|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1000 ♂/♀|
Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Saharanpur District as well as Saharanpur Division. Situated close to the borders of Haryana and Uttarakhand states, and surrounded by a very fertile agricultural region plentiful yields in grains and fruits, Saharanpur is a flourishing city in Uttar Pradesh. Saharanpur is famous for its wood carving cottage industry. It is a thriving market of local agricultural produce, including basmati rice and mangoes. A variety of agro-based industrial enterprises – such as textiles, sugar, paper and cigarette factories – are located here.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Prehistoric, Ancient Indus Valley and Aryan periods
- 1.2 Medieval period
- 1.3 Mughal period
- 1.4 The Sayyeds and Rohillas
- 1.5 Najeeb-ud-Daula, Nawab of Saharanpur (1748–1770 AD)
- 1.6 Maratha rule (1757–1803 AD)
- 1.7 British colonial period (1803–1947 AD)
- 1.8 Post-independence period (1947 AD – 21st century)
- 2 Government
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy and Trade
- 7 Culture
- 8 Higher education
- 9 Places of interest
- 10 Temples and other religious places
- 11 New townships
- 12 Travel and transport
- 13 Gallery
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Prehistoric, Ancient Indus Valley and Aryan periods
Saharanpur city, as an urban centre, was established during the Mughal Empire period. It is located in a fertile Doab region that was forested until the medieval period, but in which human habitation can be traced as far back as 2000 BC; site of the Archaeological importance have been found in the district. Its original inhabitants (like Drawid, Kinner, Dasa, and Dasyns) were subdued by the Indo-Aryan peoples, who were new settlers from the Punjab region. Ancient invaders who came from near and far through the ages (Nanda, Greek, Maurya, Shunga, Indo-Greek, Yaudheya, Kushana, Gupta, White Huns, Yasodharman, Vardhana, Maukhari, and there is also one or more language in this area Rajputs-Pundir, Notyial, Chandela, Muktapida, Ayuddhas, Gurjara-Pratihara, and Palas), have left legacies. Their descendants in the region have first or last names that reflect these historical (and at times also mythological, such as Suryavanshi and Chandravanshi) kinships.
After the early destabilising Central Asian Turkic invasions (1018–1033 AD) through the lands of present Saharanpur region – which has been a part of the westerly 'highway', since ancient times, to attack Delhi and the eastern lands beyond – this region was invaded and ruled by many, most notably the Bhoja Paramara, Lakshmikarna Kalachuri, Chandra Dev Gahadvala, and the Chauhans, who ruled until the establishment of Delhi Sultanate (1192–1526 AD).
During the reign of Shamsu’d-Din Iltutmish (1211–36), this region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate. At that time, most of the area was covered with forests and marshlands, through which the Paondhoi, Dhamola, and Ganda Nala rivers flowed. The climate was humid and malaria outbreaks were common. Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi (1325–1351), undertook a campaign in the northern Doab to crush the rebellion of Shivalik kings in 1340, when according to local tradition he learned of the presence of a Sufi saint on the banks of the Paondhoi river. After visiting the sage, he ordered that henceforth this region would be known as 'Shah-Haroonpur', after the Sufi Saint Shah Haroon Chishti. The simple well-preserved tomb of this saint is situated in the oldest quarter of Saharanpur city, between Mali Gate/Bazar Dinanath and Halwai Hatta. By the end of 14th century, the power of the Sultanate had declined and it was attacked by Emperor Timur (1336–1405) of Central Asia. Timur had marched through Saharanpur region in 1399 to sack Delhi and people of the region fought his army unsuccessfully. A weakened Sultanate was conquered later by the Central Asian Mogul king Babur (1483–1531).
During the Mughal period, Emperor Akbar (1542–1605) made Saharanpur a sarkar (administrative unit) under the Province of Delhi. He bestowed the Jagir of Saharanpur to Raja Shah Ran Veer Singh, who laid the foundation of the present city at the site of an army cantonment. The nearest settlements at that time were Shekhpura and Malhipur. Saharanpur was a walled city, with four gates: the Sarai Gate, the Mali Gate, the Buria Gate and the Lakhi Gate; Nakhasa Bazar, Shah Behlol, Rani Bazar and Lakhi Gate were the names of the neighbourhoods. The ruins of Shah Ran Veer Singh's old fort can still be seen in the Chaudharian locality of Saharanpur, not far from the better known 'Bada-Imam-bada'. He also built a large Jain temple in Muhallah/Toli Chaundhariyan, it is now known as the 'Digamber-Jain Punchayati Mandir'.
