John the Baptist
|St. John the Baptist|
John the Baptist by Bartolomeo Veneto, 16th century
|Prophet, Martyr, Saint|
|Born||Late 1st century BC
|Died||AD 31 – 36
Assyrian Church of the East
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Churches
Roman Catholic Church
|Major shrine||Church of St John the Baptist, Jerusalem|
|Feast||June 24 (Nativity),
August 29 (Beheading),
January 7 (Synaxis,
Thout 2 (Coptic Orthodox Church)
|Attributes||Camel-skin robe, cross, lamb, scroll with words "Ecce Agnus Dei", platter with own head, pouring water from hands or scallop shell|
|Patronage||Patron saint of Jordan, Puerto Rico, Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, French Canada, Newfoundland, Cesena, Florence, Genoa, Monza, Porto, San Juan, Turin, Xewkija, and many other places.|
John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yoḥanan ha-mmaṭbil, Arabic: يوحنا المعمدان Yuhanna Al-Ma'madan, Aramaic or Syriac: ܝܘܚܢܢ ܡܥܡܕܢܐ Yoḥanan Mamdana, Classical Armenian: Յովհաննէս Մկրտիչ Yovhannēs Mkrtičʿ, Greek: Ὁ Ἅγιος/Τίμιος Ἐνδοξος, Προφήτης, Πρόδρομος, καὶ Βαπτιστής Ἰωάννης Ho Hágios/Tímios Endoxos, Prophḗtēs, Pródromos, kaì Baptistḗs Ioánnes) was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure in Christianity, Islam (known as Yahya ibn Zakariyya), the Bahá'í Faith, and Mandaeism.
John is described as having the unique practice of baptism for the forgiveness of sins. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus. Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John. John the Baptist is also mentioned by Jewish historian Josephus. Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism, although no direct evidence substantiates this.
According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself, and Jesus was the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah.
- 1 In Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews
- 2 Gospel narratives
- 3 In the Qur'an
- 4 Relics
- 5 Religious views
- 5.1 Christianity
- 5.2 Islam
- 5.3 Bahá'í view
- 5.4 Gnostic and anthroposophic views
- 6 In art
- 7 Commemoration
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Sources
- 11 External links
In Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews
Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God's displeasure to him.
The earliest known reference to this passage can be found in the early third century when it is quoted by Origen in Contra Celsum. According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for a defeat Herod suffered c. 36 CE. Divergences between the passage's presentation and the biblical accounts of John include baptism for those whose souls have already been "purified beforehand by righteousness" is for purification of the body, not general repentance of sin (Mark 1:4). Biblical scholar John Dominic Crossan differentiates between Josephus's account of John and Jesus, saying, "John had a monopoly, but Jesus had a franchise." To get baptized, Crossan writes, you went only to John; to stop the movement one only needed to stop John (therefore his movement ended with his death). Jesus invited all to come and see how he and his companions had already accepted the government of God, entered it and were living it. Such a communal praxis was not just for himself, but could survive without him, unlike John's movement.
All four canonical Gospel record John the Baptist's ministry, as does the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes. In the Synoptic Gospels (Mark, Matthew, and Luke), Jesus's baptism is depicted, while it is implied in the Gospel of John.
The Gospel of Mark begins with a verse from Malachi and a quotation from Isaiah speaking of a voice of one "crying aloud in the wilderness". John the Baptist is described as wearing clothes of camel's hair, living on locusts and wild honey.
Mark describes John's proclamation of baptism for the forgiveness of sin. Mark also describes John as preaching a future leader who "will baptize you with the Holy Spirit".
Jesus is baptized by John in the Jordan, whereupon the heavens were seen to split open and the Spirit to come down on him like a dove, and from the heavens came a voice — “Thou art my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased."
In Mark 1:14 it is mentioned that John has been imprisoned.
In the gospel account of John's death, Herod has John imprisoned for denouncing his incestuous marriage, and later executes John by beheading. John condemned Herod for marrying Herodias (who was not only his brother Philip's former wife but also Herod's niece) in violation of Old Testament law. Later Herodias's daughter (traditionally thought to be Salome, who was both Herod's grand-niece and stepdaughter) dances before Herod, who offers her a favour in return. Herodias tells her to ask for the head of John the Baptist, which is delivered to her on a plate (Mark 6:14–29).
Later, Herod learns that some people claim Jesus is John the Baptist risen from the dead.
As in Mark, Matthew explicitly states that "John was the one who was spoken of in the prophet Isaiah" as one "crying aloud in the wilderness". John is again described as being "in the wilderness", wearing clothes of "camel's hair", living on "locusts and wild honey". John preaches baptism for the forgiveness of sin and he proclaims a future leader who "will baptize you with the Holy Spirit".
