Sagar district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Sagar, Madhya Pradesh.
Sagar district
सागर जिला
District of Madhya Pradesh
Location of Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh
Location of Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
Administrative division Sagar
Headquarters Sagar, Madhya Pradesh
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Sagar
Area
 • Total 10,252 km2 (3,958 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 2,378,295
 • Density 230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy 77.52 per cent
 • Sex ratio 896
Website Official website

Coordinates: 23°48′N 78°40′E / 23.800°N 78.667°E / 23.800; 78.667 Sagar District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The town of Sagar serves as its administrative center.

The district has an area of 10,252 km², and a population of 2,021,783 (2001 census), a 23% increase from its 1991 population of 1,646,198. Sagar is bounded by Lalitpur District of Uttar Pradesh state to the north, and the Madhya Pradesh districts of Chhatarpur to the northeast, Damoh to the east, Narsinghpur to the south, Raisen to the southwest, Vidisha to the west, and Ashoknagar to the northwest. Sagar district is dominated by Yadavs.[1]

As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Madhya Pradesh (out of 50), after Indore and Jabalpur.[2]

Geography[edit]

Sagar District is an extensive, elevated and in parts tolerably level plain, broken in places by low hills of the Vindhyan sandstone. It is traversed by numerous streams, chief of which are the Sunar, Beas, Dhasan and Bina rivers, all flowing in a northerly direction towards the valley of the Ganges. In the southern and central parts the soil is black, formed by decaying trap; to the north and east it is a reddish-brown alluvium. Iron ore of excellent quality is found and worked at Hirapur, a small village in the extreme north-east. The district contains several densely wooded tracts, the largest of which is the Ramna teak forest preserve in the north.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census, Sagar District has a population of 2,378,295,[2] roughly equal to the nation of Latvia[3] or the US state of New Mexico.[4] This gives it a ranking of 188th in India (out of a total of 640).[2] The district has a population density of 232 inhabitants per square kilometre (600 /sq mi) .[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.62%.[2] Sagar has a sex ratio of 896 females for every 1000 males,[2] and a literacy rate of 77.52%.[2]

Culture[edit]

Places of interest[edit]

Eran (archaeological site) Tehsil Bina[edit]

Eran is situated 75 km north-west of Sagar town in M.P. Eran comes under Tehsil Bina of District Sagar. Eran is situated on the bank of river Bina (ancient Venva), a tributary of river Betwa (ancient Vetravati). By encircling from their sides it, provides natural protection to Eran. In the fourth unprotected direction, there is a fortified wall and a ditch of Chalcolithic Period1. Eran is approachable by the road from Mandibamora, which passes through Gohar and Dhansara villages. Mandibamora is about 12 km from Bina–Bhopal railway (central railway) track. Another fair-weather route runs from Khurai town to Eran via Nirtala, Silgaon, Lahatwas and Dhansara. The antiquities of Neolithic and Chalcolithic culture has been found from Eran. The Mouryas, The Sungas, The Satvahanas, The Shakas, The Nagas, The Guptas, The Hunas, The Kalchuries, The Chandellas and The Parmaras[5] had their hold over Eran region respectively. The Gupta monarch Samudra Gupta visited Eran which was his 'Swabhog Nagar'.

A group of temples is situated on the south bank of Bina river, just half a km to the west of the village. In this group Vishnu Temple, Varaha Temple, Nrisingh Temple, Garuda Pillar and other ruined temples are of architectural importance. The various inscriptions have found from Eran, These are inscription of Budhagupta,4 inscription of Saka ruler Sridhar Verma, inscription of Huna ruler Tormanh5, inscription of Samudragupta and Gopraj Sati Pillar inscriptions. The several Sati Pillars have found from Eran. One of the Earliest Sati Pillars of India has been found from Eran. This was discovered by General Alexander Cunningham in 1874–1875 AD.

This inscriptions shows that in Gupta Era 191 (510 AD)[6] Gopraj, a warrior of Gupta ruler Bhanugupta came to Eran and lost his life in a great War. His wife became Sati in her husband's Pyre. In addition to this various Sati Pillars ranging from Early Medieval Period to modern period have been noticed in Eran. Among these some Pillars have been obliterated, while about ten pillars inscription are still in safe condition. The imprints are taken of these 10 Sati pillars, which through the new light about Eran and also on the position women. The Saka Samvat is used in all Sati Pillars. The prayer to God occurs in the beginning of almost all the inscriptions. After mentioning the Samvat and Date. The epigraph gives the name of died Person and his wife who became Sati along with him. Usually all the inscribed Sati Pillars are having the name of village Eran and the name of woman who became Sati.

