Saint Barbara

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Saint Barbara
Ołtarz Św. Barbary 02.jpg
St. Barbara with her attribute - three-windowed tower, central panel of St. Barbara Altarpiece (1447), National Museum in Warsaw
Saint, Virgin, Martyr
Born mid third century
Died late third century to early fourth century (executed by her father)
Variously given
Honored in
Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Aglipayan Church & Anglicanism
Feast December 4
Attributes Three-windowed tower, palm, chalice, lightning, a crown of martyrdom
Patronage Armourers, Architects, Artillerymen, Mathematicians, Prisoners

Saint Barbara, (Greek: Αγία Βαρβάρα), Feast Day December 4, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian saint and martyr. Accounts place her in the 3rd century in Nicomedia, present-site Turkey or in Heliopolis of Phoenicia, present-day Lebanon.[1][2] There is no reference to her in the authentic early Christian writings, nor in the original recension of Saint Jerome's martyrology. Her name can be traced to the 7th century, and veneration of her was common, especially in the East, from the 9th century.[3]

Because of doubts about the historicity of her legend,[4] she was removed from the General Roman Calendar in the 1969 revision, though not from the Catholic Church's list of saints.[5]

Saint Barbara is often portrayed with miniature chains and a tower. As one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, Barbara continues to be a popular saint in modern times, perhaps best known as the patron saint of armourers, artillerymen, military engineers, miners and others who work with explosives because of her old legend's association with lightning, and also of mathematicians. Many of the thirteen miracles in a 15th-century French version of her story turn on the security she offered that her devotees would not die without making confession and receiving extreme unction.[6]

Life[edit]

According to the hagiographies[7] Barbara, the daughter of a rich pagan named Dioscorus, was carefully guarded by her father who kept her locked up in a tower in order to preserve her from the outside world. Having secretly become a Christian, she rejected an offer of marriage that she received through him.

Before going on a journey, he commanded that a private bath-house be erected for her use near her dwelling, and during his absence, Barbara had three windows put in it, as a symbol of the Holy Trinity, instead of the two originally intended. When her father returned, she acknowledged herself to be a Christian; upon this he drew his sword to kill her, but her prayers created an opening in the tower wall and she was miraculously transported to a mountain gorge, where two shepherds watched their flocks. Dioscorus, in pursuit of his daughter, was rebuffed by the first shepherd, but the second betrayed her and was turned to stone and his flock changed to locusts.

Dragged before the prefect of the province, Martinianus, who had her cruelly tortured, Barbara held true to her faith. During the night, the dark prison was bathed in light and new miracles occurred. Every morning her wounds were healed. Torches that were to be used to burn her went out as soon as they came near her. Finally she was condemned to death by beheading. Her father himself carried out the death-sentence. However, as punishment for this, he was struck by lightning on the way home and his body was consumed by flame. Barbara was buried by a Christian, Valentinus, and her tomb became the site of miracles.[8]

According to Legenda Aurea her martyrdom was December 4 "in the reign of emperor Maximianus and Prefect Marcien" (r. 286–305); the year was given as 267 in the French version edited by Father Harry F. Williams of the Anglican Community of the Resurrection (1975).

Veneration[edit]

Russian icon of St. Barbara.

The name of Saint Barbara was known in Rome in the 7th century,[9] her cult can be traced to the 9th century, at first in the East. Since there is no mention of her in the earlier martyrologies, her historicity is considered doubtful.[10]

Her legend is included in Vincent of Beauvais's Speculum historiale (xii.64) and in later versions of the Golden Legend[11] (and in William Caxton's version of it).

Various versions, who include two surviving mystery plays, differ on the location of her martyrdom, which is variously given as Tuscany, Rome, Antioch, Baalbek, and Nicomedia.[12]

Saint Barbara is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. Her association with the lightning that killed her father has caused her to be invoked against lightning and fire; by association with explosions, she is also the patron of artillery and mining. Her feast on December 4 was included in the Tridentine Calendar, having been introduced in Rome in the 12th century. In 1729 that date was assigned to the celebration of Saint Peter Chrysologus, reducing that of Saint Barbara to a commemoration in his Mass.[13] In 1969, because the accounts of her life and martyrdom were judged to be entirely fabulous, lacking clarity even about the place of her martyrdom, it was removed from that calendar.[14] But she is still mentioned in the Roman Martyrology,[15] which, in addition, lists another ten martyr saints named Barbara.

Saint Barbara and her tower, French, (Villeloup, Aube) ca 1520–30 polychromed limestone

In the 12th century, the relics of Saint Barbara were brought from Constantinople to the St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery in Kiev, where they were kept until the 1930s, when they were transferred to St. Vladimir's Cathedral in the same city. A small part of St. Barbara's relics were brought to The United States by His Holiness Patriarch Filaret of The Ukrainian Orthodox Church Kyivan Patriarchate in November 2012, they are permanently on display for veneration at St. Andrew Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral in Bloomingdale, Illinois.

