Saffron terror are acts of violence that have been described as being motivated by Hindu Nationalism. However, in some cases the motivation for the acts has not been clearly determined, and in others it has been determined to be unrelated to Hindu nationalism. The term comes from the association of the colour saffron with Hindu nationalism in India. The phrase "saffron terror" entered public debate in India following the 29 September 2008 western India bombings. It is a controversial phrase. The Home Minister of India, P. Chidambaram urged Indians to beware of "Saffron terror" on 25 August 2010 at a meeting of state police chiefs in New Delhi. This was the first time the word was formally used by the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government, though it is used also by other ministers of the UPA Government. The term is used to refer to right wing religious fundamentalists in India, as per its usage by P. Chidambaram.
Investigations and allegations
Hindu extremist organisations have been accused of involvement in terrorist attacks including 2006 Malegaon blasts, Mecca Masjid bombing (Hyderabad), Samjhauta Express bombings and the Ajmer sharif dargah blast.
Samjhauta Express bombing
Twin blasts shook two coaches of the Samjhauta Express around midnight on 18 February 2007. Sixty-eight people were killed in the ensuing fire and dozens were injured. There has been number of breaks in the investigation of the bombings. It has been linked to Abhinav Bharat, a shadowy Hindu fundamentalist group. In November 2008, it was reported that the Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) suspected the attacks were linked to Prasad Shrikant Purohit, an Indian army officer and member of Hindu nationalist group Abhinav Bharat, albeit Purohit himself claimed that he had "infiltrated" the Abhinav Bharat and he was only doing his job. On 8 January 2011, Swami Aseemanand confessed that Saffron terror outfits were behind the bombing of Samjhauta express, a statement later found to be obtained under duress. Aseemanand claimed that he was tortured to give a false statement. During an army's Court of Inquiry as many as 59 witnesses stated to the court along with Officers who testified that Purohit was doing his job (of gathering intelligence inputs) by infiltrating extremist organisations.
Nevertheless, other allegations also concurred on Lashkar-e-Taiba. United States even declared Arif Qasmani, a Pakistani national and allegedly 'LeT financier', to be the chief coordinator of the 2006 train bombing in Mumbai as well as the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings and labelled him an international terrorist after approaching the United Nations about it. As of 2013, nobody has been convicted for the crime in India.
2008 Malegaon blasts
In the 29 September 2008, three bombs exploded in the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra of India killing 8 persons and injuring 80. During investigation in Maharashtra, alleged the involvement of a Hindu group in the blasts. The three arrested were identified as Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur, Shiv Narayan Gopal Singh Kalsanghra and Shyam Bhawarlal Sahu. All three were produced before the Nashik Chief Judicial Magistrate’s court, which had remanded them to police custody till 3 November. On 28 October, the Shiv Sena, in Saamna, came out in support of the accused saying the arrests were merely political in nature. Lending credence to this, party chief, Uddhav Thackeray, pointed out a potential conflict of interest in political rivalry as the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) controlled the relevant ministry. His editorial also condemned an attack by NCP party workers on a VHP office in Nashik following the arrest of the sadhvi. Allegations were also made that Pragya was framed for political reasons.
Prasad Shrikant Purohit was accused of being involved in the blast. He was taken in Police custody in connection with alleged forgery in procuring a gun from the military, but not yet because of the investigation of terror charges. His counsel alleged that Purohit was being falsely framed for political reasons and that he could even be eliminated by the ATS because he has intelligence data of a sensitive nature pertaining to Students Islamic Movement of India and Inter-Services Intelligence operations, which could embarrass some quarters.
Lt Col Shrikant Purohit of the India army and Pragya Singh Thakur, have been described as representing Saffron terror. NIA, National Investigative Agency, has found no evidence against Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur and it is recommending the court to drop all charges against her.
Mecca Masjid bombing
The Mecca Masjid bombing occurred on 18 May 2007 inside the Mecca Masjid, a mosque in Hyderabad. There are conflicting reports as to the perpetrators of the attack. Fourteen people were reported dead in the immediate aftermath.
