Sahure

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Sahure (meaning "He who is close to Re") was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, second ruler of the 5th Dynasty reigning for c. 12 years in the early 25th century BC. Sahure is considered to be one of the most important kings of the Old Kingdom, his reign being a political and cultural high point of the 5th Dynasty.[14] Likely the son of his predecessor Userkaf with queen Neferhetepes II, Sahure was succeeded by his own son Neferirkare Kakai.

During Sahure's time on the throne, Egypt entairtained important trade relations with the Levantine coast. Sahure launched several naval expeditions to modern day Lebanon to procure cedar trees, people and exotic items. He also ordered the earliest attested expedition to the land of Punt, which brought back large quantities of myrrh, malachite and electrum. Sahure was so pleased at the success of this venture that a unique relief from his mortuary temple shows him tending for a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace "Sahure's splendor soars up to heaven". Sahure sent further expeditions to the mines of turquoise and copper in the Sinai. He also possibly ordered military campaigns against Lybian chieftains in the Western Desert, bringing back livestock to Egypt.

Sahure had a pyramid built for himself in Abusir, thereby abandonning the royal necropolises of Saqqara and Giza, where his predecessors had built their pyramids. This decision was possibly motivated by the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf, the first of the 5th Dynasty. The Pyramid of Sahure is much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty but its decoration was more elaborate. The causeway and mortuary temple of his pyramid complex were once adorned by over 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of fine reliefs, which made them renowned in antiquity. The architects of Sahure's pyramid complex introduced the use of palmiform columns, which would soon become a hallmark of ancient Egyptian architecture. Sahure is also known to have constructed a sun temple called "The Field of Ra", and although it is yet to be located it is presumably in Abusir as well.

Family[edit]

Parentage[edit]

The Westcar Papyrus, dating to the 17th Dynasty but probably first redacted during the 12th Dynasty, tells the myth of the origins of the 5th Dynasty.

Continuing excavations at the pyramid of Sahure in Abusir under the direction of Miroslav Verner and Tarek el-Awady in the early 2000s provide a better picture of the royal family of the early 5th Dynasty. In particular reliefs from the causeway linking the valley and mortuary temples of the pyramid complex reveal that Sahure's mother was queen Neferhetepes II.[15][16] She was the wife of pharaoh Userkaf, as indicated by the location of her pyramid immediately adjacent to that of Userkaf,[17] which makes Userkaf the father of Sahure in all likelihood. This is further confirmed by the discovery of Sahure's cartouche in the mortuary temple of Userkaf at Saqqara, indicating that Sahure finished the structure started most probably by his father.[17]

This contradicts an older, alternative theory according to which Sahure was the son of queen Khentkawes I,[6] believed to be the wife of the last pharaoh of the preceding 4th Dynasty, Shepseskaf. In this theory, Khentkawes possibly remarried Userkaf after the death of her first husband[18] and became the mother of Sahure and his successor on the throne Neferirkare Kakai.[7] This theory is based on the fact that Khentkawes is known to have bore the title of mwt nswt bity nswt bity, which could possibly be translated as "mother of two kings". Additionally, a story from the Westcar Papyrus tells of a magician foretelling Khufu of the futur demise of his lineage as three brothers will be born of the god Ra and a woman named Rededjet and reign successively as the first three kings of the 5th Dynasty.[19][20] Some egyptologists have therefore proposed that Khentkawes was the mother of Sahure and the historical figure on which Rededjet is based. Following the discoveries of Verner and el-Awady in Abusir this theory was abandonned and the real role of Khentkawes remains difficult to ascertain. This is in part because the translation of her title is problematic and because the details of the transition from the 4th to the 5th Dynasty are not yet clear. In particular, an ephemeral pharaoh Djedefptah may have ruled between Shepseskaf and Userkaf.[18]

Descendants[edit]