Her feast day for Catholics,[5] Eastern Orthodox and Anglicans is December 4.

Patronage[edit]

Barbara shrines in the German mines Schacht Konrad (left) and Schacht Asse II (right).

Saint Barbara became the patron saint of artillerymen. She is also traditionally the patron of armourers, military engineers, gunsmiths, miners and anyone else who worked with cannon and explosives. She is invoked against thunder and lightning and all accidents arising from explosions of gunpowder. She is venerated by Catholics who face the danger of sudden and violent death in work.

The Spanish word santabárbara, the corresponding Italian word Santa Barbara, and the obsolete French Sainte-Barbe signify the powder magazine of a ship or fortress. It was customary to have a statue of Saint Barbara at the magazine to protect the ship or fortress from suddenly exploding. She is the patron of the Italian Navy.

Saint Barbara’s Day, December 4, is celebrated by the British (Royal Artillery, RAF Armourers, Royal Engineers), Australian (Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery, RAAF Armourers), Canadian (Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technicians (EOD), Canadian Air Force Armourers, Royal Canadian Artillery, Canadian Military Field Engineers, Royal Canadian Navy Weapons Engineering Technicians), New Zealand (RNZAF Armourers, RNZA, RNZN Gunners Branch) armed forces. Additionally, it is celebrated by Irish Defence Forces Artillery Regiments, Norwegian Armed Forces Artillery Battalion, United States Army and Marine Corps Field and Air Defense Artillery, many Marine Corps Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technicians, and other artillery formations. The units and sub-units celebrate the day with church parades, sports days, guest nights, cocktail parties, dinners and other activities. Several mining institutions also celebrate it, such as some branches of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. The West Australian Mining Club celebrate St Barbara's Day and use it to remember those people who have died working in the mining industry during the year. Although they do not celebrate her saint's day, she is also the patron saint of US Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Ordnancemen.

Santa Barbara Night is celebrated by the Norwich University Independent Battery.

In Greece, the day is celebrated by the Artillery Corps of the Greek Army and the Cypriot National Guard. Artillery camps throughout the two countries host celebrations in honor of the saint, where the traditional sweet of loukoumades is offered to soldiers and visitors, allegedly because it resembles cannonballs.[16] Saint Barbara is also the patron saint of the northern Greek city of Drama, where a sweet called varvara, which resembles a more liquid form of koliva, is prepared and consumed on her feast day.

The Spanish Artillerymen also venerate her as patron saint of their branch, and parades, masses and dinners are held in her honour and on behalf of those serving in the branch.

The city of Santa Barbara, California, located approximately 100 miles northwest of Los Angeles, is named for the Mission Santa Barbara. The Franciscan mission was dedicated to her in 1602 after Sebastián Vizcaíno survived a violent storm just offshore on the eve of her feast day. Other Spanish and Portuguese settlements named Santa Barbara were established in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, Venezuela, and the Philippines.[17] Many churches in Russia are dedicated in her name, including one in Moscow, next to Saint Basil's Cathedral, and in Yaroslavl.

In the Afro-Cuban religion of Santería she is syncretized with Chango, the deity of fire, lightning, and thunder. In Afro-Brazilian religions of Candomblé and Umbanda, she is often identified as Yansan, the orisha of wind and storms.

In Georgia, Saint Barbara's Day is celebrated as Barbaroba on December 17 (which is December 4 in the old style calendar).[18] The traditional festive food is lobiani, bread baked with a bean stuffing.

In Macedonia Saint Barbara's day is celebrated as Варвара (Varvara) on 17 December. Some Macedonians celebrate with their closest family and friends at home, while others refrain, believing that people who step in their house on Saint Barbara's day will give them either good or bad luck for the rest of the year.

In the mining town Kalgoorlie, Australia, as patron saint of miners she is venerated in the annual St. Barbara's Day parade.

In the Irish Army she is venerated as the patron saint of the Artillery Corps and appears on the corps insignia, half dressed, holding a harp, sitting on a field cannon.

The Order of Saint Barbara[edit]

The United States Army Field Artillery Association and the United States Army Air Defense Artillery Association maintain the Order of Saint Barbara as an honorary military society of the United States Army Field Artillery and the United States Army Air Defense Artillery. Members of both the United States Army and United States Marine Corps, along with their military and civilian supporters, are eligible for membership.

There are two levels of membership in the order.
The Honorable Order of St. Barbara, a silver medallion with red ribbon, is granted for long-term distinguished service in the Field Artillery or Air Defense Artillery corps. Appointment to the Honorable Order may be approved by the first colonel or the seniormost lieutenant-colonel in the chain of command.

