Saint John, New Brunswick
|City of Saint John|
|— City —|
|Nickname(s): Fundy City, Loyalist City, Port City, Original City|
|Motto: "O Fortunati Quorum Jam Moenia Surgunt"
(Latin for, "O Fortunate Ones Whose Walls Are Now Rising."
or "O Happy They, Whose Promised Walls Already Rise")
|County||Saint John County|
|Major Settlement Started||1783|
|Incorporation||May 18, 1785|
|Founder||Gov. Thomas Carlton|
|Named for||St. John the Baptist|
|• City Mayor||Mel Norton|
|• Governing body||Saint John Council|
|• MPs||Rodney Weston|
|• MLAs||Trevor Holder, Carl Killen, Glen Savoie, Dorothy Shephard, Glen Tait|
|• Urban||326 km2 (126 sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,362.95 km2 (1,298.44 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||80.8 m (265.1 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• City||70,063 (CSD)|
|• Density||215.7/km2 (559/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||38.0/km2 (98/sq mi)|
|source: Statistics Canada|
|Time zone||Atlantic (AST) (UTC-4)|
|• Summer (DST)||Atlantic (ADT) (UTC-3)|
|Canadian Postal code||E2K, E2L And E2P|
|Telephone Exchanges||202, 214, 333, 343, 557 -8, 592, 608, 631 -640, 642 -654, 657 -8, 663, 672, 674, 693-4, 696, 721, 977|
|Website||City of Saint John|
City of Saint John, is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the second largest in the maritime provinces. The Fundy City was the first incorporated city in Canada. and is situated along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River. The Saint John Metro covers an area of 323 square kilometers across the Caledonia Highlands, which lie in the core of the city. In 2011 the city proper had a population of 70,063, and the population of the Saint John Metro region is currently 127,761. This marks an increase of 4.4% since 2006.
Geography and climate 
Physical geography 
Situated in the south-central portion of the province, along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the St. John River, the city is split by the south-flowing river and the east side is bordered on the north by the Kennebecasis River where it meets the St. John River at Grand Bay.
The St. John River itself flows into the Bay of Fundy through a narrow gorge several hundred feet wide at the centre of the city. It contains a unique phenomenon called the Reversing Falls where the diurnal tides of the bay reverse the water flow of the river for several kilometres. A series of underwater ledges at the narrowest point of this gorge also create a series of rapids.
The topography surrounding Saint John is hilly; a result of the influence of two coastal mountain ranges which run along the Bay of Fundy – the St. Croix Highlands and the Caledonia Highlands. The soil throughout the region is extremely rocky with frequent granite outcrops. The coastal plain hosts numerous freshwater lakes in the eastern, western and northern parts of the city.
In Saint John the height difference from low to high tide is approximately 8 metres (28 ft) due to the funnelling effect of the Bay of Fundy as it narrows. The Reversing Falls in Saint John, actually an area of strong rapids, provides one example of the power of these tides; at every high tide, ocean water is pushed through a narrow gorge in the middle of the city and forces the St. John River to reverse its flow for several hours.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The climate of Saint John is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The Bay of Fundy never fully freezes, thus moderating the winter temperatures compared with inland locations. Even so, with the prevailing wind blowing from the west (from land to sea), the average January temperature is about −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). Summers are cool to moderately warm, and daytime temperatures usually do not exceed 25 °C (77 °F). Saint John experiences a considerable amount of fog during the summer months, though the fog usually does not last throughout the entire day.
Annual precipitation in Saint John totals about 1,390 millimetres (55 in) annually and is well distributed throughout the year, although the late autumn and early winter is typically the wettest time of year. Snowfalls can often be heavy, but rain is as common as snow in winter, and it is not unusual for the ground to be snow-free even in mid-winter.
|Climate data for Saint John|
|Record high Humidex||15.9||13.3||17.8||23.8||35.4||37.4||40.3||40.3||36.5||28.3||23.8||18.0||40.3|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−8.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−13.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−31.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||139.4
|Rainfall mm (inches)||78.2
|Snowfall cm (inches)||66.5
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||16.4||13.0||14.8||14.0||13.6||13.2||12.0||10.9||11.4||12.3||14.1||16.6||162.3|
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||6.9||5.3||8.2||10.6||13.5||13.2||12.0||10.9||11.4||12.1||12.0||9.0||125.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||13.0||10.7||9.8||5.7||.57||0||0||0||0||.73||4.0||11.1||55.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||123.0||129.6||147.8||160.9||201.5||211.1||223.1||221.6||177.6||147.2||105.7||101.0||1,950.1|
|Source: Environment Canada|
Saint John is a city of neighbourhoods, with residents closely identifying with their particular area.
South Central Peninsula (Uptown/ Downtown) 
The central peninsula on the east side of the harbour, and the area immediately opposite on the west side, hosts the site of the original city from the merger of Parrtown and Carleton. The western side of the central peninsula subsequently saw increased development and currently includes the central business district (CBD) and the Trinity Royal heritage district, which together are referred to as "Uptown" by residents throughout the city. As most of this area in the central peninsula is situated on a hill, it is rarely called "Downtown." The south end of the central peninsula, south of the Duke Street, is appropriately called the South End.
North End (Indiantown/ Millidgeville/ Mount Pleasant/ Portland) 
The area north of the Highway #1 from the South Central Peninsula is called the North End; both areas being predominantly urban residential older housing which is undergoing gentrification. Much of the North End is made up of the former city of Portland and comprises another former working class area which is slowly undergoing gentrification at the eastern end of Douglas Avenue; immediately north of Portland and upstream from the Reversing Falls is the former community of Indiantown.
Vessels navigating the St. John River can only transit the Reversing Falls gorge at slack tide, thus Indiantown became a location during the 19th and 20th centuries where tugboats and paddle wheelers could dock to wait. Being located at the beginning of the navigable part of the St. John River, Indiantown also became a major terminal for vessels departing to ply their trade upriver.
