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सहारनपुर / سهارنپور
Seharunpore (former spelling)
|• Official||Hindi, Punjabi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1000 ♂/♀|
Saharanpur was founded by Sah Ranveer Singh, an Agarwal, who was the Mughal treasurer, he laid the foundations of the present day city on the site of an army cantonment. Situated close to the borders of Haryana and Uttarakhand states, the city is surrounded by a fertile agricultural region that produces plentiful grains and fruits. Saharanpur is known for its wood carving cottage industry as well as a thriving market for local agricultural produce, including basmati rice and mangoes. A variety of industrial enterprises are located here including textiles, sugar, paper and cigarette factories.
- 1 History
- 2 Government
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy and Trade
- 7 Culture
- 8 Higher education
- 9 Places of interest
- 10 Temples and other religious places
- 11 New townships and malls
- 12 Medical Facilities
- 13 Travel and transport
- 14 Gallery
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Prehistoric, Ancient Indus Valley and Vedic periods
It is located in a fertile doab region between two rivers that was forested until the medieval period, but in which human habitation can be traced back to 2000 BC. Sites of archaeological importance have been found throughout the surrounding area. Various Indian conquerors who came from neighboring regions through the ages included the Nandas, Maurya, Shunga, Yaudheya, Kushana, Gupta, Yasodharman, Vardhana, Maukhari, Rajputs-Pundir, Notyial, Chandela, Muktapida, Ayuddhas, Gurjara-Pratihara, and Palas. All these have left legacies while their descendants in the region have first or last names that reflect these historical and at times also mythological, in cases such as Suryavanshi and Chandravanshi, kinships.
During the reign of Shamsu’d-Din Iltutmish (1211–36), the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate. At that time, most of the area remained covered with forests and marshlands, through which the Paondhoi, Dhamola, and Ganda Nala rivers flowed. The climate was humid and malaria outbreaks were common. Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi (1325–1351), undertook a campaign in the northern doab to crush the rebellion of the Shivalik kings in 1340, when according to local tradition he learned of the presence of a sufi saint on the banks of the Paondhoi River. After visiting the sage, he ordered that henceforth this region would be known as 'Shah-Haroonpur', after the Sufi Saint Shah Haroon Chishti. The simple but well-preserved tomb of this saint is situated in the oldest quarter of Saharanpur city, between the Mali Gate/Bazar Dinanath and Halwai Hatta. By the end of 14th century, the power of the Sultanate had declined and it was attacked by Emperor Timur (1336–1405) of Central Asia. Timur had marched through Saharanpur region in 1399 to sack Delhi and people of the region fought his army unsuccessfully. A weakened Sultanate was later conquered by the Central Asian Mogul king Babur (1483–1531).
In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol admixture).
During the Mughal period, Akbar (1542–1605), Saharanpur became an administrative unit under the Province of Delhi. Akbar bestowed the feudal jagir of Saharanpur to the Mughal treasurer, Sah Ranveer Singh, an Agarwal who laid the foundations of the present day city on the site of an army cantonment. The nearest settlements at that time were Shekhpura and Malhipur. Saharanpur was a walled city, with four gates: the Sarai Gate, the Mali Gate, the Buria Gate and the Lakhi Gate. The city was divided into the neighbourhoods os Nakhasa Bazar, Shah Behlol, Rani Bazar and Lakhi Gate. The ruins of Shah Ran Veer Singh's old fort can still be seen in the Chaudharian locality of Saharanpur, not far from the better known 'Bada-Imam-bada'. He also built a large Jain temple in Muhallah/Toli Chaundhariyan, it is now known as the 'Digamber-Jain Punchayati Mandir'.
The Sayyids and Rohillas
Mughal emperors Akbar and later Shah Jehan (1592–1666) bestowed the administraive pargana of Sarwat on Muslim Sayyid families. In 1633 one of them founded a city and named it and the surrounding region Muzaffarnagar, in honour of his father, Sayyid Muzaffar Ali Khan. The Sayyids ruled the area until the 1739 invasion by Nadir Shah. After his departure, anarchy prevailed across the entire doab with the region ruled or ravaged in succession by Rajputs, Tyagis, Brahmins, and Jats. Taking advantage of this anarchy, the Rohillas took control of the entire trans-Gangetic region.
Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan ruler who invaded Northwestern and Northern India in 1750's, conferred the territory of Saharanpur as Jagir on Rohilla chief Najaf Khan, who assumed the title of Nawab Najeeb-ud-Daula and took up residence in Saharanpur in 1754,. He made Gaunsgarh his capital and tried to strengthen his position against Maratha Empire attacks by entering an alliance with the Hindu Gurjar chieftain Manohar Singh. In 1759, Najeeb-ud-Daula issued a Deed of Agreement handing over 550 villages to Manohar Singh, who became the Raja of Landaura. Thus the Rohillas and the Gurjars now controlled Saharanpur.
Maratha rule (1757–1803 AD)
In 1757, the Maratha army invaded the Saharanpur region, which resulted in Najeeb-ud-Daula losing control of Saharanpur to the Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. The most significant contribution of Nawab Ghulam Qadir to Saharanpur city is the Nawab Ganj area and the Ahmedabadi fortress therein, which still stands. The death of Ghulam Qadir put an end to the Rohilla administration in Saharanpur and it became the northernmost district of the Maratha Empire. Ghani Bahadur Banda was appointed its first Maratha governor. The Maratha Regime saw the construction of the Bhuteshwar Temple and Bagheshwar Temple in Saharanpur city. In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, Saharanpur came under British suzerainty.
British colonial period (1803–1947 AD)
When India rebelled in 1857 against the East India Company’s occupation, an event now referred to as the First War of Indian Independence, inhabitants of the Saharanpur and the present-day Muzaffarnagar Districts took part in the uprising. The centre of freedom fighters' operations was Shamli, a small town in the Muzaffarnagar region which was liberated for some time. After the uprising failed, British retribution was severe. Death and destruction were particularly directed against the Muslims of the region, whom the British considered the main instigators of the rebellion. Muslim society was devastated beyond recognition and when social reconstruction started, the cultural and political history of Muslims began to revolve around Deoband and Aligarh. Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi and Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, both proponents of the reformer Shah Waliullah's ideology for social and political rejuvenation, established a school in Deoband in 1867. It found popularity and global recognition as the Darul Uloom. Its founders' mission was twofold: to raise and disseminate a team of scholars able to awaken the religious and social consciousness of Muslims through peaceful methods and to make efforts, through them, to educate Muslims in their faith and culture; and to bring about a feeling of nationalism and national unity by promoting the concept of Hindu-Muslim unity and a united India. Muslim scholars in the city of Saharanpur were active supporters of this ideology and went on to establish the Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur theological seminary six months later, along identical lines.
In 1845 Chaudhary Rao Wazir-ud-din Khan, a descendant of Raja Ram Singh, came from Rajasthan to Saharanpur and subsequently converted to Islam. He took upo residence in Shaikpura Qudeem and became the great Zaminder of Shaikhpura Qudeem (Saharanpur). Choudhary Rao Wazir-ud-din Khan became a member and voter at the Mughal Durbar at the Red Fort in New Delhi. He was the richest person in Saharanpur with 27 thousand bega of land and was lord of 57 villages including Shaikhpura, Landohra, Tapri, Piragpur, Yousfpur, Badshapur, Harhati, Nazirpura, Santgarh, Lakhnor, Subri and Pathri in the district. British governors enjoyed cordial relations with Rao Wazir-ud-din and he received the title of royal family or Badsha-e-waqt (the king of his time). He died in 1895 at Sheikpura Qudeem (Saharanpur). He had two sons: Choudhary Rao Mashooq Ali Khan and Choudhary Rao Ghafoor Muhammad ali Khan. Rao Ghafoor Muhammad ali Khan had seven children; the eldest, Rao Maqsood Ali Khan was educated at Aligarh Muslim University. He wrote or copied many books in English and Persian and was the one and only one royal man of Saharanpur. He was the owner of a large property in the Saharanpur region or in Dheradun and received an award from the Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin, at Dehradun. His brothers migrated to Pakistan and England and he died in 1973 at Sheikpura Qudeem leaving four sons: Rao Ghulam muhi-ud-din Khan, Rao Zamier haider Khan, Rao yaqoob Khan and Rao Ghulam Hafiz.
