The Sagamu region is underlain by major deposits of limestone, which is used in the city's major industry, the production of cement. Agricultural products of the region include cocoa and kola nuts. Sagamu is the largest kola nut collecting center in the country. The kola nut industry supports several secondary industries such as basket and rope manufacturing, which are used to store the kola nuts.
Sagamu is the part of the Yoruba cultural region of southwestern Nigeria. The city was founded in the mid-19th century when several small towns united for purposes of defense during the wars brought about by the fall of the Oyo Empire. Sagamu controlled the trade routes between the ports in the Niger Delta and the Yoruba mainland until the British occupied the city at the end of the 19th century. Sagamu has experienced both population and economic growth since the 1950s due to its position between the cities of Ibadan and Lagos. The population in 1995 was 114,300 but 2007 estimates place it as high as 228,382. The Olabisi Onabanjo University's college of medicine is located in Sagamu.
Sagamu is the new seat of the Akarigbo of Remo ("King" or "Lord" of Remo), the traditional ruler of the Remo Kingdom. The former seat was located in the area of Offin. Four ruling families are eligible to wear the beaded crown of the Akarigbo, all descending from the first Oba, Akarigbo, a prince of the house of Oduduwa. The current Akarigbo is Oba M.A. Sonariwo. Notable areas within Sagamu are Sabo, Makun, GRA and Ijokun.