Unlike Mark, Matthew records John being critical of Pharisees and Sadducees. Matthew records John as preaching "the kingdom of heaven is at hand" and a "coming judgment".
As in Mark, the reader is told of John's arrest for criticizing Herod and subsequent execution. In Matthew's version, Herod himself believes Jesus to be John the Baptist risen from the dead. Matthew also records that after John's burial, John's disciples "went and told Jesus."
In Luke and Acts
The Gospel of Luke includes an account of John's infancy, introducing him as the son of Zechariah (or Zacharias), an old man, and his wife Elizabeth (Elisabeth), who was barren. According to this account, the birth of John was foretold by the angel Gabriel to Zechariah, while Zechariah was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem. Since Zechariah is described as a priest of the course of Abijah and his wife, Elizabeth, as one of the daughters of Aaron, this would make John a descendant of Aaron on both his father's and mother's side.
There is no mention of a family relationship between John and Jesus in the other Gospels, and the scholar Raymond E. Brown has described it as "of dubious historicity". Géza Vermes has called it "artificial and undoubtedly Luke's creation". On the basis of the account in Luke, the Catholic calendar placed the feast of the Nativity of John the Baptist on June 24, six months before Christmas.
The many similarities between the Gospel of Luke story of the birth of John and the Old Testament account of the birth of Samuel have led scholars to suggest that Luke's account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are modeled on that of Samuel.
Unique to the Gospel of Luke, John the Baptist explicitly teaches charity, baptizes tax-collectors, and advises soldiers.
The text briefly mentions that John is imprisoned and later beheaded by Herod, but the Gospel of Luke lacks the story of a step-daughter dancing for Herod and requesting John's head.
The Book of Acts portrays some disciples of John becoming followers of Jesus (Acts 18:24–19:6), a development not reported by the gospels except for the early case of Andrew, Simon Peter's brother (John 1:35–42).
In the Gospel of John
The fourth gospel describes the Baptist as "a man sent from God [...] to bear witness to the light so that through him everyone might believe."
John directly denies being the Christ or Elijah or 'the prophet', instead describing himself as the "voice of one crying in the wilderness".
Jesus's baptism is implied but not depicted. Unlike the other gospels, it is John himself who testifies to seeing "the Spirit come down from heaven like a dove and rest on him". John explicitly announces that Jesus is the one "who baptizes with the Holy Spirit" and John even professes a "belief that he is the Son of God.” and “the Lamb of God".
The Gospel of John reports that Jesus' disciples were baptizing and that a debate broke out between some of the disciples of John and another Jew about purification. In this debate John argued that Jesus "must become greater," while he (John) "must become less" (Vulgate: illum oportet crescere me autem minui).[John 3:30]
The Gospel of John then points out that Jesus' disciples were baptizing more people than John (John 4:2). Later, the Gospel relates that Jesus regarded John as "a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light" (John 5:35).
- Baptism of Jesus
The gospels differ on the details of the Baptism. In Mark and Luke, Jesus himself sees the heavens open and hears a voice address him personally, saying, "You are my dearly loved son; you bring me great joy". They do not clarify whether others saw and heard these things.
In Matthew, the voice from heaven does not address Jesus personally, saying instead "This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased."
In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend as a dove, testifying about the experience as evidence of Jesus's status.
- John's knowledge of Jesus
John's knowledge of Jesus varies across gospels. In the Gospel of Mark, John preaches of a coming leader, but shows no signs of recognizing that Jesus is this leader. In Matthew, however, John immediately recognizes Jesus and John questions his own worthiness to baptize Jesus. In both Matthew and Luke, John later dispatches disciples to question Jesus about his status, asking "Are you he who is to come, or shall we look for another?" In Luke, John is a familial relative of Jesus whose birth was foretold by Gabriel. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist himself sees the spirit descend like a dove and he explicitly preaches that Jesus is the Son of God.
- John and Elijah
The Gospels vary in their depiction of John's relationship to Elijah. Matthew and Mark describe John's attire in a way reminiscent of the description of Elijah in 2 Kings 1:8, who also wore a garment of hair and a leather belt. In Matthew, Jesus explicitly teaches that John is "Elijah who was to come" (Matt. 11:14 – see also Matt. 17:11–13). In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist explicitly denies being Elijah. In the annunciation narrative in Luke, an angel appears to Zechariah, John's father, and tells him that John "will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God," and that he will go forth "in the spirit and power of Elijah (Luke 1:16–17)."