The British administration, which took over the Indian holdings of the East India Company as a colony in the aftermath of the 1857 rebellion, created the Muzaffarnagar district in 1901. This was carved out of the Saharanpur district, and both became part of the Meerut Division of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
Post-independence period (1947 AD – 21st century)
After India achieved independence from the British in August 1947 through the Partition of India, a sizeable number of migrants from West Punjab made this city their home, adding to its cultural diversity. This group has made its mark in business and other professions with the region gradually absorbing them. The Exhibition Grounds of Saharanpur city, which was originally used as accommodation for refugees, has grown into a thriving modern township and an outpost of Punjabi culture.
Until the end of British rule, the power and social prestige of descendants of the past ruling classes remained formidable, especially in the rural interiors. Often called the upper castes, they dominated the lower caste people. After independence, the conversion of the country to democracy enabled these under-privileged and ex-untouchable Dalit classes to move forward gradually in all fields in India. Late Master Kanshi Ram, the founder of the pro-Dalit Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), started his political career in Saharanpur. His protégé Kumari Mayavati, a Dalit from Saharanpur, has ruled over Uttar Pradesh as a BSP Chief Minister four times and, after completing a full term in office, lost to the Samajwadi Party in the February 2012 assembly elections. The Jains and Aggarwals are influential business communities; the latter have "Agarwal Sabha" and elect their presidents annually.
On 28 December 1988, Saharanpur district lost the region of Haridwar, which was made into a new district within the Saharanpur division. Subsequently, Haridwar district was taken out of Saharanpur division and merged with what is now Uttarakhand, a new state that was carved out of Uttar Pradesh on 9 November 2000. With this territorial reorganisation, Saharanpur lost many important places of religious and cultural heritage, including the city of Roorkee, which led to disappointment among the Saharanpur people. Political debate is still simmering on whether parts of Saharanpur, including the city itself, can be merged with Uttarakhand. Another political view is that a new state of Harit Pradesh should be carved out of the present Western Uttar Pradesh region.
In 2009 the Saharanpur municipal association became a municipal corporation called Saharanpur Mahanagar. For many decades after independence]] in 1947, it was dominated by the Indian National Congress, but the trend has changed. Now it is dominated by the Bhartiya Janta Party.
Saharanpur is located at Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Saharanpur about 140 kilometres (87 mi) south-southeast of Chandigarh, 170 kilometres (110 mi) north-northeast of Delhi, and about 68 kilometres (42 mi) south-west of Dehradun. It has an average elevation of 269 metres (883 ft). Saharanpur is a part of a geographical doab region.,
Saharanpur has a monsoon influenced sub-tropical climate due to the proximity of the Himalayan region to this Northern district. It is sub humid region, especially in the upper Ganga plain areas. Saharanpur records an average annual temperature of around 23.3-degrees. June is the hottest recorded month while January is the coldest. Humidity is higher in the western area compared to the eastern region of Saharanpur.
Provisional 2011 census data indicates that Saharanpur has a population of 703,345, out of which males were 371,858 and females were 331,487. The literacy rate was 77.94 per cent.
Economy and Trade
Saharanpur is a flourishing business city and an important regional centre for the wholesale and retail trades, particularly in grain, timber, textiles, food and beverages. The trade can be divided into three categories:
- Food – grains, vegetables and fruits. Milk and milk products.
- Agro Based Industries – The most important are sugar, gur, (cotton) textiles and cigarettes.
- Industrial Goods - paper, sugarcane, hosiery material and wood carving.
The city's grain market receives agricultural produce from the surrounding doab. Anaaj Mandi is a wholesale market for grains and other agricultural produce located on Chilkana Road. The timber market traditionally receives supplies from the northern hilly forest regions to support the local cottage woodcarving industry and other demands. The wooden handicrafts industry is the basis of livelihood for half of the population and source of recognition globally. Beautiful art and utilitarian woodwork objects are displayed and sold in the market from near Ambala Road up to Chilkana Road. In the last few decades, Pul DalMandi has become a popular area for daily requirements while the Punjabi Market and Kamboh Katehra market have experienced a high volume of textile trade. Hosiery has become a significant cottage industry, supplying goods to Ludhiana market, other nearby cities, and Uttarakhand’s markets. Hiran Maran is the hosiery market in Saharanpur.