Sahure's consort was Neferetnebty[21][22] and he had several sons. Ranefer[16] and Netjerirenre are shown with Sahure and Nefertnebty on reliefs from the causeway leading to Sahure's pyramid and are thought to be their sons. Three more sons, Horemsaf, Khakare and Nebankhre are shown in Sahure's mortuary temple, but the identity of their mother is not known.[21] Sahure is known to have been was succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai, the first pharaoh to have a prenomen different from his nomen. Until recently, Neferirkare Kakai was believed to be a brother of Sahure[23] but this changed with the discovery and description by Miroslav Verner and Tarek el-Awady of a relief from the causeway of Sahure's pyramid showing him seated in front of two of his sons, Ranefer and Netjerirenre.[15] Next to Ranefer's name the text "Neferirkare Kakai king of Upper and Lower Egypt" had been added, indicating in all likeliness that Ranefer is Sahure's son and assumed the throne as Neferikare Kakai at the death of his father. Verner and el-Awady also speculate that Netjerirenre may have later taken the throne as Shepseskare.[15]

Reign[edit]

Chronology[edit]

Relief from Sahure's mortuary temple showing the Egyptian fleet returning from Syria.

The relative chronology of Sahure's reign is well established by historical records and contemporary artefacts, showing that he succeeded Userkaf and was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai. The Turin canon, a king list redacted during the early Ramesside era (1292–1189 BC), credits him with a reign of 12 years 5 months and 12 days and records the day of his death as the 28 Shemu II. In contrast, the near contemporary annal of the 5th Dynasty, known as the Palermo Stone, preserves his regnal years 2–3, 5–6 as well as his final year on the throne.[24][25] The document notes six or seven cattle counts, which would indicate a reign of at least 12 full years if the Old Kingdom cattle count was held biennially (i.e. every 2 years) as this annal document implies for the early 5th Dynasty. If this assumption is correct and Sahure's highest date was the year after the 6th count rather than his 7th count as Wilkinson believes,[26] then this date would mean that Sahure died in his 13th year and should be given a reign of 13 years 5 months and 12 days. This number would be only one year more than the Turin Canon's 12-year figure for Sahure and closer to the 13 years figure given by the ancient historian Manetho.

Sahure appears in two further historical records: on the third entry of the Karnak king list, which was redacted during the reign of Thutmose III (1479–1425 BC) and on the 26th entry of the Saqqara Tablet dating to the reign of Ramses II (1279–1213 BC). Neither of these give his reign length. The absolute datation of Sahure's reign is less certain although a majority of scholar date it to the first half of the 25th century BC.

Foreign activities[edit]

Trade and tribute
Relief of Sahure from the Wadi Maghareh.[27]

Historical records and surviving artefacts suggest that contacts with foreign lands were numerous during Sahure's reign. Furthermore, these contacts seem to have been mostly economic rather than military in nature. Reliefs from his pyramid complex show that he diposed of a navy comprising 100-cubits long boats (c. 50 m, 160 ft), some of which are shown coming back from Lebanon laden with the trunks of precious cedar trees.[13] Other ships are represented loaded with "Asiatics", both adults and children.[6][9][18] A unique relief depicts several Syrian brown bears, presumably brought back from the Levantine coast by a naval expedition as well. These bears appear in association with 12 red-painted on-handled jar from Syria and are thus likely to constitute a tribute.[10][28]

Trade contacts with Byblos certainly took place during Sahure's reign and indeed excavations of the temple of Baalat-Gebal yielded an alabaster bowl inscribed with Sahure's name.[9] There is further corroborating evidence for trade with the wider Levant during the 5th Dynasty, with a number of stone vessels inscribed with cartouches of pharaohs of this dynasty discovered in Lebanon. Finally, a piece of thin gold stamped to a wooden throne and bearing Sahure cartouches has been puportedly found during illegal excavations in Turkey among a wider assemblage known as the "Dorak Treasure".[6][29] The existence of the treasure is now widely doubted however.[30]

In his last year on the throne, Sahure sent the first documented[10] expedition to the fabled land of Punt.[31] The expedition is said to have come back with 80000 measures of myrrh, along with malachite and electrum.[9] Because of this, Sahure is often credited with establishing an Egyptian navy. However, it is known today that preceding Egyptian kings had a high seas navy too, in particular Khufu during whose reign the oldest known harbor, Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea was in activity.[32] Nonetheless, the reliefs from Sahure's pyramid complex remain the "first definite depictions of seagoing ships in Egypt".[33]

