten studies that examined the relationship between organizational factors and injury rates. Studies were only included if they had made comparisons between at least 20 workplaces[41] In order for a variable to be considered ‘consistently’ related to the injury rate, the relationship had to be:

  • Statistically significant in one direction in at least two thirds of the studies in which it was examined, and
  • Not found to be significant in the opposite direction in any other study.

Variables were categorized into Joint Health and Safety Committee, Management Style and Culture, Organizational Philosophy on OHS, Post-Injury Factors, Work Force Characteristics, and Other Factors. In all 17 variables were found to meet the criteria of being consistently related to lower injury rates.

Some of those variables included:

  • The amount of training the Joint Health and Safety Committee received,
  • Good relations between management and workers,
  • Monitoring of unsafe work behaviours
  • Low turnover of staff, and
  • Safety controls on machinery

(Shannon et al., 1997; p. 213)

Taking into account the nature and number of accidents that have occurred as a result of poor safety management[42] it is important that audit tools are developed to ensure that safety management practices are successful (Parker et al., 2006; Hudson et al., 1994). Mearns et al.[43] assert that the evaluation of safety management practices should compliment the assessment of safety climate. However Burman and Evans[44] discuss the limitations of Safety Management Systems (SMS) in relation to culture and show how leadership has a more direct effect on safety that management. They also define the difference between the two.

Broadbent[45] has quoted the contribution of Barling et al.[46] to the safety culture literature, in which they demonstrate a direct mathematical relationship with the application of Transformational Leadership and the frequency of workplace injuries. In a later development, Broadbent[47] showed how specific safety leadership items could assist organisations map their prevailing safety culture and safety leadership. This development was the creation of The Transformational Safety Culture and Leadership Assessment Systems.