Further north of the central part of the city, and northeast of the North End and Portland, along the southern bank of the Kennebecasis River is the area of Millidgeville which is generally considered a neighbourhood separate from the North End. The boundary of Millidgeville is typically thought to begin at the "Y" intersection of Somerset Street and Millidge Ave or right after Tartan St. It is a middle to upper-class neighbourhood. Located here is University of New Brunswick, as well as New Brunswick's largest health care centre, the Saint John Regional Hospital, and Saint John's only completely French school, Samuel de Champlain.
The eastern area of the North End plays host to the city's largest park, and one of Canada's largest urban parks. Rockwood Park encompasses 890 hectares of upland Acadian mixed forest, many hills and several caves, as well as several freshwater lakes, with an extensive trail network, a golf course, and the Cherry Brook Zoo. The park was designed by Calvert Vaux in the mid-to-late 19th century. Mount Pleasant borders the park, and is generally seen as distinct from the traditionally poorer North End.
East Side (Simonds/ Loch Lomond) 
To the east of the Courtney Bay / Forebay and south of New Brunswick Route 1 is the East Side, where the city has experienced its greatest suburban sprawl in recent decades with commercial retail centres and residential subdivisions. There has been significant and consistent commercial and retail development in the Westmorland Road-McAllister Drive-Consumer's Drive-Major's Brook Drive-Retail Drive corridor since the 1970s, including McAllister Place, the city's largest shopping mall, which opened in 1978, and with active year-to-year development since 1994. The city's current airport is located further east on the coastal plain among several lakes at the far eastern edge of the municipality. Far east side is Loch Lomand, including several urban neighbourhoods are found here, including Forest Hills, Champlain Heights, Lakewood Heights. The malls were built by filling in Major's Brook (a tributary to Marsh Creek), making the area unstable.
West Side (Carleton/ Lancaster/ Fairville) 
The portion of the city west of the St. John River is collectively referred to as West Side, although West Saint Johners typically divide this area into several neighbourhoods. As mentioned previously, the Lower West Side is the former working-class neighbourhood that was known as Carleton at the time of the city's formation in 1785. West and north of the Lower West Side is the former city of Lancaster (commonly referred to as Saint John West), which was amalgamated into Saint John in 1967. The dividing line is generally agreed upon to be Martello Tower and not Lancaster Avenue, with the streets east and south of Lancaster Avenue being considered to be the "West Side, and the streets north and west of Lancaster Avenue, having been renamed from Lancaster, NB to Saint John West, NB.
The southern part of Lancaster abutting Saint John Harbour and the Bay of Fundy is Bayshore and the location of Canadian Pacific Railway's Bayshore Yard. The north end of Lancaster, known as Fairville, is home to Moosehead Brewery and older neighbourhoods clustered along Manawagonish Road. North of Fairville are the communities of Milford and Randolph. Randolph, which is home to Dominion Park Beach, is actually on the city's largest island, joined to Milford by the Canal Bridge over Mosquito Cove on Greenhead Road.
West of Lancaster, the city hosts its second largest park, and one of the largest coastal urban parks in the country. The Irving Nature Park, along Saints' Rest Beach sits on an extensive peninsula called Taylor's Island extending into the western part of the harbour into the Bay of Fundy.
Saint John's suburbs, just on the edge of the city limit are Rothesay, Quispamsis and Grand Bay-Westfield. Mainly residential, the suburbs have attracted many of Saint John's residents leading to, until the last census of 2011, the city's population to shrink.
Buildings and structures 
- Courtney Bay Smokestacks (each 106.7 metres (350 ft))
- Brunswick Square (80.8 metres (265 ft)) 19-storey office building with 511,032 square feet (47,476.4 m2) which was built in 1976. It is the largest office building in New Brunswick in terms of square footage and second in Atlantic Canada behind the Maritime Centre in Halifax. It is tied with Assumption Place in Moncton for the tallest in New Brunswick.
- Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Gothic style Catholic cathedral, construction began in 1853, its spire rises to 70.1 metres (230 ft))
- City Hall (55.2 metres (181 ft)) 15-storey office building (165,000 square feet (15,300 m2))
- Brunswick House (52 metres (171 ft)) 14-storey office building (103,000 square feet (9,600 m2))
- Irving Building (50 metres (160 ft)) 14-storey office building
- Harbourside Senior Citizens Housing Complex (43 metres (141 ft)) 12-story apartment building
- Harbour Building (37 metres (121 ft)) 10-storey office building
- Mercantile Centre (30 metres (98 ft)) 7-storey office building (106,600 square feet (9,900 m2))
- Chateau Saint John 8-storey Hotel (112 rooms)
- City Market (built in 1876, oldest city market in North America, with an original ship's hull roof design)
National Historic Sites 
The population of the city had been in steady decline since the 1970s. However, this trend has now reversed itself and has shown its first increase in many years in the 2011 census.
Metropolitan area 
In the year 2010 the population of the Greater Saint John area has grown to 132,192, of whom it was 49% male and 51% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 21% of the population. People 65 and over accounted for 27% of the population. In the years between 1996 and 2005, the population of Saint John declined 6.8%. When the census was taken in May 2006 the population of Saint John was 69,684 compared with 68,103 in 2001.
Ethnicity and religion 
Canada's 2006 Census found that amongst the Saint John population's reported ethnic origins, 42.1% of the population described their background as Canadian, followed by English (35.6%), Irish (33.6%), Scottish (27.3%), French (22.7%), German (6.0%), Dutch (3.2%), North American Indian (3.2%), Welsh (2.0%), and many others. (Numbers add to more than 100% due to multiple responses: e.g. "English & Scottish".)
With regard to religion, 89.2% identify as Christian (47.6% Protestant, 40.3% Roman Catholic, and 1.3% other Christian, mostly Orthodox and independent churches). 10.1% state no religious affiliation, and other religions including Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism together comprise less than 1%.