The Sayyeds and Rohillas
Mughal emperors Akbar and later Shah Jehan (1592–1666) had bestowed on Sayyed families the Pargana of Sarwat. In 1633 one of them founded a city and named it as well as the region around it as Muzaffarnagar, in honour of his father, Sayyed Muzaffar Ali Khan. The Sayyeds ruled there until the 1739 invasion by Nadir Shah. After his departure, anarchy prevailed in the entire Doab and this region was ruled or ravaged in succession by Rajputs, Tyagis, Brahmins, and Jats. Taking advantage of the anarchy, the Rohillas took control of the entire trans-Gangetic region.
Najeeb-ud-Daula, Nawab of Saharanpur (1748–1770 AD)
Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Afghan ruler who arrived after Nadir Shah, conferred the territory of Saharanpur as Jagir on Rohilla chief Najaf Khan, who assumed the title of Nawab Najeeb-ud-Daula and, in 1754, started living in Saharanpur. He made Gaunsgarh his capital and tried to strengthen his position against Maratha Empire attacks by entering into a friendship with the Gurjar chieftain Manohar Singh. In 1759 AD, Najeeb-ud-Daula issued a Deed of Agreement handing over 550 villages to Manohar Singh, who became the Raja of Landaura. Thus the Rohillas and the Gurjars now controlled Saharanpur.
Maratha rule (1757–1803 AD)
In 1757, the Maratha army invaded Saharanpur region, which resulted in Najeeb-ud-Daula losing control of Saharanpur to Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. The most significant contribution of Nawab Ghulam Qadir to Saharanpur city is the Nawab Ganj area and the Ahmedabadi fortress therein, which still stands. The death of Ghulam Qadir put an end to the Rohilla administration in Saharanpur and it became the northernmost district of the Maratha Empire. Ghani Bahadur Banda was appointed its first Maratha governor. During the Maratha Regime, the Bhuteshwar Temple and Bagheshwar Temple were built in Saharanpur city. In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, Saharanpur came under British suzerainty.
British colonial period (1803–1947 AD)
When India rebelled in 1857 against the foreign Company’s occupation, now referred to as the First War of Indian Independence, the Saharanpur and the present-day Muzaffarnagar Districts were part of that uprising. The centre of freedom fighters' operations was Shamli, a small town in the Muzaffarnagar region which was liberated for some time. After the uprising failed, British retribution was severe. Death and destruction was particularly directed against the Muslims of the region, whom the British considered as the main instigators of the rebellion; Muslim society was devastated beyond recognition. When social reconstruction started, the cultural and political history of Muslims began to revolve around Deoband and Aligarh. Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi and Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, both proponents of the reformer Shah Waliullah's ideology for social and political rejuvenation, established a school in Deoband in 1867. It found popularity and global recognition as the Darul Uloom. Its founders' mission was twofold: to raise and spread a team of scholars able to awaken the religious and social consciousness of Muslims through peaceful methods and to make efforts, through them, to educate Muslims in their faith and culture; and to bring about a feeling of nationalism and national unity by promoting the concept of Hindu-Muslim unity and a united India. Muslim scholars in the city of Saharanpur were active supporters of this ideology and went on to establish the Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur theological seminary six months later, along identical lines.
In 1845 choudhary Rao Wazir-ud-din khan the descendant of (Raja Ram singh who came from rajasthan to saharanpur and converted into Islam subsequently he started living at shaikpura qudeem) was the great zaminder of shaikhpura qudeem (saharanpur). Choudhary Rao Wazir-ud-din khan became the member and voter of mughal darbar at red fort new delhi. He was the richest person of district saharanpur with 27 thousand bega land or lord of 57 village's like shaikhpura, landohra, tapri, piragpur, yousfpur, badshapur, harhati, nazirpura, santgarh, lakhnor, subri, pathri etc., of district Saharanpur. British governor's had good relation with Rao Wazir-ud-din and the title of royal family or Badsha-e-waqt (the king of his time) was given to him. He died in 1895 at Sheikpura Qudeem (Saharanpur). He had two son's Choudhary Rao Mashooq Ali khan and Choudhary Rao Ghafoor Muhammad ali khan. Rao Ghafoor Muhammad ali khan had only seven children out of seven his elder son Rao Maqsood Ali khan was highly educated from Aligarh Muslim university and spiritual person. Many books of English and Persian were written or copied by him. He was the one and only one royal man of saharanpur. He was the lord of a large property in saharanpur region or in dheradun and Choudhary Rao Maqsood Ali khan was awarded by the Viceroy of India Lord Irwin at deheradun . Brother's of him migrated to Pakistan and England. He died in 1973 at sheikpura qudeem and left behind his four sons Rao Ghulam muhi-ud-din khan, Rao Zamier haider khan, Rao yaqoob khan and Rao Ghulam hafiz.