It is important to remember that an organization's culture develops over a period of time and cannot be created instantly. “Organizations, like organisms, adapt”.[48] The safety culture of an organization develops as a result of history, work environment, the workforce, health and safety practices, and management leadership.[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cox, S. & Cox, T. (1991) The structure of employee attitudes to safety - a European example Work and Stress, 5, 93 - 106.
  2. ^ ZCBI (1991) Developing a Safety Culture., Confederation of British Industry, London.
  3. ^ Flin, R., Mearns, K., O'Conner, P. & Bryden, R. (2000) Measuring safety Climate: Identifying the common features Safety Science 34, 177 - 192.
  4. ^ IAEA, (1991) Safety Culture (Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-4) International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
  5. ^ HSC (Health And Safety Commission), 1993. Third report: organizing for safety. ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors. HMSO, London.
  6. ^ Guldenmund, F. W. (2000) The nature of safety culture: a review of theory and research Safety Science, 34, 215-257.
  7. ^ Yule, S. (2003) Safety culture and safety climate: a review of the literature. Industrial Psychology Research Centre 1-26.
  8. ^ Cox, S. & Cox, T. (1991) The structure of employee attitudes to safety - a European example Work and Stress, 5, 93 - 106.
  9. ^ Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S. G. & McKenna, E. F. (2006) Human Safety and Risk Management, Florida, CRC Press.
  10. ^ HSC (Health And Safety Commission), 1993. Third report: organizing for safety. ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors. HMSO, London.
  11. ^ Pidgeon, N. & O'Leary, M. (2000) Man-Made Disasters: why technology and organizations (sometimes) fail. Safety Science, 34, 15-30
  12. ^ Schein, E.H. (1992). Organisational Culture and Leadership (2nd Edition). Jossey-Bass, San Francisco CA.
  13. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.
  14. ^ Cooper, M. D. (2000) Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science 36 111- 136.[3]
  15. ^ Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S. G. & McKenna, E. F. (2006) Human Safety and Risk Management, Florida, CRC Press.
  16. ^ Yule, S. (2003) Safety culture and safety climate: a review of the literature. Industrial Psychology Research Centre 1-26.
  17. ^ Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M. & Flin, R. (2003) Safety Climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments Safety Science, 41, 641-680.
  18. ^ Reason, J. (1990) The contribution of latent human failures to the breakdown of complex systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 327, pp. 475–484.
  19. ^ Cullen, W.D., 1990. The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. HMSO, London.
  20. ^ Lee, T. & Harrison, K. (2000) Assessing safety culture in nuclear power station Safety Science, 34, 61-97.
  21. ^ Haslam, R. A., Hide, S. A., Gibb, A. G. F., Gyi, D. E., Pavitt, T., Atkinson, S. & Duff, A. R. (2004) Contributing factors in construction accidents Applied Ergonomics 36, 401-415.
  22. ^ Gadd, S. & Collins, A.M. (2002) Safety Culture: a review of the literature Health & Safety Laboratory HSL/2002/25
  23. ^ Reason, J. (1990) The contribution of latent human failures to the breakdown of complex systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 327, pp. 475–484.
  24. ^ Cullen, W.D., 1990. The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. HMSO, London.
  25. ^ Gadd, S. & Collins, A.M. (2002) Safety Culture: a review of the literature Health & Safety Laboratory HSL/2002/25
  26. ^ Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M. & Flin, R. (2003) Safety Climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments Safety Science, 41, 641-680.
  27. ^ Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S. G. & McKenna, E. F. (2006) Human Safety and Risk Management, Florida, CRC Press.
  28. ^ Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S. G. & McKenna, E. F. (2006) Human Safety and Risk Management, Florida, CRC Press.
  29. ^ Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M. & Flin, R. (2003) Safety Climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments Safety Science, 41, 641-680.
  30. ^ Shannon, H. S., Mayr, J. & Haines, T. (1997) Overview of the relationship between organizational and workplace factors and injury rates Safety Science, 26, 201-217.
  31. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.
  32. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.
  33. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.
  34. ^ Kennedy, R. & Kirwan, B., (1995) The failure mechanisms of safety culture. In: Carnino, A. and Weimann, G., Editors, 1995. Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Safety Culture in Nuclear Installations, American Nuclear Society of Austria, Vienna, pp. 281–290. (Kennedy & Kirwin, 1998).
  35. ^ Kennedy, R. & Kirwan, B., (1995) The failure mechanisms of safety culture. In: Carnino, A. and Weimann, G., Editors, 1995. Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Safety Culture in Nuclear Installations, American Nuclear Society of Austria, Vienna, pp. 281–290. (Kennedy & Kirwin, 1998).
  36. ^ Pidgeon, N. & O'Leary, M. (2000) Man-Made Disasters: why technology and organizations (sometimes) fail. Safety Science, 34, 15-30.
  37. ^ Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008) Target Zero: A Culture of safety, Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal 2008, 22-27. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/849892B2-D6D2-4DFD-B5BD-9A4F288A9B18/0/DASCJournal2008.pdf
  38. ^ Broadbent, D.G. (2007), “What kind of safety leader are you?”, Proceedings of The Safeguard National Health and Safety Conference,SkyCity Convention Centre, AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND 1 – 2 May 2007
  39. ^ Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008) Target Zero: A Culture of safety, Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal 2008, 22-27. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/849892B2-D6D2-4DFD-B5BD-9A4F288A9B18/0/DASCJournal2008.pdf
  40. ^ Shannon, H. S., Mayr, J. & Haines, T. (1997) Overview of the relationship between organizational and workplace factors and injury rates Safety Science, 26, 201-217.
  41. ^ Shannon, H. S., Mayr, J. & Haines, T. (1997) Overview of the relationship between organizational and workplace factors and injury rates Safety Science, 26, 201-217.
  42. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.
  43. ^ Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M. & Flin, R. (2003) Safety Climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments Safety Science, 41, 641-680.
  44. ^ Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008) Target Zero: A Culture of safety, Defence Aviation Safety Centre Journal 2008, 22-27. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/849892B2-D6D2-4DFD-B5BD-9A4F288A9B18/0/DASCJournal2008.pdf
  45. ^ Broadbent, D.G. (2004), “Maximising Safety Performance via Leadership Behaviours”, Proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, CHINA, 8 – 14 August 2004
  46. ^ Barling, J., Loughlin, C., and Kelloway, E.K. (2002), Development and Test of a Model Linking Safety-Specific Transformational Leadership and Occupational Safety, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, No 3. pp. 488–496.
  47. ^ Broadbent, D.G. (2004), “Maximising Safety Performance via Leadership Behaviours”, Proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, CHINA, 8 – 14 August 2004
  48. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.
  49. ^ Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice Work and Stress, 12, 293-306.