Municipal government (Common Council) 
Saint John is governed by a body of elected officials, referred to as "Common Council" whose responsibilities include
- Setting the City Operational Budget
- Setting the City Water Utility Budget/ Rates
- Enacting and Amending By-Laws
- Rezoning and Land-Use permissions of properties in Saint John.
- Setting the Capital budget for the City.
- Act as the Board of Directors for the Corporation "City of Saint John"
- Appoint persons to City Staff and Commissions.
- Oversee the operation of City Commissions and Departments
The Common Council consists of:
- The Mayor Mel Norton 2012–present, who runs at-large, acts as Chairman of the Board.
- Two at-large Common Councilors.
- Two Common Councilors, from each of the city's four wards.
One is elected by the council to serve as Deputy Mayor.
Current Council is Shelly Rinehart Councillor at Large and Deputy Mayor Shirley MacAlary, Councillor at Large Ward 1 Bill Farren Greg Norton
Ward 2 John MacKenzie Susan Fullerton
Ward 3 Donna Reardon
Ward 4 Ray Strowbridge David Meritthew
In the October 9, 2007 Plebiscite, it was decided that as of the May 2008 quadrennial municipal elections, the city will be divided into four wards of approximately equal population, with two councilors to be elected by the voters in that ward, and two councilors to be elected at large.
Politically, socially and economically, the sea has shaped Saint John. The Fundy City, as the city has been called as it is the only city located on the Bay of Fundy, has a long history of shipbuilding at the city's dry dock which is one of the largest in the world. Since 2003 shipbuilding has ended on the scale it once was forcing the city to adopt a new economic strategy. The University of New Brunswick, the New Brunswick Museum and the New Brunswick Community College are huge institutions along with Radian6 and Horizon Health Network and many others are a part of Saint John's fast growing Research and Information Technology sectors. As the city moves away from its industrial past it now begins to capitalize on the other new growing economies in Saint John of tourism, having over 1.5 million visitors a year and 200,000 cruise ship visitors a year, creating a renaissance in the city's historic downtown (locally known as uptown) with many small business's moving in and large scale waterfront developments underway such as the Fundy Quay being condo, hotel, office space along with the Saint John Law Courts and Three Sisters Harbour front condos.
The Arts & Culture sector play a large role in Saint John's economy. The Imperial Theatre is home to the highly acclaimed Saint John Theatre Company, and the Symphony New Brunswick and hosts a large collection of plays, concerts and other stage production year round. Harbour Station entertainment complex is home to the Saint John Sea Dogs of the QMHL and the Saint John Millrats of the NBL.
Art galleries in Saint John cover the uptown, more than any other atlantic Canadian city. Artists like Miller Brittain and Fred Ross have made Uptown Saint John their home and now the torch has been past to artists like Gerard Collins, Cliff Turner and Peter Salmon and their respective galleries. Uptown art galleries also include the Trinity Galleries, Citadel Gallery, Handworks Gallery and the Saint John Arts Centre (SJAC). The SJAC located in the Carnegie Building, hosts art exhibits, work shops, local song writers circles and other shows too small to be featured at the grand Imperial Theatre.
Saint John still maintains industrial infrastructure in the city's east side such as a large oil refinery. Wealthy industrialist K.C. Irving and his family built an industrial conglomerate in the city during the 20th century with interests in oil, forestry, shipbuilding, media and transportation. Irving companies remain dominant employers in the region with North America's first deepwater oil terminal, a pulp mill, a newsprint mill and a tissue paper plant.
Other important economic activity in the city is generated by the Port of Saint John, the Moosehead Brewery (established in 1867, is Canada's only nationally distributed independent brewery in Canada [M. Nicholson]), James Ready Brewing Co., the New Brunswick Power Corporation which operates three electrical generating stations in the region including the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, Bell Aliant which operates out of the former New Brunswick Telephone headquarters, the Horizon Health Network, which operates 5 hospitals in the Saint John area, and numerous information technology companies. There are also a number of call centres which were established in the 1990s under provincial government incentives.
Maritime activities 
Until the early first decade of the 21st century, Canada's largest shipyard (Irving Shipbuilding) had been an important employer in the city. During the 1980s-early 1990s the shipyard was responsible for building 9 of the 12 Halifax class multi-purpose patrol frigates for the Canadian Navy. However, the shipyard failing to buckle to Union pressure shut down production. The 25 year Union contract with the shipyard is due to end at the end of the 2012 year. This would allow the shipyard to operate under a new contract. Prior to the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in the late 1950s, the Port of Saint John functioned as the winter port for Montreal, Quebec when shipping was unable to traverse the sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River. The Canadian Pacific Railway opened a line to Saint John from Montreal in 1889 across the state of Maine and transferred the majority of its trans-Atlantic passenger and cargo shipping to the port during the winter months. The port fell into decline following the seaway opening and the start of year-round icebreaker services in the 1960s. In 1994 CPR left Saint John when it sold the line to shortline operator New Brunswick Southern Railway. The Canadian National Railway still services Saint John with a secondary mainline from Moncton.
Besides being the location of several historical forts, such as Fort Howe, Fort Dufferin, Fort Latour, and the Carleton Martello Tower, Saint John is the location of a number of reserve units of the Canadian Forces.
- HMCS Brunswicker – a Naval Reserve Division.
- B Company, 4 Platoon, 1st Battalion, Royal New Brunswick Regiment (Carleton & York) – an infantry unit of 37 Canadian Brigade Group.
- 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (The Loyal Company) – the oldest artillery regiment in Canada and third in the British Commonwealth, a part of 37 Canadian Brigade Group.
- 31 (Saint John) Service Battalion – a Service Battalion of 37 Canadian Brigade Group.
- 722 (Saint John) Communications Squadron[dead link] – a unit of the Communications Reserve.