In all the Sati Pillars the symbols of The Sun, The Moon, Stars, Holy Furnace, blessing hands are carved .It indicates that till the existence of The Sun, The Moon, Stars and Fire on Earth the memory of Sati will remain. All the Pillars found in Village Eran belong to Brahamnas and Kshtriyas only. The inscriptions are inscribed in Nagri script. General A. Cunningham during his survey of this part of the country in 1874–75 visited Eran.[7] There he discovered a number of ancient copper coins, some being of great historical value. These included a good number the punch-marked coins. Same coins from eran bear the figure of goddess Lakshmi, other show animals (horse and elephant), tree within- railing and various other symbols, such as swastika, triratna, Indradhwaja, dharmachakra, lotus, Ujjain symbol, river with fishes semi-circle design, crescent, cakra, bull, sadarcakra, hill, taurine and the vajra symbol, river with fish and the cross and ball symbol.

Among the inscribed coins the most remarkable one[according to whom?] is that of a ruler named Dharmapala.17 The legend rano dhammapalasa (of king Dharmapala) is written one the coin reverse in large brahmi letter of the mouryan priod. This coin is presently displayed in British Museum, London. A number of important coins and inscribed Ceilings have been found at Eran. One copper coin bearing the name of king "Dharmapala" is counted among the earliest Inscribed coins in India.18 On the paleographic grounds this coin has been assigned to the late 3rd century BC. One circular lead piece bearing the name of the another ruler "Indragupta", assignable to the same period has been discovered at Eran. Local uninscribed copper coins of a number of varieties have been discovered at Eran. Attest to the great Importance of this town as a political seat and also as a coin-minting center. Early punch-marked and tribal coins were obtained from period II in excavation at Eran. Several inscribed copper coins bearing the name 'Erakannya' or 'Erakana' in the Brahmi script have also been found at Eran.21 Cunningham proposed that the symbol of the river represent the river Bina on which the village stands. He also surmised that the semi-circle on the coins was representative of the old Eran town. Which was probably so shaped. The Brahmi script of these coins assigns them to second first century[clarification needed] BC. The rest of the copper coins From Eran do not bear any inscription; some of the square copper coin from Eran represent the old karsapana' and some typical symbols of Eran.

The number of punch-marked copper coins from Eran are pretty large. The excavation conducted at Eran by the university of sagar have yielded besides numerous other antiquities, a good number of coins. An interesting thin round gold piece(diam9, weight 20 grains). From the late chalcolithic level, assignable to about 1000 BC may be mentioned here. The piece, although well cut in a circular form, does not bear any symbol. It also does not indicate any clear signs to infer that it was used as an ornament. It appears that the piece was prepared just to serve as an object of money. The gold piece probably served as the medium of exchange for the chalcolithic people. The other finds of the period include silver and copper punch-marked coins. The excavation at Eran have yielded a hoard of 3,268 coins in which most of the coins are made by copper and some of theme were silver coated. These belong to 2nd century BC.

It seems that there was a mint at Eran for a large-scale production of copper coin of particular types. Among the coins from Eran, Cunningham found a fairly good number of punch-marked, die-struck and cast coins. The number of copper punch-marked coins was found to be much larger than the silver punch-marked coins. Most remarkable among the die-struck coins were the square karsapanas of a standard weight of 144 grains and their several denominations.24 coins of these occur on the tribal coins of weight of most of the coins varies from 17.45 grains to 24.43 grains. Punch-marked coins belong to about 300 BC, if not a little earlier. The latest phase of the copper punch-marked coins at Eran comes to a close by the end of the 3rd century AD, as revealed from the excavation. Coins of the Kshatrapas, satavahana and Nagas, Gupta king Ramagupta, Huna rular Tormana and of the Indo-Sassanian rulershave been found. The Naga coins found at Eran, Vidhisha, pawaya (padmawati), and Mathura show various common features. The names of rulers occurring on these coins are to be carefully studied and compared in order to arrive at a correct attribution and chronology of the Nagas.27 The mints at Eran and vidisha produced a large number of copper coins. Copper was available in large quantities in the Balaghat area for the mints at Eran, vidisha attesting to the great importance of this town as a political seat and also as a mint-town.