In his last year of reign Sahure sent another expedition abroad, this time to the copper and turquoise mines of Wadi Maghareh[27][34] and Wadi Kharit in the Sinai, which had been in activity since at least the beginning of the 3rd Dynasty.[35] This expedition brought back over 6000 units of copper to Egypt and also produced two reliefs in the Sinai, one of which shows Sahure in the traditional act of smitting asiatics[9] and boasting "The Great God smites the Asiatics of all countries".[25]

Military campaigns
Silver cylinder seal of king Sahure, Walters Art Museum.[36]

Sahure's military career is known primarily from reliefs from his mortuary complex. It apparently consisted of campaigns against the Libyans in the Western desert. The campaigns yielded various livestock and Sahure is shown smiting local chieftains. The Palermo stone corroborates some of these events and also mentions expeditions to the Sinai and to the exotic land of Punt. However, this same scene of the Libyan attack was used two hundred years later in the mortuary temple of Pepi II (2284–2184 BC) and in the temple of Taharqa at Kawa, built some 1800 years after Sahure's lifetime. In particular, the same names are quoted for the local chieftains. Therefore, there is the possibility that Sahure too was copying an even earlier representation of this scene.[37][38]

Activities in Egypt[edit]

The majority of Sahure's activities in Egypt recorded in the Palermo stone are religious in nature. During his 5th year of reign alone, the stone mentions the making of a divine barque, possibly in Heliopolis, the fixation of daily offerings of bread an beer to Ra, Hathor, Nekhbet and Wadjet and the gift of land to various temples.[25]

Archeological evidences suggest that Sahure's building activities concentrated in Abusir, where he constructed his pyramid and probably his sun temple as well. This temple, the second sun temple of the 5th Dynasty and yet to be located, is known to have existed thanks an inscription on the Palermo stone where it is called "Sekhet Re", meaning "The Field of Ra".[25] Reliefs which once adorned the temple have been found embedded in the walls of that of Nyuserre Ini (2445–2421 BC), which suggests either that Nyuserre used Sahure's temple as a quarry for construction materials or that he constructed his temple on the same site. The palace of Sahure, called "Uetjes Neferu Sahure", "Sahure's splendor soars up to heaven", is known from an inscription on tallow containers discovered in February 2011 in Neferefre's mortuary temple. The palace was likely located on the shores of the Abusir lake.

South of Egypt, a stele bearing Sahure's name was discovered in the diorite quarries located in the desert north-west of Abu Simbel in Lower Nubia.[28] Even further south, Sahure's cartouche has been found in a graffiti in Tumas and on seal impressions from Buhen at the second cataract of the Nile.[39][40][41]

Pyramid complex[edit]

Main article: Pyramid of Sahure
The ruined pyramid of Sahure as seen from the pyramid's causeway

The main pyramid of Sahure's mortuary complex exemplifies the decline of pyramid building, both in terms of size and quality. Yet, the accompanying mortuary temple is considered to be the most sophisticated one built up to that time.[9] With its many architectural innovations, such as the use of palmiform columns, the overall layout of Sahure's complex would serve as the template for all mortuary complexes constructed from Sahure's reign until the end of the Old Kingdom, some 300 years later.

Location[edit]

Sahure chose to construct his pyramid complex in Abusir, thereby abandonning both Saqqara and Giza, which had been the royal necropolises up to that time. A possible motivation for Sahure's decision was the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf.[42]

Mortuary temple[edit]

Sahure's mortuary temple was extensively decorated with an estimated 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of fine reliefs. Many surviving fragments of the reliefs which decorated the temple walls are of very high quality.[6] Several reliefs from the temple and causeway are unique in Egyptian art. These include a relief showing Sahure gardening a myrrh tree in his palace in front of his family,[43] a relief depicting Brown bears and a relief showing the bringing of the pyramidion to the main pyramid and the ceremonies following the completion of the complex. The many reliefs of the mortuary and valley temples also depict, among other things, a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat and records the return of an Egyptian fleet from Asia, perhaps Byblos. Some of the low relief-cuttings in red granite are masterpieces of their kind and are still in place at the site.

The mortuary temple featured the first palmiform columns of any Egyptian temple, massive granite architraves inscribed with Sahure's titulary overlaid with copper, black basalt flooring and granite dados.