Historically, the common householder's market is centred in the compact area around the Jama Masjid landmark. Within a radius of less than half a kilometre around it, a network of narrow roads is lined with groups of shops selling commodities from jewellery to groceries. Main markets in the region include Nehru market, Shaheed Ganj, Naya Bazar, Sarrafa Bazar - known for a large number of jewellery shops, Halwai Hatta - well known for various shops offering food stuffs, Dinanath, Bartala Yadgar, Mor Ganj, Pansari Bazar- cities' wholesale stationery and paper market. Modern show rooms, retail outlets of branded goods, and branches of several major banks are located in the Court Road market, near the city’s Civil Court and the Collectorate offices. The city does not yet have any shopping malls.
A weekly spectacle is the busy Mangal Bazar (Tuesday Market) that springs up on the long road in Nehru Market and its surrounding areas, when the city's shops are closed for the weekly holiday. Household needs, tools, appliances and their parts are available; the quality and price are aimed at the lower-end customers.
A multinational cigarette manufacturing company, the Indian Tobacco Company (ITC Limited) previously known as the Anglo-American Tobacco Company and the Imperial Tobacco Company, is located in Saharanpur. This factory was built in the 1930s by Baba Shib Dayal Bedi. He was the Municipal Commissioner of Saharanpur during this period. Cherisys Technologies has entered the city as an IT solutions provider after moving to the city from New Delhi. Cherisys Technologies was the first IT solutions provider in the city. Star Paper Mill, Sugar Mill, Hardboard Mill, Textile Mill, and Wood-seasoning Mill are other important industrial enterprises located in the city.
Saharanpur is similar to other cities in western Uttar Pradesh in language, dress, culinary habits, festivals, and other traditions and ceremonial functions. Cinemas, hotels, and eateries are available for entertainment. Local editions of Punjabi,Hindi,Urdu and English newspapers are published. Khadiboli is the lingua franca in which local Punjabi speakers are fluent. Salwar and Kurta are traditional men's garments. Women wear a Patiala Suit and Salwar-kurti, that originates from the Punjab as many Punjabis live in Saharanpur. Ragni is a traditional method of story telling in the form of a poem.
The city has a government medical college, 'Shaikh-Ul-Hind Maulana Mahmood Hasan Medical College', to provide healthcare for all citizens of the state and to train students. The present medical college is planned to have a 500 bed hospital with road access to the Saharanpur-Ambala National Highway. The proposed annual intake of MBBS Students is expected to be 100 in 2014-15. 
The Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT Roorkee), an engineering institution, has a campus in Saharanpur offering B.tech in Paper Technology and Polymer Science and an Integrated Dual Degree in Process Engineering as well as an MBA qualification. The campus is located on Paper Mill Road near the Star Paper Mills and the Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute (CPPRI). In 2000 a new engineering college was started: Shobhit Institute of Engineering & Technology. Hari Institute of Technology and Hari College of Law was started in 2003.
- (College Code-884) Hari Institute of Technology, Vill.Randevi, Post-Nakur, Saharanpur(BTC, B.Ed, Bsc, B.com, BCA, MA, LLB, M.Ed)
- (College Code-561) Hari College of Management, Gagalheri (MBA, Saharanpur)
- Virat IAS Academy
- (College Code-673) Dwarkadhish Research Education & Management School (MBA,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-730) Stallion College for Engineering & Technology(started 2009).
- (College Code-103) Shobhit Institute of Engineering & Technology (BTech, Gangoh, Saharanpur)
- (College Code-426) Doon College of Engineering & Technology (BTech & MBA, Saharanpur)
- (College Code-482) Millennium Institute of Technology, (BTech,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-502) Uttrakhand Utthan Samitti's Group of Institutions, Faculty of Engineering, Near Balia Kheri Railway Station (BTech,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-520) Indraprastha Institute of Management & Technology (BTech,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-589) Asian College of Management, Saun Kheri, Sarsawa (MBA,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-636) Saharanpur Institute of Advance Studies, Gokelpur (MBA,Saharanpu
- (Saraswati Institute of Management and Technology( Authorized Learning Center of PTU)(MBA, MCA)
The Glocal University is a private university situated in Saharanpur, established in 2012 and recognised by the UGC (University Grant Commission). The university is spread across 300 acres (120 ha) in the quiet surroundings of the Shivalik hills and is approximately a two-hour drive away from the Jolly Grant Airport. The institute has seven major schools in technology, business, computer science, education & research, legal studies & research, media & cultural studies and commerce.