The British administration, which had taken over as a Colony the Indian holdings of the East India Company in the aftermath of the1857 rebellion, created Muzaffarnagar district in 1901, which was carved out of Saharanpur district, and both became part of the Meerut Division of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
Post-independence period (1947 AD – 21st century)
After India achieved independence from the British in August 1947, a sizeable number of people migrating from West Punjab made this city their home, adding to its cultural diversity. This group has made its mark in business and other professions. The region is gradually absorbing them in its midst. The Exhibition Grounds of Saharanpur city, which was used as a refugee camp to accommodate them, has grown into a thriving modern township and an outpost of Punjabi culture.
Until the end of the British rule, the power and social prestige of the descendants of the past ruling classes was formidable, especially in the rural interiors; often called the upper castes, they lorded over the lower caste people. After independence, the conversion of the country to democracy has enabled these under-privileged and ex-untouchable Dalit classes to move forward gradually in all fields in India. Late Master Kanshi Ram, the founder of pro-Dalit Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), started his political career in Saharanpur. His protégé Kumari Mayavati, a Dalit from Saharanpur, has ruled over Uttar Pradesh as a BSP Chief Minister four times and, after completing a full term in office, lost to Samajwadi Party in February 2012 assembly elections. The Jains and Aggarwals are influential business communities; the latter have "Agarwal Sabha" and elect their presidents annually.
On 28 December 1988, Saharanpur district lost the region of Haridwar, which was made into a new district within the Saharanpur division. Subsequently, Haridwar district was taken out of Saharanpur division and merged with what is now Uttarakhand, a new state that was carved out of Uttar Pradesh on 9 November 2000. With this territorial reorganisation, Saharanpur lost many important places of religious and cultural heritage, including the city of Roorkee, disappointing the Saharanpur people. Political debate is still simmering on whether parts of Saharanpur, including the city itself, can be merged with Uttarakhand. Another political view is that a new state of Harit Pradesh should be carved out of the present Western Uttar Pradesh region.
In 2009 the Saharanpur municipal association was made a municipal corporation. It is now called Saharanpur Mahanagar. Saharanpur has been an active political ground. For many decades after independence in 1947, it was dominated by the Indian National Congress, but the trend has changed. Now it is dominated by the Bahujan Samaj.
Saharanpur is located at Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Saharanpur about 140 kilometres (87 mi) south-southeast from Chandigarh and 170 kilometres (110 mi) north-northeast from Delhi. It has an average elevation of 269 metres (883 ft). Saharanpur is a part of the Doab region.,
Saharanpur has a monsoon influenced sub-tropical climate because of the proximity of the Himalayan region across this Northern district. It is sub humid region especially the upper Ganga plain areas. Saharanpur records an average temperature around 23.3-degree during the course of the year. June is the hottest recorded month while January is the coldest one. Humidity is more in the western area as compared to the eastern region of Saharanpur.
As per provisional data of 2011 census Saharanpur had a population of 703,345, out of which males were 371,858 and females were 331,487. The literacy rate was 77.94 per cent.
Economy and Trade
Saharanpur is a flourishing business city and an important regional centre of wholesale and retail trade, particularly in grain, timber, textiles, and food and beverages. The trade can be divided into three categories: A. Food – Grains, Vegetables and Fruits. Milk and milk products. B. Agro Based Industries – The most important industries are Sugar, Gur, (Cotton) Textile and Cigarettes. C. Industrial Goods- Paper, Sugarcane, Hosiery Material & Wood Carving.