The following malls are located in the city:
- Market Square (Mall/Office)
- Brunswick Square (Mall/Office)
- Shoppes of City Hall (Mall/Office)
- Trinity Royal District (Street Scape)
- Prince Edward Square (Mall/Office)
- Saint John City Market (Fresh Produce Market)
- Lansdowne Place (Plaza)
- Churchill Plaza (Plaza)
- Millidgeville Plaza (Plaza)
- Lancaster Mall (Mall)
- Lancaster Plaza (Plaza)
- Mahagony Place (Plaza)
- Main Street West (Street Scape)
- Fairville Boulevard (Plaza)
- Westwind Place (Plaza)
- SuperStore-Staples Mall (Plaza)
- Rothesay Avenue (Plaza)
- Loch Lomond Place (Mall/Office)
- Unnamed Hickey Road Plaza (Plaza)
- East Point Shopping Centre (Power Centre)
- Smart!Centres/Wal-Mart Plaza (Power Centre)
- Exhibition-SCA-McAllister Drive Plaza (Street Scape)
- MBD Plaza (Plaza)
- Westmorland Place (Plaza)
- Parkway Mall (Mall/Office)
- McAllister Place (Mall)
Energy projects 
Canaport LNG 
Canaport LNG, a partnership between Irving Oil (25%) and Repsol (75%), constructed a state-of-the-art LNG receiving and regasification terminal in Saint John, New Brunswick that began operations in 2009. It is the first LNG regasification plant in Canada, sending out natural gas to both Canadian and American markets. The terminal has a send-out capacity, or the ability to distribute via pipeline, 1 billion cubic feet (28 million cubic meters) of natural gas a day after it has been regasified from its liquid state.
Brunswick Pipeline 
Emera Inc. will invest approximately $350 million, for full ownership of a proposed pipeline which will deliver natural gas from the planned Canaport(TM) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) import terminal near Saint John, New Brunswick to markets in Canada and the US Northeast. Brunswick Pipeline will have a diameter of 30 inches (760 mm) and will be capable of carrying approximately 850 million cubic feet (24,000,000 m3) per day of re-gasified LNG. Capacity can be expanded with added compression. Brunswick Pipeline will deliver natural gas from the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) receiving and re-gasification terminal near Saint John, New Brunswick to markets in Canada and the US northeast.
The 145 km (90 mi) pipeline would extend through southwest New Brunswick to an interconnection with the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline at the Canada/US border near St. Stephen, New Brunswick. The National Energy Board (NEB) has issued its Environmental Assessment Report (EA Report) on the proposed Brunswick Pipeline project. The main finding of the EA Report is that the project is not likely to result in significant adverse environmental effects, provided Brunswick Pipeline meets all of its environmental commitments, and all of the NEB’s recommendations are implemented. The pipeline is construction was completed on January 31, 2009.
Air service into Saint John is provided by the Saint John Airport, located near Loch Lomond approximately fifteen kilometres east of the city centre. Flights are offered by Sunwing Airlines (seasonal) and Air Canada. WestJet recently decided to withdraw from the Saint John Airport. Quebec-based PASCAN Aviation announced its expansion into Saint John in late 2012, with direct flights from Saint John to Quebec City, Newfoundland, and other destinations beginning in September 2012.
The main highway in the city is the Saint John Throughway (Route 1). Route 1 extends west to St. Stephen, and northeast towards Moncton. A second major highway, Route 7, connects Saint John with Fredericton. There are two main road crossings over the St. John River: the Harbour Bridge and the Reversing Falls Bridge, approximately 1-nautical-mile (1.9 km) upstream.
The Reversing Falls Railway Bridge carries rail traffic for the New Brunswick Southern Railway on the route from Saint John to Maine. Passenger rail service in Saint John was discontinued in 1994, although the Canadian National Railway and New Brunswick Southern Railway continue to provide freight service.
Bay Ferries operates a ferry service across the Bay of Fundy to Digby, Nova Scotia. The Summerville to Millidgeville Ferry, a free propeller (as opposed to cable) ferry service operated by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation, connects the Millidgeville neighbourhood with Summerville, New Brunswick, across the Kennebecasis River on the Kingston Peninsula.
Saint John shares much of the same cultural roots found in cities like Boston and New York. The presence of Irish heritage is very apparent along with strong maritime traditions. Saint John is a true maritime city with ties to the fisheries and shipbuilding, and is known for the Marco Polo as its flagship vessel. The city has been a traditional hub for creativity, boasting many notable artists, actors and musicians, including Walter Pigeon, Donald Sutherland, Louis B. Mayer, Fred Ross and Miller Brittain.
Saint John has a long history of Brewers, such as Simeon Jones, The Olands, and James Ready. The city is now home to Moosehead Breweries, James Ready Brewing Co., Big Tide Brewing Co.
Dance, music, and theatre ensembles in the city include:
- Before the Mast, an a capella men's vocal group that performs sea "shanties" from New Brunswick's past
- Cantabile Women's Ensemble
- Carleton Choristers
- Connection Dance Works
- InterAction Children's Theatre
- New Brunswick Youth Orchestra
- Opera New Brunswick
- Open Arts - a series featuring post-classical and experimental music
- Port City Dance Academy
- Saint John Chorale
- Saint John Men's Chorus
- Saint John Rotary Boys' Choir - a boys' choir founded in 1965
- Saint John String Quartet - performs an annual chamber music concert series
- Saint John Theatre Company
- Symphony New Brunswick (SNB)- the province's only professional symphony orchestra. Though based locally, playing a concert series every season in Saint John, SNB offers concerts in other cities province wide.