- Mahraj Singh college.
- JV Jain Degree college Pradyuman Nagar Saharanpur. This college was established in 1955. Sri Roop Chand Jain was the founder principal. Sri Ravi Nandan Tiwari was Head of the Department of Sociology from 1960 till 1990. Sri Ravi nandan Tiwari also worked in Department of Commerce from 1956 to 1960 as Lecturer.
- Munna Lal (Girls) Degree college.
In relation to its size, population, and economic strength, Saharanpur District lacks the infrastructure for educational and advanced research facilities available in neighbouring districts. This problem has worsened since the loss of the academically well-endowed city of Roorkee, due to its separation from Saharanpur district and merger in the newly formed Uttarakhand state in September 2000.
Places of interest
The Saharanpur Botanical Gardens, known as the Company Garden and once the preserve of the British East India Company, is one of the oldest existing gardens in India, dating to before 1750. Then named Farahat-Bakhsh, it was originally a pleasure ground set out by a local chief, Intazam ud-ullah. In 1817, it was acquired by the British East India Company and placed under the authority of the District Surgeon. Joseph Dalton Hooker says of this Botanical Garden that "Amongst its greatest triumphs may be considered the introduction of the tea-plant from China, a fact I allude to, as many of my English readers may not be aware that the establishment of the tea-trade in the Himalaya and Assam is almost entirely the work of the superintendents of the gardens of Calcutta and Seharunpore. In 1887, when the Botanical Survey of India was set up to reform the country's botanical sciences, Saharanpur became the centre for the survey of the northern Indian flora. The Garden is seen historically as being second only to the Calcutta Gardens for its contribution to science and economy in India. Under private auspices today, it is full of greenery and has many different kinds of plants and flowers.
Other places of interest are Ambedkar Memorial, founded by Chief Minister Mayawati, and the sprawling wood carvings market, which starts from near Ambala Road and extends up to Chilkana Road. Here, examples of the art of this city are displayed, sold, and exported all over the world.
Temples and other religious places
Temples< Gurdwaras and mosques include :
- Shri Hari Mandir, New Awas Vikas
- Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Ambala Road
- Shia Jamamasjid (Ansariyan Street)
- Chota Imam Barha (ansariyan Street)
- Bada Imam Barha (Jafar Nawaz)
- Karbala (Behat Road )
- Patheshwar Temple (Court Road)
- Shiv Mandir (Naveen Nagar)
- Hari Krishna Mandir (Vinod Vihar)
- Jainbagh (Chilkana Road)
- Suparshvnath Jain Temple,Chander Nagar
- Jain Temple, Avas Vikas
- Bhuteshwar Temple (Bhuteshwar Road)
- Shiv Shakti Mandir (Chander Nagar)
- Bagheshwar Temple (Chakrauta Road)
- Laxmi Narayan Temple (Court Road)
- Balaji Temple (Badh-tala)
- Sai Baba Dham (Behat Road)
- Shri Hari Darshan Mandir (Chilkana Road)
- Pataleshwar Temple (Rani Bazar)
- Gita Mandir (Beri Bagh)
- Jama Masjid (Chowk Fawwara)
- Old Jama Masjid
- Eidgaah (Ambala Road)
- Madarsa Mazahir-ul-Uloom
- Nau-gaza Peer shrine
- Ojhria Peer shrine (Shah Behlole)
- Gadon Wali Masjid (Manakmau)
- Peerjiyon wali masjid (PuraniMandi)
- Teliyon Ki Masjid (Purani Mandi)
- Unchi Masjid (Pul Kambohaan)
- Masjid Shahmadar (Shahmadar-Near Pul Jogiyan)
- Masjid Maliyan (Maliyan – Near Pul Jogiyan)
- Masjid Ansariyan (Near Pul Sabzi Mandi)
- Masjid Sadak Wali (Near Pul Jogiyan, Behat Road)
- Masjid Imli Wali (Mohalla Chipyan)
- Ek Minara Masjid (Mandi Samiti Road)
- Masjid beldraan (Gado ka chowk)
- Masjid domazili (Gado ka chowk)
- Masjid Angoor wali ( lackigate )
- Masjid Shahjahaani (KhanAlam Pura)
- Shahjahani mosque
- Tableegh-markaz (Banjaron-ka-Pul, literally, Bridge of the Barren).