Further reading[edit]

  • Publications on safety culture, focused mainly on the nuclear industry: http://nuclearsafety.info/safety-culture
  • Traits of a Healthy Nuclear Safety Culture, INPO 2013
  • Traits of a Healthy Nuclear Safety Culture, Addendum I, INPO 2013
  • Traits of a Healthy Nuclear Safety Culture, Addendum II, INPO 2013
  • Antonsen, S (2009). Safety Culture: Theory, Method and Improvement. Ashgate. 
  • Roughton, James (2002). Developing an Effective Safety Culture: A Leadership Approach (1st Edition ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-7411-3. 
  • Brown, R. L. & Holmes, H. (1986) The use of a factor- analytic procedure for assessing the validity of an employee safety climate model Accident Analysis and Prevention, 18, 455 - 470.
  • CBI (1991) Developing a Safety Culture., Confederation of British Industry, London.
  • Clarke, S. (1999) Perceptions of Organizational safety: implications for the development of safety culture. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 20, 185 - 198.
  • Clarke, S. (2003) Safety Climate in an automobile manufacturing plant: the effects of work environment, job communication and safety attitudes on accidents and unsafe behaviour Automobile manufacturing plant 35, 413 - 430.
  • Clarke, S. & WARD, K. (2006) The role of leader influence, tactics and safety climate in engaging Employees' safety participation Risk Analysis, 26, 1175 - 1186.
  • Cooper, M.D. (1998) "Improving Safety Culture: A Practical Guide' [1]
  • Cooper, M. D. (2000) Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science 36 111- 136.[2]
  • Cooper, M.D. (2002) Surfacing your safety culture [3]
  • Cooper, M.D. (2002) 'Safety Culture: A model for understanding and quantifying a difficult concept'.Professional Safety, June, 30-36. [4]
  • Cooper, M.D. (2008) 'Risk-Weighted Safety Culture Profiling'. 2008 SPE International Conference on Health, Safety & Environment in Oil & Gas Exploration and Production held in Nice, France 15-17th April 2008. [5]
  • Cooper, M.D. & Findley, L.J. (2013). 'Strategic Safety Culture Roadmap'. BSMS Inc. Franklin, IN, USA.
  • Cooper, M.D. & Phillips, R.A. (2004). 'Exploratory Analysis of the Safety Climate and Safety Behavior Relationship'. Journal of Safety Research,35, 497– 512. [6]
  • Desai, V. M., Roberts, K. H. & Ciavarelli, A. P. (2006) The relationship between safety climate and recent Accidents: Behavioural learning and cognitive attributions Human Factors, 48, 639 - 650.
  • Diaz, R. I. & Cabrera, D. D. (1997) Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29, 643-650.
  • Fullarton, C. & Stokes, M. (2005) The utility of a workplace injury instrument in prediction of workplace injury. Accident analysis and prevention 39, 28-37
  • Galloway, Shawn (2008) "The Legacy We Leave Behind" Safety Culture Excellence. [7]
  • Gillen, M., Baltz, D., Gassel, M., Kirsch, L. & Vaccaro, D. (2002) Perceived safety climate, job demands and co-worker support among union and non union injured construction workers Journal of Safety Research, 33, 33-51.
  • Hofmann, D. A. & Stetzer, A. (1996) A cross-level investigation of factors influencing unsafe behaviours and accidents. Personnel Psychology, 49, 307-339.
  • Hofmann, D. A. & Mark, B. (2006) An investigation of the relationship between safety climate and medication errors as well as other nurse patent outcomes Personnel Psychology, 59, 847-869.
  • Hoivik, D., Baste, V., Brandsdal, E. & Moen, B. E. (2007) Associations between self reported working conditions and registered health and safety results. JDEM, 49, 139-147.
  • HSC (Health and Safety Commission), 1993. Third report: organizing for safety. ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors. HMSO, London.
  • Hudson, P. (2007) Implementing safety culture in a major multi-national. Safety Science, 45, 697-722.
  • IAEA, (1991) Safety Culture (Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-4) International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
  • IOSH Safety Culture Report (2010) [8]
  • Lee, T. (1998) Assessment of safety culture at a Nuclear reprocessing plant Work and Safety, 12, 3, 217-237.
  • Lingard, H. & Yesilyurt, Z. (2002) The effect of attitudes on the occupational safety action of Australian construction workers: the results of a field study. Journal of Construction Research, 4 59-69.
  • Neal, A. & Griffin, M. A. (2002) Safety Climate and Safety Behaviour Australian Journal of Management 27, 67-78.