In the Qur'an
In the Qur'an, God frequently mentions Zechariah's continuous praying for the birth of a son. Zechariah's wife, mentioned in the New Testament as Elizabeth, was barren and therefore the birth of a child seemed impossible. As a gift from God, Zechariah (or Zakariya) was given a son by the name of "Yaḥya", a name specially chosen for this child alone. In accordance with Zechariah's prayer, God made John and Jesus, who according to exegesis was born six months later, renew the message of God, which had been corrupted and lost by the Israelites. As the Qur'an says:
(His prayer was answered): "O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We conferred distinction before."
He said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?"
He said: "So (it will be) thy Lord saith, 'that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!'"
(Zakarya) said: "O my Lord! give me a Sign." "Thy Sign," was the answer, "Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights."
John was exhorted to hold fast to the Scripture and was given wisdom by God while still a child. He was pure and devout, and walked well in the presence of God. He was dutiful towards his parents and he was not arrogant or rebellious. John's reading and understanding of the scriptures, when only a child, surpassed even that of the greatest scholars of the time. Muslim exegesis narrates that Jesus sent John out with twelve disciples, who preached the message before Jesus called his own disciples. The Qur'an says:
"O Yaḥya! take hold of the Book with might": and We gave him Wisdom even as a youth,
John was a classical prophet, who was exalted high by God, for his bold denouncing of all things sinful. Furthermore, the Qur'an speaks of John's gentle pity and love and his humble attitude towards life, for which he was granted the Purity of Life:
And piety as from Us, and purity: He was devout,
And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious.
So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!
John is also honored highly in Sufism as well as Islamic mysticism, primarily because of the Qur'an's description of John's chastity and kindness. Sufis have frequently applied commentaries on the passages on John in the Qur'an, primarily concerning the God-given gift of "Wisdom" which he acquired in youth as well as his parallels with Jesus. Although several phrases used to describe John and Jesus are virtually identical in the Qur'an, the manner in which they are expressed is different.
The burial-place of John the Baptist was traditionally said to be at Sebaste in Samaria, and mention is made of his relics being honored there around the middle of the 4th century. The historians Rufinus and Theodoretus record that the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate around 362, the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria, where on May 27, 395, they were laid in the basilica newly dedicated to the Forerunner on the former site of the temple of Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to miracles being worked there.
What became of the head of John the Baptist is difficult to determine. Nicephorus and Symeon Metaphrastes say that Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus (in accordance with Josephus). Other writers say that it was interred in Herod's palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine I, and thence secretly taken to Emesa where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 453. However, the decapitation cloth of St. John is kept at the Aachen Cathedral. The Coptic Christian Orthodox Church also claim to hold the relics of St. John the Baptist. These are to be found in a monastery in Lower Egypt between Cairo and Alexandria. It is possible, with permission from the monks, to see the original tomb where the remains were found. An obscure and surprising claim relates to the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, where the Baptist's head appears on the official coat-of-arms. A legend first recorded in the late 16th century and reported in William Camden's Britannia accounts for the town's place-name, as 'halig' (holy) and 'fax' (face), by stating that the first religious settlers of the district brought the 'face' of John the Baptist with them.
Several different locations claim to possess the severed head of John the Baptist. Among them: Umayyad Mosque in Damascus; San Silvestro in Capite in Rome; and the Residenz Museum in Munich, Germany (official residence of the Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1385 to 1918). Other heads were once said to be held by the Knights Templar at Amiens Cathedral in France (brought home by Wallon de Sarton from the Fourth Crusade in Constantinople), at Antioch in Turkey (fate uncertain), and the parish church at Tenterden in Kent, where it was preserved up until the Reformation.
The saint's right hand, with which he baptised Jesus, is claimed to be in the Serbian Orthodox Cetinje monastery in Montenegro; Topkapi Palace in Istanbul; and also in the Romanian skete of the Forerunner on Mount Athos. The saint's left hand is allegedly preserved in the Armenian Apostolic Church of St. John at Chinsurah, West Bengal, where each year on "Chinsurah Day" in January it blesses the Armenians of Calcutta. A crypt and relics said to be John's and mentioned in 11th- and 16th-century manuscripts, were discovered in 1969 during restoration of the Church of St. Macarius at the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great in Scetes, Egypt; Additional relics are claimed to reside in Gandzasar Monastery's Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, in Nagorno Karabakh;
In 2010, bones were discovered in the ruins of a Bulgarian church in the St. John the Forerunner Monastery (4th–17th centuries) on St. Ivan Island and two years later, after DNA and radio carbon testing proved the bones belonged to a Middle Eastern man who lived in the 1st century CE, scientists said that the remains could conceivably have belonged to John the Baptist. The remains, found in a reliquarium, include six human bones: a knucklebone from the right hand, a tooth, part of a cranium, a rib, and an ulna, or forearm bone, presently kept in the Sts. Cyril and Methodius Cathedral in Sozopol.