There were 195 temples as of 2010.
There are also Shakumbhri Devi shrine, a holy place for Hindus, and Parshwanath, a notable Jain temple. Recently a temple dedicated to Sai Baba has been established on the Behat Road, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Saharanpur.
Barsi is situated 37 kilometres (23 mi) from Saharanpur on the Gangoh to Deoband road. It is the site of an ancient temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. Shri Baba Sidh Mandir is in the village of Sona Arjunpur on the Delhi-Saharanpur Road
New townships and malls
Saharanpur’s older parts are broadly separated from the new ones by the railway track. A long railway over-bridge, Court Road Bridge, is a landmark that connects the important hubs of the two parts. The city is expanding in all directions; townships and malls in contemporary architectural style are being constructed, but there are no high-rise skyscrapers yet. Multistoried commercial complexes are also being constructed.
Among the notable new townships are Sharda Nagar, Green Park Colony, Vinod Vihar Colony, Avas Vikas Colony, Prem Puri Colony, Bhagwati Colony, Indraprastha Colony, Paramont Tulip, South City Colony, Shivaji Nagar,Pant Vihar Colony, Gill Colony, Madho Nagar, Hakikat Nagar, Avas Vikas Colony, Central Park, Gill Colony, Jagadish Colony, Laxman Singh Colony, Mission Compound, Neha Garden, New Patel Nagar, Devi Niwas, Royal Palm, Roop Vihar Colony Navada Road, Ansariyan Street, Basera Haji Abdul Ghafoor, Shankerpuri Colony, Shiv Vihar Colony, Rohit Vihar Colony, Sun City, Matki Jharoli, Parsvanath City, Sun City Grand, Beri Bagh, Ranjeet Nagar Colony, Himmat Nagar, Indira Gandhi Colony, Kapil Vihar,Basant Vihar Extn,Parvati Dham Colony near Circuit House, Parsvnath City and Krishna Enclave
The city is also witnessing the construction of malls and multiplexs. Currently four malls are under construction in the city:[when?]
- GNG Mall, Delhi Road
- Darpan The City Centre, Ambala Road
- Soni Star Mall, Janta Road
- The Magnet Mall, Transport Nagar
- Mall in Krishna Enclave - Behat Road (in planning)
Currently there is just one multiplex operational in the city - LX Cinemas, which has two screens located in the heart of the city near the Clock Tower
Saharanpur has MRI scanner and CAT center - Saharanpur Scan Center(www.saharanpurscancenter.in) near Bajoria Government Hospital
Travel and transport
The backbone of city centre public transport is the cycle-rickshaw, with auto-rickshaws being available at hubs. Private buses and taxis are available in the city.
Saharanpur is well-connected to all major cities by bus and train. The city is located on National Highway 73. It is a major junction of Indian Railways. The main railway station, Saharanpur Junction railway station, is in the middle of the city, and the Tapri Railway Station is on Paper Mill Road. The Roadways Bus-stand is located near the Saharanpur Junction Railway Station; buses operated by Uttar Pradesh Government Roadways and other government and private sector services are available from here for all nearby towns and major cities. Saharanpur Airport is at Sarsawa Air Base, it is manned and operated by the Indian Air Force.
- History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 369. 1909.
- The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)
- Madhu Jain, O. C. Handa, and Omacanda Handa, Wood Handicraft: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Saharanpur, Indus Publishing (2000), pp. 22–24. ISBN 81-7387-103-5
- Mayaram, Shail. Against history, against state: counterperspectives from the margins Cultures of history. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Shaikhul Hind Medical College inaugurated". www.milligazette.com. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Sharad Singh Negi, Biodiversity and its conservation in India 2nd revised ed. New Delhi, Indus Publishing (2008) ISBN 978-81-7387-211-2
- "Joseph Dalton Hooker, Himalayan Journals, or Notes of a Naturalist ..., Kew (1854), vol. I, p. 5.
- Saharanpur Botanic Garden
- Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor
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- The Saharanpur Dot Com – Everything you need to know about Saharanpur
- Mysaharanpur.com: a comprehensive web portal and forum for and about Saharanpur
- Order to form a commissionary.