Pyramid[edit]

The pyramid of Sahure reached 47 m (154 ft) at the time of its construction, much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty. Its inner core is made of roughly hewn stones organized in steps and held together in many sections with a tick mortar of mud. This construction technique, much cheaper and faster to execute than the stone-based techniques of the 4th Dynasty, fared much worse over time. Owing to this, Sahure's pyramid is now largely ruined and today there only remains a pile of rubble from the crude filling of debris and mortar of the core, which became exposed after the casing stones where stolen in antiquity.

While the core was under construction, a corridor was left into the shaft where the grave chamber was erected separately and later covered by leftover stone blocks and debris. This construction strategy is clearly visible from two unfinished pyramids and reflects the older style from the 3rd Dynasty now coming back into fashion after being temporarily abandoned by the builders of the five great pyramids at Dahshur and Giza during the 4th Dynasty.

A massive pink granite architrave inscribed with Sahure's titulary, from the courtyard of his mortuary temple.

The entrance at the north side is a short descending corridor lined with red granite followed by a passageway ending at the burial chamber with its gabled roof comprising large limestone beams. These beams are damaged which weakens the pyramid structure. The burial chamber is dangerous and is not open to access today. Fragments of the sarcophagus were found here, when it was first entered in the early 19th century. The colossal roof blocks of Suhare's temple weighed up to about 220 tons based on estimates by J.S. Perring. He estimated the size of the largest blocks at 35 feet by 9 feet by 12 feet. One end of these blocks was tapered so the estimated volume is 95 cubic meters or 2.4 tons. There were a total of at least 12 blocks the smallest of which was less than 100 tons. All but 2 of these are now broken. The Valley building of Sahure's Pyramid at Abu Sir included 8 monolithic granite columns with leafs on their capitals. These were probably not more than about 10 tons each but what makes them worth noting is that over a portion 2.6 meters long they taper from 91.2 cm to 79.8 cm with the error from the mean diameter never more than 8 millimetres.[44]

The mortuary complex also comprises a second pyramid built for the Ka of the king.

Court Officials[edit]

At the court of Sahure[edit]

A number of officials serving Sahure during his lifetime are known from their tombs. These include:

  • Niankhsekhmet: chief physician of Sahure, he asked the king that a false door be made for his tomb, to which the king agreed.[25] Sahure had the false door made of fine Tura limestone, carved and painted blue in his presence.[7][45] The king wished a long life to his physician, telling him:[25] "As my nostrils enjoy health, as the gods love me, may you depart into the cemetery at an advanced old age as one reverred".
  • Pehenewkai: priest of the cult of Userkaf during the reigns of Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai, then vizier for the latter.[46]
  • Persen: also known as Perisen, he was a mortuary priest in the funerary cult of Sahure's mother Nepherhetepes. His mastaba tomb is located close to Nepherhetepes's pyramid in Saqqara.[15][25][47]
  • Ptahshepses: probably born during the reign of Menkaure, Ptahshepses was high priest of Ptah and royal manicure, later promoted to vizier under king Nyuserre Ini.[48]
  • Sekhemkare: royal prince, son of Khafre and vizier under Userkaf and Sahure.[4]
  • Washptah: priest of Sahure during the king's lifetime, then vizier of Neferirkare Kakai. Buried in a mastaba in Saqqara.[46]
  • Werbauba: vizier during Sahure's reign, attested in the mortuary temple.[49][50] Contrary to Sekhemkare, Werbauba seems to have been non-royal. This indicates that Sahure pursued Userkaf's policy of appointing non-royal people to high offices.[50]

Sahure is also mentioned in the tomb of his contemporary Nesytpunetjer,[46] in Giza.