Saint John has several small private art galleries, as well as concert series hosted by local churches and schools. Cultural festivals and venues include:
- St. Andrew and St. David United Church
- Citadel Gallery
- Handworks Gallery
- Harbour Station - venue for large indoor concerts and events
- Jones Gallery
- Peter Buckland Gallery
- Portland United Church
- The Imperial Theatre
- Saint John Free Public Library, Library Millenium Artplace
- Saint John Shakespeare Festival
- Saint John Arts Centre
- Canada Day Celebrations
- Salty Jam
- Third Space Gallery
- Trinity Galleries
The following museums are also located in Saint John:
- Barbour's General Store
- Carleton Martello Tower
- Fort Howe
- Loyalist House
- New Brunswick Museum
- Old No. 2 Engine House Museum
- Saint John Jewish Historical Museum
- Saint John Floral Museum
- Saint John Police Museum
National Historic Sites of Canada located in Saint John include the following:
- Carleton Martello Tower
- Chipman Hill
- Fort Charnisay (also sometimes called Fort Menagoueche)
- Fort Howe
- Fort La Tour
- Imperial Theatre
- Loyalist House
- Number 2 Mechanics' Volunteer Company Engine House
- Partridge Island Quarantine Station
- Prince William Streetscape
- Saint John City Market
- Saint John County Courthouse
- St. John's Anglican Stone Church
The following teams are based in Saint John:
- The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League's Saint John Sea Dogs
- The National Basketball League of Canada's Saint John Mill Rats.
The following sporting events have been held here:
- 2010 Canadian Senior Little League Championships
- 2010 Jeux d'Acadie
- 2009 Canadian Senior Little League Championships
- The Saint John Flames of the AHL played here from 1993–2003, winning the Calder Cup in 2000–2001.
- 1999 World Curling Championships
- 1998 World Junior Figure Skating Championships
- 1997 AHL All-Star Game
- 1995 Skate Canada International
- 1985 Canada Games
- In 1867, the local The Paris Crew became the rowing champions of the world.
Saint John is also home to Exhibition Park Raceway, a Harness Racing facility that has been hosting this form of Horse Racing for over the past 120 years. Prior to 1950 it was known as Moosepath Park.
In 1964, the University of New Brunswick created UNB Saint John. Initially located in buildings throughout the downtown CBD, in 1968 UNBSJ opened a new campus in the city's Tucker Park neighbourhood. This campus has undergone expansion over the years and is the fastest growing component of the UNB system with many new buildings constructed between the 1970s-first decade of the 21st century. A trend in recent years has been a growth in the number of international students. The city also hosts a New Brunswick Community College campus in the East End of the city.
In the fall of 2007, a report commissioned by the provincial government recommended that UNBSJ and the NBCC be reformed and consolidated into a new polytechnic post-secondary institute. The proposal immediately came under heavy criticism and led to the organizing of several protests in the uptown area. The diminishment of UNB as a nationally accredited university, the reduction in accessibility to receive degrees, and there are only a couple of the reasons why the community was enraged by the recommendation with support slightly below 90% to keep UNBSJ as it was, and expand the university under its current structure. Seeing that too much political capital would be lost, and that several Saint John are MPs were likely not to support the initiative if the policies recommended by the report were legislated, the government abandoned the commission's report and created an intra-provincial post-secondary commission.
Saint John is served by two school boards; District 8 for Anglophone schools and District 1 (based out of Dieppe, New Brunswick) for the city's only Francophone school, Centre-Scolaire-Communautaire Samuel-de-Champlain. Saint John is also home to Canada's oldest publicly funded school, Saint John High School. The other high schools in the city are Harbour View High School, St. Malachy's High School, and Simonds High School.
Predated by the Maritime Archaic Indian civilization, the area of the northwestern coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy is believed to have been inhabited by the Passamaquoddy Nation several thousand years ago, while the St. John River valley north of the bay became the domain of the Maliseet Nation.
French Colony 
The mouth of the St. John River was first discovered by Europeans in 1604 during a reconnaissance of the Bay of Fundy undertaken by French cartographer Samuel de Champlain. The day upon which Champlain sighted the mighty river was St. John The Baptist's Day, hence the name, which in French is Fleuve Saint-Jean. The city has the same name in English as well as French.
The strategic location at the mouth of the St. John River was fortified by Charles de la Tour in 1631. The fort was named Fort Sainte Marie (AKA Fort La Tour) and was located on the east side of the river. To the west of the St. John River, Fort Saint-Jean was later built (c.1790).
Raid on St. John (1632) 
Precipitated by the arrival of the new French governor of Acadia, Isaac de Razilly, on 18 September 1632, Captain Andrew Forrester, commander of the then Scottish community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia, crossed the Bay of Fundy with twenty-five armed men and raided Fort Sainte-Marie. Symbolically, Forrester's men knocked down the large wooden cross and arms of the king of France before plundering the fort. They seized the fort's personnel and their stock of furs, merchandise, and food. Forrester took his prisoners and loot to Port Royal. This conflict was the last fighting, between the Scots and the French, before Port Royal was returned to the French.
Acadian Civil War 
Blockade of St. John (1642) 
Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour and Charles de Menou, Sieur d'Aulnay each had a claim of some legitimacy to be Governor of Acadia because the French Imperial bureaucracy made their appointments with an incomplete understanding of the geography of the area. LaTour had a fortified settlement at the mouth of the Saint John River while d'Aulnay's headquarters was at Port Royal some 45 miles across the Bay of Fundy. In adjoining New England, the people supported LaTour's claim since he allowed them to fish and lumber in and along the Bay of Fundy without let or hindrance while d'Aulnay aggressively sought payment for that right. Word came to LaTour that d'Aulnay was concentrating men and materials for an attack on LaTour's fort and fur trading operation at the mouth of the Saint John River. LaTour went to Boston to ask John Winthrop, the governor of Massachusetts Bay colony, for help. Winthrop arranged for several merchants to advance loans unofficially to LaTour for his purchase of men and material to defend the Saint John River fort from d'Aulnay's attack. For five months, the Governor of Acadia d'Aulnay who was stationed at Port Royal created a blockade of the river to defeat La Tour at his fort. On 14 July 1643, La Tour arrived from Boston with four ships and a complement of 270 men to repossess Fort Sainte-Marie. After this victory, La Tour went on to attack d'Aulnay at Port Royal, Nova Scotia. LaTour was unsuccessful then in catching d'Aulnay and the rivalry continued for several more years.