The most distinguished level is The Ancient Order of Saint Barbara, a gold-colored medallion with red ribbon. Those who are selected for this honor have achieved long-term, exceptional service to the field artillery surpassing even their brethren in the Honorable Order of Saint Barbara. The Ancient order must be approved of by the Commanding General, United States Army Fires Center of Excellence at Fort Sill.[19] Also she is the patron saint of the Royal Artillery, British Army and is celebrated every December.

In modern popular culture[edit]

Saint Barbara's day or Eid il-Burbara is celebrated in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine among Arab Christians annually on December 4, in a feast day similar to that of North American Halloween.[20] The traditional food for the occasion is Burbara, a bowl of boiled barley, pomegranate seeds, raisins, anise and sugar. Walnuts or almonds can be added. [21][22] The general belief among Lebanese Christians is that Saint Barbara disguised herself in numerous characters to elude the Romans who were persecuting her.

Saint Barbara is mentioned in Federico García Lorca's play, La Casa de Bernarda Alba (1936). According to this drama, a popular Spanish phrase regarding this saint in the early 20th century was:

Blessed Santa Barbara, / Your story is written in the sky, / With paper and holy water.

The first Spanish-language Telenovela filmed in color for TV in the US, was the 1973 production of Santa Bárbara, Virgen y Mártir, filmed entirely on location in Hialeah, Florida.

GK Chesterton wrote the Ballad of Saint Barbara,[23] interweaving the Legend of the Saint with the contemporary account of the huge artillery barrages that turned the First Battle of the Marne.

Major Barbara is a play by George Bernard Shaw in which the title character is an officer in the Salvation Army and grapples with the moral dilemma of whether this Christian denomination should accept donations from her father, who is an armaments manufacturer.

In "Time Bomb," an episode of The Closer, the LAPD deploy a bomb-squad robot named Babs, after St. Barbara in her role as patron saint of artillery and explosives personnel.

St. Barbara is also the Patron Saint of the Gunnery Branch of the British Royal Navy. The church at HMS Excellent (also known as Whale Island) Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, the former Gunnery School of the Royal Navy, is called St. Barbara's.

The Hold Steady wrote a song on their album Separation Sunday called Don't Let Me Explode which name-checks Saint Barbara.

In art[edit]

Saint Barbara is depicted in art as standing by a tower with three windows, carrying a palm branch and a chalice, sometimes with cannons depicted by her side.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, Oxford University Press, G. Ferguson, 1959, p. 107.
  2. ^ Ulysses Annotated: Notes for James Joyce's Ulysses, D. Gifford, Robert J. Seidman, University of California Press, 2008, ISBN 0520253973, p. 527.
  3. ^ Harry F. Williams, "Old French Lives of Saint Barbara" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 119.2 (16 April 1975:156–185), with extensive bibliography.
  4. ^ Medieval historian Norman F. Cantor referred to Barbara in passing as "entirely mythical', in In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made 2002:84.
  5. ^ a b Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 621
  6. ^ Williams 1975.
  7. ^ Williams bibliography gives a survey.
  8. ^ This summary omits picturesque details, supplemented from Old French accounts, in Williams 1975:156f.
  9. ^ Williams 1975:156–185.
  10. ^ Alexander Joseph Denomy, "An old French life of Saint Barbara", Medieval Studies 1 (1939:148–78) publishes a 13th- or 14th-century poem in octasyllabic couplets; Wilhelm Weyh, Die syrische Barbara-Legende (Schweinfurt, 1912), concludes that the first legenda was in Greek.
  11. ^ B. de Gaiffier Analecta bollandiana77 (1959)5–41, suggests that the Legenda Aurea version was inspired by one from the late 15th-century Augustinian Jean de Wackerzeele, also known as Jean de Louvain (noted by Williams 1975:1758 note 17.
  12. ^ Bulfinch, (2001). One Hundred Saints. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.
  13. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice 1969), p. 98
  14. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice 1969), p. 147
  15. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  16. ^ "Cyprus Army notes on Saint Barbara". Army.gov.cy. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  17. ^ Hammond Atlas of the World. 1997.
  18. ^ "Saint Barbara's Day in Georgia, December 17". Messenger.com.ge. 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  19. ^ "United States Field Artillery Association". fieldartillery.org. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  20. ^ Gervers, Michael; Bikhazi, Ramzi Jibran (1990). Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 9780888448095. 
  21. ^ Terry Carter. Syria and Lebanon. p. 66. ISBN 1-86450-333-5. 
  22. ^ Wilhelmina and George Baramki (February 2007). "Winter Traditions in Palestine". Issue 106. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  23. ^ "cse.dmu.ac.uk". cse.dmu.ac.uk. 2005-01-10. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 

External links[edit]