Priests of the cults of Sahure[edit]

Several priests serving Sahure's funerary cult or in his sun temple are known from inscriptions and artefacts from their tombs. These include:

  • Atjema: priest of the sun temple of Sahure during the 6th Dynasty.[2]
  • Khuyemsnewy: served as wab-priest of Sahure during the reigns of Neferirkare Kakai and Nyuserre Ini. He was also priest of Ra and Hathor in Neferirkare's sun temple, priest of Neferirkare, priest in Nyuserre Ini's and Neferirkare Kakai's pyramid complexes and Overseer of the Two Granaries.[18]
  • Nikare: priest of the cult of Sahure and overseer of the scribes of the granary during the 5th Dynasty.[2]
  • Senewankh: priest of the cults of Userkaf and Sahure, buried in a mastaba in Saqqara.[46]
  • Sedaug: priest of the cult of Sahure, priest of Ra in the sun-temple of Userkaf and royal acquaintance, buried in Giza.[51]
  • Tepemankh: priest of the cults of kings of the 4th to early 5th dynasty including Userkaf and Sahure, buried in a mastaba at Abusir.[2][34][46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Satue of Sahure with a nome god, online catalog of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  2. ^ a b c d e f Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1999, available online. Search the book online using Sahure as key word here
  3. ^ Sahure and a nome god, on the internet archive
  4. ^ a b Donald B. Redford: The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt, Volume 2, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0195102345
  5. ^ Datation of Sahure's reign on the website of the Walters Art Museum.
  6. ^ a b c d e Peter Clayton: Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, second printing edition 1994, ISBN 978-0500050743, available online, see p. 46 for Sahure's filiation in the old hypothesis and p. 60–63 concerning Sahure's reign
  7. ^ a b c Michael Rice: Who is who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge London & New York 1999, ISBN 0-203-44328-4, see p. 173
  8. ^ Jaromir Málek in Ian Shaw (editor): The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press (2000), ISBN 0-19-815034-2
  9. ^ a b c d e f Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 343–345
  10. ^ a b c Karin N. Sowada: Egypt in the Eastern Mediterranean During the Old Kingdom: An Archaeological Perspective, Eisenbrauns (2009), ISBN 978-3727816499, excerpts available online, see p. 160 and Fig. 39 for the tribute relief with bears and jars, see p. 198 for the expedition to Punt.
  11. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern, 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, see pp.56–57, king No 2 and p. 283 for the datation of Sahure's reign.
  12. ^ Thomas Schneider in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David A. Warburton (editors): Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill 2012, ISBN 978-90-04-11385-5, available online copyright-free, see p. 491
  13. ^ a b Mark Lehner: The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  14. ^ Vinzenz Brinkmann (editor): Sahure. Tod und Leben eines großen Pharao, Hirmer, München 2010, ISBN 978-3-7774-2861-1, see online abstract (German) and its English translation on Art Daily
  15. ^ a b c d Tarek El Awady: The royal family of Sahure. New evidence, in: M.Barta; F. Coppens, J. Krjci (Hrsg.): Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2005, Prague 2006 ISBN 80-7308-116-4, p. 192-98
  16. ^ a b Archaeogate Egittologia: Sahure's Causeway
  17. ^ a b Audran Labrousse and Jean-Philippe Lauer (in French): Les complexes funéraires d'Ouserkaf et de Néferhétepès, Vol. 1 and 2, IFAO, 2000, ISBN 2-7247-0261-1
  18. ^ a b c d William C. Hayes: The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom, MET Publications 1978, available online, concerning Sahure and Khentkawes, see p. 66–68 and p. 71, concerning Khuyemsnewy see p.106
  19. ^ Miriam Lichtheim: Ancient Egyptian literature: a book of readings. The Old and Middle Kingdoms, Vol. 1, University of California Press 2000, ISBN 0-520-02899-6, page 215–220.
  20. ^ Adolf Erman: Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar I. Einleitung und Commentar, in: Mitteilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen, Heft V, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin 1890. page 10–12.
  21. ^ a b Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004), pp. 62–69, ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  22. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki: Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London (2005), p. 15, ISBN 978-0954721893