Its grain market receives the agricultural produce of the Doab region. The wholesale market (Anaaj Mandi), for grains and other agricultural produce, is located on Chilkana Road. The timber market traditionally receives supplies from the northern hilly forest regions to support the local woodcarving cottage industry and other demands. The wooden handicrafts industry is the basis of livelihood for half of the population and source of recognition globally. Beautiful art and utilitarian woodwork objects are displayed and sold in the market from near Ambala Road up to Chilkana Road. In the last few decades, Pul DalMandi is very popular area to fulfill the daily requirements, the Punjabi Market and Kamboh Katehra market have experienced a high volume of textile trade. Hosiery has become a significant cottage industry, supplying goods to Ludhiana market, other nearby cities, and Uttarakhand’s markets. Hiran Maran is the hosiery market of saharanpur.
Historically, the common householder's market is centred in the compact area around the landmark Jama Masjid. Within a radius of less than half a kilometre around it, a network of narrow roads is lined with groups of shops selling commodities from jewellery to groceries.Main markets in the region include Nehru market, Shaheed Ganj, Naya Bazar, Sarrafa Bazar- known for a large number of jewellery shops, Halwai Hatta- well known for various shops offering variety of food stuffs, Dinanath, Bartala Yadgar, Mor Ganj, Pansari Bazar- cities' wholesale stationery and paper market. Modern show rooms, retail outlets of branded goods, and branches of several major banks are located in the Court Road market, near the city’s Civil Court and the Collectorate offices. The city does not yet have any shopping malls.
A weekly spectacle is the busy Mangal Bazar (Tuesday Market) that springs up on the long road of Nehru Market and its surrounds, when the city's shops are closed for the weekly holiday. Household needs, tools, appliances and their parts are available; the quality and price are aimed at the lower-end customers.
A multinational cigarette manufacturing company, the Indian Tobacco Company (ITC Limited) previously known as the Anglo-American Tobacco Company and the Imperial Tobacco Company, is located in Saharanpur. This factory was built in the 1930s by Baba Shib Dayal Bedi. He was the Municipal Commissioner of Saharanpur during this period. Cherisys Technologies has entered the city as an IT solutions provider after moving to the city from New Delhi. Cherisys Technologies was the first IT solutions provider in the city. Star Paper Mill, Sugar Mill, Hardboard Mill, Textile Mill, and Wood-seasoning Mill are other important industrial enterprises located in the city.
Saharanpur is like any other city of western Uttar Pradesh in language, dress, food habits, festivals, and other traditions and ceremonial functions. Cinemas, hotels, and eateries are available for entertainment. Local editions of Hindi and Urdu newspapers are published. Khadiboli is the lingua franca in which local Punjabi speakers are fluent. Dhoti and Kurta are traditional men's garments. Women wear dhoti (Saree) and Salwar-kurti, that originates from the Punjab as a number of Punjabi people have migrated to Saharanpur. Ragni is a traditional method of story telling in the form of a poem.
The Glocal University is a private university situated in Saharanpur, established in the year 2012 and recognised by the UGC (University Grant Commission). The university is spread across in 300 acres space in the quiet surroundings of the Shivalik hills and is approximately a two-hour drive away from the Jolly Grant Airport. The institute has seven major schools in technology, business, computer science, education & research, legal studies & research, media & cultural studies and commerce.
The Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT Roorkee), an engineering institution, has a campus at Saharanpur offering B.tech in Paper Technology and Polymer Science and an Integrated Dual Degree in Process Engineering and MBA. The campus is located on Paper Mill Road near the Star Paper Mills and the Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute (CPPRI). In 2000 a new engineering college was started with the name Shobhit Institute of Engineering & Technology. Hari Institute of Technology and Hari College of Law was started in 2003. The institute is situated on the Saharanpur Nakur main road. It is just 1.5 km from Nakur and 20 km. from Saharanpur. The institute also enjoys its close proximity to Haryana (Only 30 km. away from Yamuna Nagar) & approx 150 km from National Capital.
- (College Code-884)Hari Institute of Technology, Vill.Randevi, Post-Nakur, Saharanpur(BTC, B.Ed, Bsc, B.com, BCA, MA, LLB, M.Ed)
- (College Code-561)Hari College of Management, Gagalheri (MBA, Saharanpur)
- Virat IAS Academy
- (College Code-673)Dwarkadhish Research Education & Management School (MBA,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-730)Stallion College for Engineering & Technology(started 2009).