  • Neal, A., Griffin, M. A. & Hart, P. M. (2000b) The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behaviour Safety Science, 34, 99-109.
  • Niskanen, T. (1994a) Assessing the safety environment in work organization of road maintenance jobs. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 26, 27-39
  • Niskanen, T. (1994b) Safety Climate in the road administration Safety Science 17, 237-255.
  • O'TOOLE, M. (2002) The relationship between employees' perceptions of safety and organizational culture Journal of Safety Research, 33, 231 - 234.
  • Ostrom, L., Welhelmsen, C. & Kaplan, B. (1993) Assessing safety Culture. General safety considerations 34, 163-173.
  • Parker, D., Lawrie, M. & Hudson, P. (2005) A framework for understanding the development of organisational safety culture Safety Science, 44, 551-562.
  • Petersen, D. Authentic Involvement (2001, National Safety Council).
  • Petersen, D. Analyzing Safety System Effectiveness (1996, Van Nostrand Reinhold)
  • Petersen, D. Human Error Reduction and Safety Management (1996, Van Nostrand Reinhold).
  • Rundmo, T. (1992a) Risk perception and safety on offshore petroleum platforms - Par II: Perceived risk, job stress and accidents Safety Science 15, 53-68.
  • Rundmo, T. (1992b) Risk perception and safety on offshore petroleum platforms - Part I: Perception of risk Safety Science, 15, 39-52.
  • Rundmo, T. (1993) Occupational accidents and objective risk on North Sea offshore installations Safety Science, 17, 103-116.
  • Rundmo, T. (1996) Associations Between risk perception and safety Safety Science 24, 107-209.
  • Rundmo, T. (2000) Safety climate, attitudes and risk perception in Norsk Hydro Safety Science 34, 47-59.
  • Rundmo, T. & HALE, A. R. (2003) Managers Attitudes towards safety and accident prevention Safety Science, 41, 557-574.
  • Rundmo, T., Hestad, H. & Ulleberg, P. (1998) Organizational factors, safety attitudes and workload among offshore oil personnel Safety Science, 29, 75-87.
  • Safety Culture Excellence. [9]
  • Seo, D.-C., Torabi, M. R., Blair, E. H. & Ellis, N. T. (2004) A cross-validation of safety climate scale using confirmatory factor analytic approach Journal of Safety Research, 35, 427-445.
  • Shannon, H. S., Mayr, J. & Haines, T. (1997) Overview of the relationship between organizational and workplace factors and injury rates Safety Science, 26, 201-217.
  • Siiva, S., Lima, M. L. & Baptista, C. (2003) OSCI: an organisational and safety climate inventory Safety Science, 42, 205-220
  • Siu, O.-L., Phillips, D. R. & Leung, T.-W. (2002) Safety climate and safety performance among construction workers in Hong Kong The role of Psychological strain as mediators Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36, 359-366.
  • Tomas, J. M., Melia, J. L. & Oliver, A. (1999) A cross-validation of structural equation model of accidents: organizational and psychological variables as predictors of work safety. Work and Stress, 13, 49-58.
  • Varonen, U. & Mattila, M. (2000) The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 761-769.
  • Waring, A.E., 1996. Safety Management Systems., Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Wiegmann, D. A., Zhang, H., Von Thaden, T. L., Sharma, G. and Gibbons, A. M. (2004). "Safety culture: An integrative review". International Journal of Aviation Psychology 14 (2): 117–134. doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap1402_1. 
  • Williamson, A., Feyer, A.-M., Cairns, D. & Biancotti, D. (1997) The Development of a measure of safety climate: the role of safety perception and attitudes. Safety Science, 25, 15-27.
  • Zohar, D. (1980) Safety Climate in industrial organizations: theoretical and applied Implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 96-102.
  • Zohar, D. (2000) Safety climate Questionnaire. Facility of industrial engineering and management 1-5.
  • Zohar, D. (2002) The effects of leadership dimensions, safety climate and assigned priorities on minor injuries in work groups Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 75-92.
  • Zohar, D. & Luria, G. (2003) The use of supervisory practices as leverage to improve safety behavior: a cross-level intervention model Journal of Safety Research, 34, 567-577.
  • Zohar, D. & Luria, G. (2004) Climate as a social- cognitive construction of supervisory safety practices: scripts as proxy of behavior patterns Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 322-333.