Siege of St. John (1645) 
While La Tour was in Boston, on Easter Sunday 13 April 1645, d'Aulnay sailed across the Bay of Fundy and arrived at La Tours fort with a force of two hundred men. La Tour's soldiers were led by his wife, Françoise-Marie Jacquelin, who became known as the Lioness of LaTour for her valiant defence of the fort. After a five-day battle, on 18 April, d' Aulnay offered quarter to all if Francoise-Marie were to surrender the fort. On that basis, knowing she was badly outnumbered, she capitulated and d’Aulnay had captured La Tour's Fort Stainte-Marie. d'Aulnay then reneged on his pledge of safety for the defenders and treacherously hanged the La Tour garrison while Madame de la Tour was forced to watch with a rope around her neck. Three weeks later, while still in d'Aulnay's hands, she died. With the death of his wife and the loss of his fort, La Tour did not return to Acadia for the next four years, until d'Aulnay had died (1650). And when he did return, he married d’Aulnay’s widow to end the rivalry. He and Madame d’Aulnay had five children in the result they have hundreds of descendants living in the Canadian Maritimes today.
Battle of St. John (1654) 
Colonel Robert Sedgwick led one hundred New England volunteers and two hundred of Oliver Cromwell's soldiers to capture Port Royal, Nova Scotia. Prior to the battle, Sedgewick captured and plundered La Tour's fort on the St. John River and took him prisoner.
British conquest: King William's War 
The Action of 14 July 1696 was a naval battle between New France and New England toward the end of King Williams War in the Bay of Fundy off present day Saint John, New Brunswick. English ships were sent from Boston to interrupt the supplies being taken by French ships from Quebec to the capital of Acadia, Fort Nashwaak (Fredericton, New Brunswick) on the Saint John River. The French ships of war captured one English ship, while the England frigate and a provincial tender escaped.
Father Le Loutre's War 
The only land route between Fortress Louisbourg and Quebec went from Baie Verte through Isthmus of Chignecto, along the Bay of Fundy and up the St. John River. With the establishment of Halifax, which began Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), the French recognized at once the threat it represented and that the St. John River corridor might be used to attack Quebec City itself. To protect this vital gateway, at the beginning of 1749, the French strategically constructed three forts within 18 months along the route: one at Baie Verte (Fort Gaspareaux), one at Chignecto (Fort Beausejour) and another at the mouth of the St. John River (Fort Menagoueche). Immediately after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour (1755), Robert Monckton sent a detachment to take Fort Menagoueche. French Officer De Boishebert knew that he faced a superior force so he burned the fort and retreated up the river to undertake guerrilla warfare. The destruction of Fort Menagoueche left Louisbourg as the last French fort in Acadia.
French and Indian War 
St. John River Campaign (1758–59) 
After the Conquest of Acadia (1710), Acadians migrated from peninsula Nova Scotia to the French-occupied Saint John River. These Acadians were seen as the most resistant to British rule in the region. During the French and Indian War, many more Acadians sought refuge from maintland Nova Scotia to the St. John River. During the St. John River Campaign (1758), the British built Fort Frederick on the remains of Fort Menagoueche and burned every village on the river up to and including Fredericton, New Brunswick.
American Revolution 
Siege of Saint John (1777) 
In 1777, American forces briefly controlled Saint John. In response, Major John Small personally led a force to drive out the Americans.
On June 30, 1777 under the command of Captain Hawker, four British ship with the 84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants) arrived on the scene under the command of Major Gilfred Studholme. When the 84th Regiment landed at Saint John on June 30, 1777, the Americans retreated to the woods. The 84th marched through the woods and were ambushed by the American. Twelve Americans and one member of the regiment were killed. The 84th overcame Allan's force at Aukpaque (near Fredericton), some of its baggage and arms taken, but only three Americans captured. The St. John estuary was later plundered again, when Fort Howe was erected there and garrisoned with fifty men under Studholme.
Weeks later, on July 13, 1777, American privateers again attacked Saint John and were repulsed by the 84th.
In August 1777, the Americans attacked yet again and were successful, carrying off 21 boatloads of plunder. As a result Major Gilfred Studholme arrived in Saint John harbour in November 1777 with orders either to repair Fort Frederick or to build a new fort. Because of the low-lying position of Fort Frederick and the damage done to it by the rebels the previous year, Studholme decided to erect a new fortification, and his 50 men, helped by local inhabitants, began the construction of Fort Howe.
Canada's first incorporated city 
The Loyalist-dominated communities of Parrtown, on the east side of the Saint John River, and Carleton, on the west side of the Saint John River, were amalgamated by royal charter to become the City of Saint John in 1785, making it the first incorporated city in British North America (present-day Canada). To the west of Carleton was the Parish of Lancaster, and north-east of Portland were the "Lands of Simonds, Hazen and White", later called Simonds; both communities eventually amalgamated with the city in 1967.
Many of those fleeing north from the American Revolution in the Thirteen Colonies were Black Loyalists, and the charter specifically excluded blacks and any whites who were not Loyalists or descendants of Loyalists, from practising a trade, selling goods, fishing in the harbour, or becoming freemen with a right to vote; these provisions stood until 1870. In consequence, the town of Portland grew up north of the boundary of Saint John, around Fort Howe, where anyone could live and work freely. Portland was later amalgamated with the City of Saint John and is now thought of as the "north end."
The city's charter of 1785 established the medical quarantine station at Partridge Island, located south of the west side of the harbour. Referred to as a "pest house", it was used to screen for the infectious diseases that plagued immigrant ship passengers. The quarantine station was the first landing place for many immigrants arriving at the port.