- (College Code-103)Shobhit Institute of Engineering & Technology (BTech, Gangoh, Saharanpur)
- (College Code-426)Doon College of Engineering & Technology (BTech & MBA, Saharanpur)
- (College Code-482)Millennium Institute of Technology, (BTech,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-502)Uttrakhand Utthan Samitti's Group of Institutions, Faculty of Engineering, Near Balia Kheri Railway Station (BTech,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-520)Indraprastha Institute of Management & Technology (BTech,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-589)Asian College of Management, Saun Kheri, Sarsawa (MBA,Saharanpur)
- (College Code-636)Saharanpur Institute of Advance Studies, Gokelpur (MBA,Saharanpu
Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur is a famous seminary imparting advanced education in Muslim's both Sunni and shin's theology, closely following the Darul Uloom Deoband Islamic university. It is located at Deoband.
A project to establish a medical college is being implemented; civil works for the proposed Manniya Kanshi Ram Allopathic Government College are under way city at Ambala road near village Bahupur,Sahranpur.
- Mahraj singh college.
- JV Jain Degree college Pradyuman Nagar Saharanpur. This college was established in 1955. Sri Roop Chand Jain was the founder principal.Sri Ravi Nandan Tiwari was Head of the Department of Sociology from 1960 till 1990. Sri Ravi nandan Tiwari also worked in Department of Commerce from 1956 to 1960 as Lecturer.
- Munna Lal (Girls) Degree college.
In relation to its size, population, and economic strength of Saharanpur District and in comparison to the educational facilities in neighbouring districts, the city lacks adequate infrastructure for advanced education and research. This problem worsened since the loss of the academically well-endowed city of Roorkee, due to its separation from Saharanpur district and merger in the newly formed Uttarakhand state in September 2000.
Places of interest
The Saharanpur botanical gardens, known as Company Garden, once the preserve of the British East India Company, are one of the oldest existing gardens in India, dating to before 1750. Then named Farahat-Bakhsh, it was originally a pleasure ground set out by a local chief, Intazam ud-ullah. In 1817, it was acquired by the British East India Company and placed under the authority of the District Surgeon. Joseph Dalton Hooker says of this Botanical Garden that "Amongst its greatest triumphs may be considered the introduction of the tea-plant from China, a fact I allude to, as many of my English readers may not be aware that the establishment of the tea-trade in the Himalaya and Assam is almost entirely the work of the superintendents of the gardens of Calcutta and Seharunpore. In 1887, when the Botanical Survey of India was set up to reform the country's botanical sciences, Saharanpur became the centre for the survey of the northern Indian flora. The Garden is seen historically as being second only to the Calcutta Gardens for its contribution to science and economy in India. Under private auspices today, it is full of greenery and has many different kinds of plants and flowers.
Other places of interest are Ambedkar Memorial, founded by Chief Minister Mayawati, and the sprawling wood carvings market, which starts from near Ambala Road and extends up to Chilkana Road, where wonderful examples of the art of this city are displayed, sold, and exported all over the world.
Temples and other religious places
Temples and mosques include :
- Shia Jamamasjid (Ansariyan Street)
- Chota Imam Barha (ansariyan Street)
- Bada Imam Barha (Jafar Nawaz)
- Karbala (Behat Road )
- Patheshwar Temple (Court Road)
- Shiv Mandir (Naveen Nagar)
- Hari Krishna Mandir (Vinod Vihar)
- Jainbagh (Chilkana Road)
- Suparshvnath Jain Temple,Chander Nagar
- Jain Temple, Avas Vikas
- Bhuteshwar Temple (Bhuteshwar Road)
- Shiv Shakti Mandir (Chander Nagar)
- Bagheshwar Temple (Chakrauta Road)
- Laxmi Narayan Temple (Court Road)
- Balaji Temple (Badh-tala)
- Sai Baba Dham (Behat Road)
- Shri Hari Darshan Mandir (Chilkana Road)
- Pataleshwar Temple (Rani Bazar)
- Gita Mandir (Beri Bagh)
- Jama Masjid (Chowk Fawwara)
- Old Jama Masjid
- Eidgaah (Ambala Road)
- Madarsa Mazahir-ul-Uloom
- Nau-gaza Peer shrine
- Ojhria Peer shrine (Shah Behlole)
- Gadon Wali Masjid (Manakmau)
- Peerjiyon wali masjid (PuraniMandi)
- Teliyon Ki Masjid (Purani Mandi)
- Unchi Masjid (Pul Kambohaan)
- Masjid Shahmadar (Shahmadar-Near Pul Jogiyan)
- Masjid Maliyan (Maliyan – Near Pul Jogiyan)
- Masjid Ansariyan (Near Pul Sabzi Mandi)
- Masjid Sadak Wali (Near Pul Jogiyan, Behat Road)
- Masjid Imli Wali (Mohalla Chipyan)
- Ek Minara Masjid (Mandi Samiti Road)
- Masjid beldraan (Gado ka chowk)
- Masjid domazili (Gado ka chowk)
- Masjid Angoor wali ( lackigate )
- Masjid Shahjahaani (KhanAlam Pura)
- Shahjahani mosque
- Tableegh-markaz (Banjaron-ka-Pul, literally, Bridge of the Barren).