  23. ^ Miroslav Verner, Steven Rendall (translator): The Pyramids. The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments, Grove Press, New York (2002), ISBN 978-0-8021-3935-1, see p. 268. Miroslav Verner has since then changed his opinion and now believes Neferirkare Kakai to be Sahure's son.
  24. ^ Toby Wilkinson: Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, Columbia University Press (2000), ISBN 0-7103-0667-9, p. 259
  25. ^ a b c d e f g James Henry Breasted: Ancient records of Egypt historical documents from earliest times to the Persian conquest, collected edited and translated with commentary, vol. I The First to the Seventeenth Dynasties, The University of Chicago press, 1906, available online see p. 70 for the Palermo stone and p. 108–110 for other inscriptions dating to Sahure's reign.
  26. ^ Wilkinson, p.168
  27. ^ a b Alan H. Gardiner, T. Eric Peet, Jaroslav Cerný: The Inscriptions of Sinai, edited and completed by Jaroslav Cerný, London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1955.
  28. ^ a b W. Stevenson Smith: The Old Kingdom of Egypt and the beginning of the First Intermediate Period in I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond (editors): The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 1, Part 2. Early History of the Middle East, Cambridge University Press, 3rd edition (1971), ISBN 9780521077910, excerpts available online, see p. 167 for the diorite quarris and p. 233 concerning the relief showing Syrian vessels
  29. ^ William Stevenson Smith: Interconnections in the Ancient Near-East: A Study of the Relationships Between the Arts of Egypt, the Aegean, and Western Asia, Yale University Press, 1965.
  30. ^ Mazur, Suzan (4 October 2005). "Dorak Diggers Weigh In On Anna & Royal Treasure". Scoop. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  31. ^ Zahi Hawass: The Treasure of the Pyramids, Vercelli, 2003, p. 260–263
  32. ^ Pierre Tallet: Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 18 (2012), p. 147–68, ISSN=2049-5021, available online
  33. ^ Shelley Wachsmann: Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, Texas A & M University Press (2008), ISBN 978-1603440806, excerpts available online
  34. ^ a b Nigel C. Strudwick, Ronald J. Leprohon (editor): Texts from the Pyramid Age, Writings from the Ancient World (book 16), Society of Biblical Literature (2005), ISBN 978-1589831384, concerning the inscriptions of Sahure in the Sinai here, concerning Tepemankh here.
  35. ^ G. D. Mumford: Wadi Maghara, in Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert (editors): Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt, New York: Routledge, 1999, p. 875-876, ISBN 9780203982839.
  36. ^ The seal on the catalog of the museum.
  37. ^ John Baines: Ancient Egypt in Andrew Feldherr, Grant Hardy (editors): The Oxford History of Historical Writing, Volume 1: Beginnings to AD 600, p. 65–66, excerpts available online
  38. ^ Kathleen Kuiper (editor): Ancient Egypt: From Prehistory to the Islamic Conquest, Britannica Guide to Ancient Civilizations, Rosen Education Service (2010), ISBN 978-1615301485, available online, see p. 48
  39. ^ Seal impression bearing Sahure's cartouche from Buhen, online catalog of the Petrie Museum.
  40. ^ Clay impression of a seal of Sahure UC 11769, online catalog of the Petrie Museum.
  41. ^ Short list of attestations of Sahure on Digital Egypt for Universities.
  42. ^ Zahi Hawass, Lyla Pinch Brock (editors): Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century, Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000, ISBN 978-9774246746, excerpts available online
  43. ^ Tarek el-Awady: King Sahure with the Precious Trees from Punt in a Unique Scene, in: Proceeding of “Art and Architecture of the Old Kingdom”, Prague 2007.
  44. ^ Dr. I.E.S. Edwards, The Pyramids of Egypt 1986/1947 pp.175-76, 180-81, 275
  45. ^ Paul Ghaliounghui: The Physicians of Pharaonic Egypt, Volume 10 of Deutsches archäologisches Institut. Abteilung Kairo. Sonderschrift. Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, 1983, ISBN 9783805306003
  46. ^ a b c d e Kurt Heinrich Sethe: Urkunden des Alten Reichs, vol. 1, Leipzig, J.C. Hinrichs'sche Burchhandlung, 1903, available online
  47. ^ Jean-Phillipe Lauer Saqqarah, Une vie, Entretiens avec Phillipe Flandrin, Petite Bibliotheque Payot 107, 1988, ISBN 2-86930-136-7
  48. ^ See the false door of Ptahshepses on the British Museum catalog
  49. ^ List of viziers, on Digital Egypt for Universities
  50. ^ a b Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Patmos, ISBN 978-3491960534
  51. ^ Hermann Junker: Giza, vol IX, p. 107–118, Wien 1929–1955, available online.
Preceded by
Userkaf
Pharaoh of Egypt
5th Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferirkare Kakai