The Charter of 1785 also included a number of other provisions, to regulate local fishing rights, to establish police and fire services, trade regulation and taxation, to dedicate Navy Island for the use of the Royal Navy, and to build a lighthouse on Partridge Island.
War of 1812 
During this war and the War of 1812, the city's location made it a probable target of attacks. This led to the construction of Fort Dufferin and Carleton Martello Tower, one of Canada's fourteen Martello Towers.
The Irish potato famine (1845–1849) saw the city's largest immigrant influx occur, with the government forced to construct a quarantine station and hospital on Partridge Island at the mouth of the harbour to handle the new arrivals. These immigrants changed the character of the city and surrounding region so that in addition to its Loyalist-Protestant heritage, there was a new Irish-Catholic culture as well.
By 1851 Saint John, with a population of 31,000, was the third largest city in British North America, after Montreal and Quebec City. Leadership was in the hands of merchants, financiers, railroad men and ship builders, who envisioned a great economic centre. The city serviced a large rural hinterland in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with some 300,000 people. In the 1851–71 era, the business of the city flourished, while the rural hinterland remained stagnant.
The main industry was shipbuilding – it was a major player on the world stage; the industry finally shut down in 2002. Much of the city's shipbuilding industry was concentrated on the mudflats of Courtney Bay on east side. One local shipyard built the sailing ship Marco Polo. Due to its location for railways and servicing the triangle trade between British North America, the Caribbean, and Britain, the city was poised to be one of Canada's leading urban centres.
A disastrous fire on June 20, 1877 destroyed a large portion of the central business district. It was the 16th recorded fire in the city and the worst ever. Starting in a warehouse it burned out of control for nine hours. The fire destroyed two-fifths of the city and left 20,000 homeless. Food, tents, clothing, and donations of money came from all over Canada, the United States, and Britain.
Trade unions 
The city was a stronghold of trades unions, especially in the docks and the railways. By 1850 working class solidarity was strong among the longshoremen who handled the booming lumber trade. Labor organizations vied with merchants for control of the waterfront casual labor market. However, work-bred feelings of mutualism were often undermined by Protestant-Catholic conflicts. With the introduction of steamers, fast turnaround became even more important and the merchants could not afford job actions, so they compromised. In the World War, the longshoremen succeeded in imposing favourable new work rules and exerting partial control over hiring practices. But by 1919–20 the shipping industry regained its old authority, and hard-pressed longshoremen subsequently abandoned their class-based effort in favor of regional political activism.
In July 1914 street railwaymen led by militant Irishmen went on strike. Public opinion favoured the strikers because the company had high fares yet failed to provide quality service. Rioters overturned two streetcars, thwarted a cavalry charge, smashed windows in company offices, and poured cement on a dynamo.
20th century 
World Wars 
During the First World War, the city became a trans-shipment point for the British Empire's war effort. During the Second World War the port declined in importance due to the U-boat threat. Halifax's protected harbour offered improved convoy marshaling. However, manufacturing expanded considerably, notably the production of veneer wood for De Havilland Mosquito bomber aircraft. On account of the U-boat threat, additional batteries facilities were installed around the harbour.
Saint John's first airport was located north of the business district at Millidgeville. This location on a plateau overlooking the Kennebecasis River was a summer cottage area used by local residents to escape the coastal fog from the Bay of Fundy. Saint John Airport was developed post-war and is located in the eastern part of the city. A leading pioneer was Joseph E. Arrowsmith, the founder of New Brunswick's first passenger airline and a founder of the Saint John Flying Club. His airline was first named "Maritime Airways of Saint John" (1934), then became "Saint John Airline.'
At a time of rural protest in Canada from Ontario to the Prairies, the Maritime Rights Movement was a broad-based protest movement during the 1920s, demanding better treatment from Ottawa. This movement was centered in Saint John, where the city's business leaders politicized the economic crisis and solidified their economic and political leadership.
Urban redevelopment 
An urban renewal project in the early 1970s involving a partnership between CPR along with the federal, provincial and municipal governments saw a new harbour bridge and expressway (called the Saint John Throughway) built on former railway lands. The ferry terminal for the service to Digby, Nova Scotia was also relocated from Long Wharf to a new facility on the lower West Side (see Bay Ferries Limited) as the CBD was expanded with new office buildings and downtown retail areas while historic industrial buildings were turned into shops and museums. The skyline in the city boasts office towers and historic properties.
In the 1970s redevelopment of the city and port, most of the port's industrial areas were scheduled to be relocated at a major new deepwater port being considered for the western part of the outer harbour at Lorneville in a major partnership between the Irving conglomerate, NB Power, CPR and the three levels of government. However, the plan fell through in favour of concentrating industrial development on the inner harbour along the mouth of the St. John River – the very area where the waterfront redevelopment is being proposed (see Saint John Waterfront Development Partnership). Often cited in the media and by politicians as part of Saint John's redevelopment strategy, Harbour cleanup refers to the infrastructure project that will bring an end to the practice of discharging raw sewage into local waterways.
In 1982, a 20 block area of the Uptown area (see Trinity Royal) was designated for historic preservation. A related development in recent years has been waterfront redevelopment for tourist and residential use. This effort increased markedly in the early first decade of the 21st century following the closure and dismantling of the Lantic Sugar refinery in the South End.
Notable firsts 
- 1785 – First quarantine station in North America, Partridge Island, established by the city's charter. In the early 19th century, it greeted sick and dying Irish emigrants arriving to the New World with inhospitable conditions.
- 1830 – The first chartered bank in Canada, the Bank of New Brunswick.
- Canada's oldest publicly funded high school, Saint John High School
- 1838 – First penny newspaper in the Empire, the tri-weekly Saint John News, established by George E Fenety.
- 1842 – Canada's first public museum, originally known as the Gesner Museum, named after its Nova Scotian founder Abraham Gesner, the inventor of kerosene. The museum is now known as the New Brunswick Museum.