There were 195 temples as of 2010.
Barsi is situated 37 kilometres (23 mi) from Saharanpur on the Gangoh to Deoband road. It is the site of an ancient temple to Lord Shiva. Shri Baba Sidh Mandir is in Village Sona Arjunpur on Delhi- Saharanpur Road
Saharanpur’s older parts are broadly separated from the new ones by the railway track. A long railway over-bridge, Kachehri-ka-Pul (literally, Courtroad Bridge), is a landmark that connects the important hubs in the two parts. The city is expanding in all directions; townships in contemporary architectural style are being constructed, but there are no high-rise skyscrapers yet. Multistoried commercial complexes are also being constructed.
Among the notable new townships are Sharda nagar, Green park colony, Vinod Vihar Colony, Avas Vikas Colony, Prem Puri Colony, Bhagwati Colony, Indraprastha Colony, Paramont Tulip, South City Colony, Shivaji Nagar, Gill Colony, Madho Nagar, Hakikat Nagar, Avas Vikas Colony, Central Park, Gill Colony, Jagadish Colony, Laxman Singh Colony, Mission Compound, Neha Garden, New Patel Nagar, Devi Niwas, Royal Palm, Roop Vihar Colony Navada Road, Ansariyan Street, Basera Haji Abdul Ghafoor, Shankerpuri Colony, Shiv Vihar Colony, Rohit Vihar Colony, Sun City, Matki Jharoli, Parsvanath City, Sun City Grand, Beri Bagh, Ranjeet Nagar Colony, Himmat Nagar, Indira Gandhi Colony, Kapil Vihar,Basant Vihar Extn,Parvati Dham Colony near Circuit House
Travel and transport
The backbone of city centre public transport is the cycle-rickshaw, with auto-rickshaws being available at hubs. Private buses and taxis are available in the city.
Saharanpur is well-connected to all the major cities by bus and train. The city is located on National Highway 73. It is a major junction of Indian Railways. The main railway station, Saharanpur-Junction, is in the middle of the city, and the Tapri Railway Station is on Paper Mill Road. The Roadways Bus-stand is located near the Saharanpur Junction Railway Station; buses of Uttar Pradesh Government Roadways and other government and private sector services are available from here for all nearby towns and major cities. Saharanpur Airport is at Sarsawa Air Base, it is manned and operated by the Indian Air Force.
- History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 369. 1909.
- Madhu Jain, O. C. Handa, and Omacanda Handa, Wood Handicraft: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Saharanpur, Indus Publishing (2000), pp. 22–24. ISBN 81-7387-103-5
- Mayaram, Shail. Against history, against state: counterperspectives from the margins Cultures of history. Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Sharad Singh Negi, Biodiversity and its conservation in India 2nd revised ed. New Delhi, Indus Publishing (2008) ISBN 978-81-7387-211-2
- "Joseph Dalton Hooker, Himalayan Journals, or Notes of a Naturalist ..., Kew (1854), vol. I, p. 5.
- Saharanpur Botanic Garden
- Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor
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- The Saharanpur Dot Com – Everything you need to know about Saharanpur
- Mysaharanpur.com: a comprehensive web portal and forum for and about Saharanpur
- Order to form a commissionary.