On one side, The National Investigation Agency, Central Bureau of Investigation and Anti Terrorist Squad (India) claim former members of the RSS were behind the Makkah Masjid bombing implicating a nationalistic reason behind the attack. On 19 November 2010, the Central Bureau of Investigation produced the preacher Swami Aseemanand before the court in connection with the Makkah Masjid blast in Hyderabad in May 2007. Other cases that he has been linked with include 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings, 2008 Malegoan & Modasa bombing and Ajmer Sharif Dargah blast. But later he has redacted the 'confession' on basis of the claim that he was mentally and physically "pressured" to state that he was behind the blast. Aseemanand stated that the NIA is on the prowl to target nationalists like him in the name of Saffron Terror. Punjab and Haryana high courts to issue a notice to the National Investigation Agency to investigate the allegations of torture. In December 2012 NIA claimed Hindu Right Wing extremist Rajender Chaudhary was the one who planted the bomb and was a key accused. He was remanded in custody for 12 days.
The South Asia Terrorism Portal, the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, the National Counterterrorism Center the United States, and the United Nations reported that Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami was actually behind the attacks while excluding involvement by any Hindu group. Noting this, security analyst Bahukutumbi Raman has questioned "the two different versions that have emerged from Indian and American investigators." The South Asia Terrorism Portal cited Vikar Ahmed as a main suspect in the blast, and also noted that on 3 December 2008 Vikar Ahmed and an accomplice, Amjad were accused of firing at police officers attempting to arrest them in Hyderabad. Mohammed Abdul Shahid Bilal, former chief of HuJI’s Indian operations, is also regarded as a key suspect in the Mecca Masjid bombing, later he was shot by unknown gunmen in Karachi on 30 August 2007.
Members of Abhinav Bharat have been alleged to have been involved in a plot to kill Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh President Mohan Bhagwat. allegedly with the help of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence. Headlines Today released a recorded video tested by the Central Forensic Science Laboratory which indicated the uncovering of an alleged plot to assassinate the Vice-President of India Hamid Ansari. Tehelka also released alleged audio tapes transcripts of main conspirators of Abhinav Bharat which indicated involvement of Military intelligence officers with the Abhinav Bharat group in their January 2011 edition.
According to some released documents by WikiLeaks, Congress(I) party's general secretary Rahul Gandhi remarked to US Ambassador Timothy Roemer, at a luncheon hosted by Prime Minister of India at his residence in July 2009, that R.S.S. was a "bigger threat" to India than the Lashkar-e-Tayiba. RSS spokesman Panchjanya responded that the statement showed that Gandhi "is totally unaware of the history of Hindutva as well as the concept of nationalism."
At The Annual Conference of Director General of Police held in New Delhi on 16 September 2011, a special director of the Intelligence Bureau (IB) reportedly informed the state police chiefs that the Hindutva activists have either been suspected or are under investigation in 16 incidents of bomb blasts in the country.
Organisations and people accused
The following organisations are subject to accusations of involvement in acts of saffron terrorism:
The first known use of the term "Saffron Terror" is from an 2002 article in Frontline in reference to 2002 Gujarat Riots. However it was in the aftermath of the 29 September 2008 bomb blast in the predominantly Muslim town of Malegaon in Maharashtra that these terms came to be used widely. In late 2008, Indian police arrested members of a Hindu radical cell allegedly involved in an attack Malegaon which killed 7 Muslims. For incidents like these, Saffron terror has been used synonymously with "Anti-Muslim terrorism" or "Anti-Muslim reprisals" and also as Hindu terrorism.
Former Home Minister of India P. Chidambaram urged Indians to beware of "Saffron terror" on 25 August 2010 at a meeting of state police chiefs in New Delhi. This was the first time the word was "officially" used by the Government of India. Since making the remark, a Hindu Swami in the Patan district has filed a defamation lawsuit against Chidambaram, on the grounds that the saffron colour is a conventional Hindu symbol and worn regularly by Hindu religious clergy, and that Chidambaram has hurt the sentiments of Hindus by linking the symbol with terrorism. Chidambaram responded by stating "I cannot claim patent on the phrase." On 6 September 2010 a Gujarat court ordered a probe into the use of the term by Chidambaram. Chidambaram was also criticised by members of his own party (the Indian National Congress) for the use of the term, with Congress spokesman Janardhan Dwivedi claiming "terrorism does not have any colour other than black".