It may be mentioned here that the economic condition of the Malwa and Bundelkhand areas must have been quit, sound during the period of Sunga-Satavahana supremacy.28 Gold coins were unknown in the area during this period and the silver currency in the form of punch-marked coin was also not much in use. After the Sunga-Satavahana period, there was a political change in the region Western malwa occupied by the Saka-Kshatrapas and remained under their rule right from the middle of the 2nd century AD till about the and Thay introduced there silver currency in western walwa.

They also minted coins in the mint at Eran which was occupied by them, although for a short time. Excavation & Exploration has been found hundred inscribed clay sealing (size 2.2 mm) on this sealing I read the following Barhmi inscription written in the well-known kshatrapa style.33 Rajno varamitraputrasya rajno, simhasrisenasya (i.e. of king simhasrisena, son of king Isvaramitra) All though the titles 'kshatrapa' or Mahakshatrapa are replaced here by the titles 'Rajno' the style of the legend and the occurrence of the hill and river symbols, so common on the Kshatrapa currency, leave no doubt that these two were kshatrapa chiefs. On the basis of palaeography the sealing can not be placed after 350 AD. The two rulers Isvaramitra and his son simhasrisena seem to have ruled over the Eran region of eastern malwa some time at the end of the 3rd or in the beginning of the 4th century AD. Mention may be made of a very large number of copper coins of Ramagupta from Eran and Vidisha. 31 The excavation conducted at Eran by the University of Sagar have brought to light four type of copper coins of Ramgupta. These types are 1. Lion 2. Garuda 3. Garudadhvaja 4. Border legend type. All the coins of Ramgupta are of copper, varying in the weight from 20 to 30 grains. The coins are circular in shape and their fabric is very similar to that of Naga coins. Which have been discovered in large numbers at Eran, vdisha region. The name of Ramgupta is clearly written on some of the coins found in excavations at Eran. 32 The symbols –Lion Garuda and Garudadhvaja are also quite distinct. The Brahmi legend on the coins is in early Gupta character.33 Besides the coins of Ramagupta Eran has also yielded copper coin of chandragupta vikramadiya.34 These are of two types, chakra and purnaghata. The excavation at vidisha have also brought to light copper coins of Ramgupta. In size and fabric they resemble the Eran coin of that ruler. Ramgupta can be called the originator of the copper currency in the imperial Gupta dynasty. His numerous copper coins with certain characteristic features of this dynasty should be taken into consideration in the study the coinage of the imperial guptas, The coins of Ramgupta were minted in eastern Malwa specially in the mints at Eran and vidisha.

These copper coins of Ramgupta are alike the Naga coins and coins of some of the local rulers of the Pre-gupta period.[8] The coins bearing the legend Ramgupta were not the issues by local officer of the imperial Guptas, nor of any feudal king of the same name. This king Ramgupta was the elder brother of Chandragupta II vikrmaadiya. Coins of Gwalior and Bhopal state have also been found in excavation. Recently author (Dr. Mohan Lal Chadhar ) of these lines have acquired 460 punch marked coins in a small earthen pot. These coins are made of silver, copper, tin and bronze alloy metal and are approximately 2300 years old (i.e. 3rd century BC). 38 These coins contain elephant, Sun, Sadara Cakra, Taurine, Tortoise, point in circle, Tree on platform, swastika, ox, hill, fish, Twin snake, Vajra and Ujjain symbol. On these coins obverse side mainly consisting of five sign and reverse side one or two signs. Most common symbol on reverse is Swastika.. Sun, sadara cakra, Fish symbols are displayed on obverse side. Three of the coins having holes were probably used as necklace or ornaments. These symbols prove originality of the coins.

The coins are prepared in rectangle and square shape. Few of them are prepared in punch marked method and few were made by stamping methods. The coins have been divided into four groups on the basis of weight. Coins of group one weighted 1.30 grams, of second group weighted 2.50 grams, of third group weighted 3.80 grams and of last group weighted 9.60 grams. These coins are displayed in museum of Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sager (M.P.).Information of vital nature pertaining to ancient Indian society, culture, Art, religion, economy, political affairs and arrangements are acquired by study of these coins. During the Period ancient coins producing mint were established in important cities, which were situated on main trade routes. Eran was situated on way between Bharruch (Bhragu Kachha), Ujjain to Kaushambi, Mathura, Taxshila trade route.