- 1854 – The world's first automated steam foghorn was invented by Robert Foulis.
- 1870 – Canada's first Y.W.C.A. established by Mrs. Agnes A. Blizzard in a house on Germain Street.
- 1870 – First Knights of Pythias in British Empire.
- 1872 – First monitor top railroad cars in the world invented by James Ferguson. The original model is in the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John.
- 1880 – First clockwork time bomb developed in 1880.
- 1906 – First public playground in Canada which was started by Miss Mabel Peters. This playground is known as the Allison Ground Playground in Rockwood Court. On July 16, 2009, 103 years after its opening, Allison Ground Playground is the first playground, that Mabel Peters encouraged, to be renamed in her honour as Mabel Peters Playground.
- 1907 – First orchestra to accompany a silent moving picture on the North American continent was by Walter Golding in the old nickel theater, May 1907.
- 1918 – First Minister of Health of the British Empire, W. F. Roberts, M.D.
- 1918 – One of the first police unions in Canada, the Saint John Police Protective Association, was formed in Saint John.
- 1923 – First Miss Canada Mrs. Harold Drummie (née Winnie Blair).
Notable people 
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Saint John, New Brunswick|
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- history/public records and archives – The Official Site of The City of Saint John / Le Site Officiel de The City of Saint John[dead link]
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- "Brunswick Pipeline: Emera to Invest in Proposed Brunswick Pipeline – May 16, 2006".
- "Brunswick Pipeline: Emera's Brunswick Pipeline Receives NEB Environmental Assessment – April 12, 2007".
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- Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605–1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004. p. 14
- Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605–1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004. pp. 14–15
- Griffiths, E. From Migrant to Acadian. McGill-Queen's University Press. 2005. p. 49
- Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605–1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004. p. 19
- Griffiths, E. From Migrant to Acadian. McGill-Queen's University Press. 2005. p.60
- Griffiths, E. From Migrant to Acadian. McGill-Queen's University Press. 2005. p.61
- Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605–1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004. p. 20
- The Lioness of Acadia - by Susan Poizner The Beaver: Canada's History Magazine Feb/Mar 07 http://www.susanpoizner.com/articles/lioness.htm
- Brenda Dunn. A History of Port Royal, Annapolis Royal: 1605–1800. Nimbus Publishing, 2004. p. 23
- Beamish Murdoch. A History of Nova-Scotia, Or Acadie, Volume I. P. 218
- Campbell, Gary. The Road to Canada: The Grand Communications Route from Saint John to Quebec. Goose Lane Editions and the New Brunswick Military Heritage Project. 2005, p. 25
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- Roger Sarty and Doug Knight. Saint John Fortifications. 2003. p. 29
- Georrery Plank. An Unsettled Conquest. University of Pennsylvania. 2001. p. 100.
- James Hannay. The History of New Brunswick. Vol.1. 1909. p. 118
- Stacy, pp. 26–27; Craig, p. 54.
- Julian Gwyn. Frigates and Foremasts. University of British Columbia. 2003. p. 65
- Canadian Biography Online – Gilfred Stodholme
- Schuyler, George W. (1984). Saint John: Two Hundred Years Proud. Windsor Publications (Canada) Ltd. p. 122.
- "Arrival of the Black Loyalists: Saint John's Black Community". Heritage Resources Saint John.
- Canada's First City: Saint John. Saint John, N.B.: Lingley Printing. 1962. p. 30.
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- Joshua M. Smith. Battle for the Bay. Gooselane Editions. 2011.
- C.M. Wallace, "Saint John Boosters and the Railroads in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," Acadiensis, Fall 1976, Vol. 6 Issue 1, pp. 71–91
- Philip Buckner and John G. Reid, eds. The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History (1994) pp. 336–7
- Buckner and Reid, eds. The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History pp. 333–5
- Doris Phillips, "Nova Scotia's Aid for the Sufferers of the Great Saint John Fire (June 20th, 1877)," Nova Scotia Historical Quarterly, 1977, Vol. 7 Issue 4, pp. 351–366
- Robert H. Babcock, "Saint John Longshoremen During the Rise of Canada's Winter Port, 1895–1922," Labour / Le Travail, Spring 1990, Vol. 25, pp. 15–46
- Robert H. Babcock, "The Saint John Street Railwaymen's Strike and Riot, 1914," Acadiensis, Spring 1982, Vol. 11 Issue 2, pp. 3–27
- Harold E. Wright, "Pioneering in Maritime air transport," C.A.H.S.: The Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society, Winter 2009, Vol. 47 Issue 4, pp. 122–127
- Don Nerbas, "Revisiting the Politics of Maritime Rights: Bourgeois Saint John and Regional Protest in the 1920s," Acadiensis, Winter/Spring2008, Vol. 37 Issue 1, pp. 110–130
- John Quinpool, First Things in Acadia", Halifax, 1936, p. 122
- Famous Glaswegians – Robert Foulis, JR, accessed 05-09-08
- William D. Kennedy, Pythian History, Part 1, 1904, p. 52
- The Commissioners of Patents Journal, Great Britain Patent Office, 1872
- Mabel Peters Playground Dedicated – The Official Site of The City of Saint John / Le Site Officiel de The City of Saint John[dead link]
- John Quinpool, First Things in Acadia", Halifax, 1936, p. 154
- Greg Marquis, "The history of policing in the Maritime provinces: themes and prospects.", Huban History Review, June 1990
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Saint John, New Brunswick|
- City of Saint John official website
- Discover Saint John, official tourism website
- Saint John Flower Shop
- TrinityRoyal.com – The Historic Heart of Saint John
- The New Brunswick Museum.
- Heritage Resources Saint John
- [http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/39260 The Story of the Great Fire in St. John, N.B., June 20th, 1877 by George Stewart
- Fundy Tour: The Most Comprehensive Bay of Fundy tour in Saint John, New Brunswick Available through Project Gutenberg