It has been debated that term saffron terrorism is a misnomer considering the historical descriptions of saffron colour compared to the definitions of terrorism. Saffron is the colour of the upper band of the Indian National Flag as specified by the Government of India. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was India's first Vice-President and second President, described the saffron colour as follows.
Bhagwa or the [deep] saffron colour denotes renunciation or disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work.
— Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
 The saffron colour appears in the party flags of various national parties of India like Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janatha Party. Saffron coloured flag is commonly seen in most temples in India. Buddhist monks typically wear saffron robes as a symbol of wisdom. The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as "the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological." According to United Nations General Assembly the descriptions of terrorism is found as follows: "Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them."
The term has been called as a "myth" by the journalist Balbir Punj who claims that the term is an invention of the Indian National Congress party to demonise their political opposition as "terrorists". Similar views have been expressed by other journalists in India Bahukutumbi Raman, former head of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), criticised the term as a tool for political posturing toward the Muslim minority.[dubious ] Kanchan Gupta and Swapan Dasgupta, have accused investigators of leaking statements about saffron terror to the media to promote the agenda of the Congress. Raman accused the media of measuring Muslim and Hindu suspects by different yardsticks.
The Bharatiya Janata Party's (BJP) president, Rajnath Singh, denounced claims of Hindu terrorists as "vilification of Hindu saints and army officers in the name of Hindu terrorism". In 2010, the internet whistleblower organisation WikiLeaks released documents attesting to some leaders of the Indian National Congress alleging involvement of Hindu right-wing groups in the death of ATS chief Hemant Karkare during the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks. The cable concluded that such allegations were being used for electoral gains. The term "Saffron Terror" was prominently used by some Congress party members in this campaign, most prominently by Digvijay Singh. The BJP criticised these statements and filed a complaint with the Election Commission of India citing it as a violation of the Model Code of Conduct for guidance of political parties. The Election Commission issued a show-cause notice to Digvijay Singh on this complaint. Hindu spiritual leader Sri Sri Ravi Shankar has also criticised the usage of the term, saying that it is a myth and insult to Hindu religion, which he said is the most tolerant religion.
- "Army in crisis over saffron terror stain — India — IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Lt Colonel Purohit: Did the Army sell short an effective officer?". NDTV.com. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013. "One by one, 59 witnesses, all from the Army, have told a Court of Inquiry — step one of Army's legal process- why they believe Lieutenant Colonel Prasad Purohit was just doing his job by fraternising with right-wing extremists. ..Officers have testified that Lieutenant Colonel Purohit had, in the course of his duties, infiltrated organisations like the Students Islamic Movement of India or SIMI. This is exactly what he had been ordered to do as a military intelligence man."
- Vishwa Mohan, TNN 8 Aug 2010, 03.10am IST (8 August 2010). "HuJI ban takes no note of 'Hindu terror' role". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Beware of saffron terror too, warns home minister". The Economic Times. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- PC defends ‘saffron terror’ remark Deccan Herald — 1 September 2010
- Rise of Hindu 'saffron terror'[dead link] New straits Times — 25 August 2010
- Zubair Ahmed (21 November 2008). "'Hindu terrorism' debate grips India". BBC. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "'Saffron terror' remark controversy: Sushil Kumar Shinde to clarify, stand-off to end soon: sources". NDTV.com. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Saffron Terrorism — a new phenomenon, says Home Minister Chidambaram". NDTV.com. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Dip Your Nib In Scepticism OutlookIndia.com, Editorial, 06-21-2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- RSS members behind Hyderabad, Ajmer blasts IBNLive.in.com, 05-14-2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- The Rise Of Hindutva Terrorism OutlookIndia.com, 5 November 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- Investigators have neglected 'Hindu terror' for a long time Daily News and Analysis, 05-19-2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- Malegaon, Ajmer, Hyderabad blasts. Joining the dots The Indian Express, 4 October 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Mecca Masjid blast accused also linked to Samjhauta train attack: NIA". The Times of India. 21 December 2010.