[9]

Dayasagar Ji Mararaj Nemingar Jain Tirth[edit]

Digamber Jain Tirtha Kshetra

Neminagar Jain Tirth is in Banda tehsil located 30 km from Sagar on National Highway NH-86. It was built in the name of Aacharya Shri 108[clarification needed] Nemisagar ji maharaj by the blessings of his disciple aacharya 108 shri dayasagar ji maharaj. This temple has one choubisi (24 tirthankars god on 24 different altar) one levitated trikal choubisi (Lords of time passes, the time now and time to be) and a navagraha mandir (Lords of nine planets).

Makronia, Sagar[edit]

Makronia Bujurg is named after Bujurg Hazrat Sayyed Makraan Saha Wali Rahmatulla Alleh whose dargha Situated in the premises of 10th Battalion of SAF and Nearby Darghah There is a hill called OSHO Hill Acharya Rajnish was done his Amrit Sadhna in This hill.A former Dr H S Gour University started from Makronia's SAF Campus so many Historic event is connected through makronia, This region is developing as the sub urban region near Sagar city. It is just 5 km away from city. It has its separate railway station. It has the biggest hotel of Sagar the 3 star Paradise hotel, many CBSE and MP board schools as well as government engineering collage.many army bases are located in makronia.

Notable personalities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2003-11-05/india/27192087_1_congress-candidate-sagar-congress-workers
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  3. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Latvia 2,204,708 July 2011 est." 
  4. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "New Mexico - 2,059,179" 
  5. ^ 3
  6. ^ 7
  7. ^ 16
  8. ^ 35
  9. ^ References 1. Fleet, J.F. : Corpus Inscriptionum Idicarum, Vol. 3,p. 88-902. Cunningham,A.: Report of tours in Malwa and Bundelkhand, varansi,1966, p. 463. Bajpai, K.D. : Sagar through the ages, New Delhi, 1967, p. 27.4. Ibid, p. 26-27.5. Jha, V.D.: Recent excavation at Eran, Archaeological studies, Varanasi,1986, p. 101 6. Fleet, J.F.: Corpus Inscriptionum Idicarum, Vol.3, p. 18 7. Bajpai, K.D. : Sagar through the ages, New Delhi, 1967, p. 11-12 8. Ibid 9. Ibid 10. Ibid 11. Ibid 12. Ibid 13. Ibid 14. Corpus Inscriptionum Idicarum, Vol. 3, 91-9315. Bajpai, K.D. : Sagar through the ages, New Delhi, 1967, p. 3616. Cunningham, A.: Coins of Ancient India, London, 1891, p. 101, pl. xi17. Bajpai, K.D.: Indian Numismatic Studies, New Delhi, 1996, p. 1918. Cunningham, A. : Coins of Ancient India, London, 1891, p. 101, pl. xi fig. 1819. Bajpai, K.D.: Indian Numismatic Studies, New Delhi, 1996, p. 2320. Bajpai, K.D. : Sagar through the ages, New Delhi, 1967, p. 3621. Cunningham, A: Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, Vol. xiv, plate, xxxi 22. Bajpai, K.D.: Indian Numismatic Studies, New Delhi, 1996, p. 0723. Ibid 24. Ibid, p. 06 25. Ibid, p. 08 26. Bajpai, K.D.: Bulletin of ancient Indian History and Archaeology, University of Sagar, Vol. No. 1, 1967, p, 12427. Bajpai, K.D.: Indian Numismatic Studies, New Delhi, 1996, p. 1128. Ibid, p,16 29. Ibid 30. Ibid, p. 10131. Ibid, p. 1732. Ibid, p. 131 33. Ibid 34. Ibid 35. Ibid, p. 121 36. Lal, Mohan : Eran ki Tamrapasan Sanskriti, Sagar, 2009, p. 43 37. Ibid, p. 3438. Dr. Mohan Lal Chadhar, Mekal Insights, Journal of Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, Vol. II No.01,January 2010. P,9439. Dr. Mohan Lal Chadhar, Mekal Insights, Journal of Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, Vol. II No.01,January 2010. P,94
  10. ^ book of Ashok Mizaj on Google Books Aawaz
  11. ^ mushaira on Ghalib’s birth anniversary Mushaira on Ghalib’s birth anniversary, dailypioneer, 26 December 2012

External links[edit]