- "66 die in 'terror attack' on Samjhauta Express". Hindustan Times. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "The Mirror Explodes | Smruti Koppikar". Outlookindia.com. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Agencies. "Purohit supplied RDX for Samjhauta bomb: ATS". Express India. Retrieved 9 March 2013.[dead link]
- "I infiltrated Abhinav Bharat: Purohit". Hindustan Times. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Aseemanand owns up to strike on Mecca Masjid". The Times of India. 8 January 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Rajinder Nagarkoti, TNN 10 Jan 2011, 02.57am IST. "Swami Aseemanand 'confessed' under duress: Counsel". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Staff Reporter. "My arrest illegal: Aseemanand". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "US review finds five warnings of Headley’s militant links — India — DNA". Daily News and Analysis. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- ramesh (9 January 2011). "Curious case of Qasmani, who US,UN named in bombing". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 March 2013. ""In return for Qasmani's support, Al-Qaida provided him with operatives to support the July 2006 train bombing in Mumbai, India, and the February 2007 Samjota Express bombing in Panipat, India. Qasmani also facilitated the movement of Al-Qaida personnel out of Afghanistan in 2001," states the UN's narrative summary justifying the action against Qasmani. The US justification is similar."
- Sachin Parashar url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-05-11/india/29531592_1_qaida-al-qaida-arif-qasmani (11 May 2011). "LeT trying to acquire weapons of mass destruction with help from Qaida". The Times of India.
- "Samjhauta Express Blast Vs Mumbai Terror Attacks by Radhavinod Raju". Ipcs.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Samjhota Express 6th Anniversay: Never forget brutal terror against Pakistanis". Rupee News. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Arrests of 'Hindu terrorists' embarasses BJP". Hindustan Times. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Sadhvi in jail for Malegaon blast". The Times of India. 25 October 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Front Page : Malegaon blast; three remanded to custody". The Hindu. 25 October 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- PTI, 28 October 2008, 04:39PM IST (28 October 2008). "Real masterminds still at large, sadhvi Pragya a victim: Sena — Mumbai — City". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Is the police framing Pragya for Malegaon blast?". Merinews.com. 26 October 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Malegaon blast: ATS says Purohit main conspirator". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Agencies. "Malegaon probe: ‘Purohit could even be eliminated by ATS’". Express India. Retrieved 9 March 2013.[dead link]
- "India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- name=Indian Express>"NIA set to drop case against Sadhvi Pragya, others arrested by MP Police".
- Homepage | Deccan Chronicle
- TNN url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-11-29/india/30454293_1_special-nia-court-swami-aseemanand-samjhauta-blast-case. "HC notice to NIA on Aseemanand petition". The Times of India.
- PTI (27 December 2010). "RSS leader likely to be quizzed again in Masjid blast case". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- TNN url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-12-27/jaipur/28225231_1_rajasthan-ats-dargah-blast-indresh-kumar. "ATS may grill Aseemanand before tackling Indresh". The Times of India.
- "Mosque blast: RSS man grilled". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Rahul Tripathi, TNN 24 Dec 2010, 03.06am IST (24 December 2010). "RSS leader grilled for Hindu terror". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Vishwa Mohan, TNN 8 Aug 2010, 03.10am IST (8 August 2010). "HuJI ban takes no note of 'Hindu terror' role". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Why Swami Aseemanand is a prize catch for the CBI — Rediff.com India News". Rediff.com. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Swami Aseemanand sheltered Best Bakery accused on the run". The Indian Express. 21 November 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Aseemanand arrest: Major boost to Ajmer dargah blast probe". The Times of India. 19 November 2010.
- "Swami Aseemanand sheltered Best Bakery accused on the run". The Indian Express. 21 November 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Swami Aseemanand takes back confession, says he was "coerced" MSN News — 31 March 2010
- "Data sheets: Terrorism related incidents in Andhra Pradesh since 2007". Satp.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI)". Satp.org. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "HuJI after the Death of its India Chief | Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses". Idsa.in. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Huji, not Hindu group, behind Mecca Masjid blast". Hindustan Times. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "US, UN declare HuJI as terrorist organisation". The Economic Times. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "US, UN declare HuJI a terror group". NDTV.com. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- [dead link]
- "No Double Standards by B. Raman". Outlookindia.com. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "India — Timeline Year 2008". Satp.org. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "Mecca Masjid blast mastermind dead". Hindustan Times. 3 June 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- Shibu Thomas, TNN (28 June 2010). "Did Abhinav Bharat plan to kill RSS chief?". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- Gangan, Surendra (9 April 2010). "Abhinav Bharat used derogatory words against RSS chief: RR Patil". Mumbai. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- Khetan, Ashsih (15 July 2010). "Saffron brigade's terror plots exposed: India Today". New Delhi. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
- "The Unturned Stone". Tehelka. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "10 people wanted in blast cases had links with RSS". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Think before you speak, RSS tells Rahul — Rediff.com News". Rediff.com. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Hindutva activists behind 16 terror blasts in the country?". South Asia Mail. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Anirban Bhaumik, New Delhi, 20 Sep, DHNS:. "'Saffron terror' role being probed". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Blast accused wanted to kill saffron leaders". Hindustan Times. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "Saffron Terror". Front Line.[dead link]
- "Malegaon blasts arrests vital in exposing Hindu terrorism". ZeeNews.com. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2010.[dead link]
- India police say they hold 9 from Hindu terrorist cell, New York Times – October 12, 2008
- "Anti-Muslim reprisal terrorism — An update". Sri Lanka Guardian. srilankaguardian.org. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- kapil komireddi (19 January 2011). "India must face up to Hindu terrorism". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- Press Trust of India (30 August 2010). "Defamation suit against P Chidambaram for 'saffron terror' remark". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- Zeenews Bureau (1 September 2010). "I’ve no patent on 'saffron terror': Chidambaram". Zee News. Retrieved 8 September 2010.[dead link]
- "Court orders probe into PC's saffron terror remarks". Hindustan Times. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
- TNN (28 August 2010). "Congress ticks off Chidambaram over 'saffron terror' remark". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "On we the people:Is saffron terror a misnomer or real threat". Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Hindu terror is a misnomer, says RSS chief". Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "flagcodeofindia". Retrieved 21 March 2013.[dead link]
- "Article II-A Party Flag". Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Article II-A Party Flag". Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- O'Brien, Barbara. "The Buddha's Robe". Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "What is Terrorism?". Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- 1994 United Nations Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism annex to UN General Assembly resolution 49/60 ,"Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism", of 9 December 1994, UN Doc. A/Res/60/49
- Not terrified of terrorism Daily Pioneer – 12 December 2008
- Rip off 'secular' media's mask The Pioneer – 24 November 2008
- Everybody loves a good conspiracy The Hindu – 23 December 2008
- Muslim Anger Vs Hindu Anger[dead link] International Terrorism Monitor — Paper No. 466
- Kanchan Gupta (18 July 2010). "'Free' media tars RSS with fiction". The Pioneer. Retrieved 18 July 2010.[dead link]
- Swapan Dasgupta (7 August 2010). "Battleground heats up as the Hand plucks at the Lotus, one petal at a time". Tehelka. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- Why politicising the Malegaon case is dangerous Rediff — 17 November 2011
- Jug Suraiya (18 November 2008). "SUBVERSE | Unholy terrors". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- Copy of diplomatic cable dated 23 December 2008 (10 December 2010). "US Embassy Cables: Mumbai Conspiracy Allegations 'Outrageous' – US Ambassador". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- Shekhar, Kumar Shakti (20 December 2010). "Offence is Cong’s defence". The Pioneer. Retrieved 15 January 2011.[dead link]
- "Deuce! EC notice to Sonia, Digvijay". The Economic Times. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "'Saffron terror' term insult to Hindu religion: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". The Indian Express. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- "BJP, Sena 'flag' Chidambaram's saffron terror remark". The Times of India. 27 August 2010.
- "Why the home minister invoked 'saffron terror' – Rediff.com India News". Rediff.com. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Subhash Gatade, 'Godse's Children:Hindutva Terror in India',Pharos Media & Publishing Pvt Ltd (2011),(ISBN 81-7221-052-3 or ISBN 978-81-7221-052-6)
- Subhash Gatade,'The Saffron Condition:Politics of Repression and Exclusion in Neoliberal India',(ISBN 978-81-8878-975-7)
- Praveen Swami (11 May 2010). "The Rise of Hindutva Terrorism". outlookindia.com.