Old Testament as prophesying John
Christians believe that John the Baptist had a specific role ordained by God as forerunner or precursor of Jesus, who was the foretold Messiah. The New Testament Gospels speak of this role. In Luke 1:17 the role of John is referred to as being "to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." In Luke 1:76 as "...thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways" and in Luke 1:77 as being "To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins."
There are several passages within the Old Testament which are interpreted by Christians as being prophetic of John the Baptist in this role. These include a passage in the Book of Malachi 3:1 that refers to a prophet who would prepare the way of the Lord:
"Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts." — Malachi 3:1
and also at the end of the next chapter in Malachi 4:5–6 where it says,
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse."
The Jews of Jesus' day expected Elijah to come before the Messiah; indeed, some modern Jews continue to await Elijah's coming as well, as in the Cup of Elijah the Prophet in the Passover Seder. This is why the disciples ask Jesus in Matthew 17:10, 'Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?.' The disciples are then told by Jesus that Elijah came in the person of John the Baptist,
"Jesus replied, "To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands." Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist". — Matthew 17:11–13
(see also 11:14: "...if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah who was to come.")
These passages are applied to John in the Synoptic Gospels. But where Matthew specifically identifies John the Baptist as Elijah (11.14, 17.13), the gospels of Mark and Luke do not actually make that identification, and the Gospel of John states that John the Baptist denied that he was Elijah.
"Now this was John's testimony when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not deny, but confessed freely, "I am not the Christ." They asked him, "Then who are you? Are you Elijah?" He said, "I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" He answered, "No." — John 1:19–21
Early Jewish Christian sects
Among the early Judaistic (or Gnostic, according to Epiphanius in Panarion, part 30) Christian groups the Ebionites held that John, along with Jesus and James the Just—all of whom they revered—were vegetarians. Epiphanius of Salamis records that this group had amended their Gospel of Matthew, known today as the Gospel of the Ebionites, to change where John eats "locusts" to read "honey cakes" or "manna".
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox faithful believe that John was the last of the Old Testament prophets, thus serving as a bridge between that period of revelation and the New Covenant. They also teach that, following his death, John descended into Hades and there once more preached that Jesus the Messiah was coming, so he was the Forerunner of Christ in death as he had been in life. Orthodox churches will often have an icon of St. John the Baptist in a place of honor on the iconostasis, and he is frequently mentioned during the Divine Services. Every Tuesday throughout the year is dedicated to his memory.
- September 23 — Conception of St. John the Forerunner
- January 7 — The Synaxis of St. John the Forerunner. This is his main feast day, immediately after Theophany on January 6 (January 7 also commemorates the transfer of the relic of the right hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople in 956)
- February 24 — First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner
- May 25 — Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner
- June 24 — Nativity of St. John the Forerunner
- August 29 — The Beheading of St. John the Forerunner
In addition to the above, September 5 is the commemoration of Zechariah and Elisabeth, St. John's parents. The Russian Orthodox Church observes October 12 as the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina (1799).
The Roman Catholic Church commemorates St. John the Baptist on two feast days:
Some Catholics have held to a belief that John the Baptist never sinned, though this has never been a point of doctrine and is not binding in belief upon any adherent as is the sinlessness of Mary. In her Treatise of Prayer, Saint Catherine of Siena includes a brief altercation with the Devil regarding her fight due to the Devil attempting to lure her with vanity and flattery. Speaking in the first person, Saint Catherine of Siena responds to the Devil with the following words:
...humiliation of yourself, and you answered the Devil with these words: 'Wretch that I am! John the Baptist never sinned and was sanctified in his mother's womb. And I have committed so many sins...
Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich mentioned in her mystical visions that Saint John the Baptist was pure, innocent and spotless from the womb of Saint Elizabeth and never uttered a single lie in his earthy life. According to Emmerich's alleged visions received from Jesus Christ, Saint John the Baptist was the following:
... He sees, he knows, he speaks only Jesus.... In the desert, blameless and pure as a babe in the mother's womb, he comes forth from his solitude innocent and spotless as a child at the mother's breast. 'He is pure as an angel,' I heard the Lord (Jesus Christ) say to the Apostles. 'Never has impurity entered into his mouth, still less has an untruth or any other sin issued from it...
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon)
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that modern revelation confirms the biblical account of John and also makes known additional events in his ministry. According to this belief, John was "ordained by the angel of God" when he was eight days old "to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews" and to prepare a people for the Lord. Mormons also believe that "he was baptized while yet in his childhood."
Joseph Smith said: "Let us come into New Testament times—so many are ever praising the Lord and His apostles. We will commence with John the Baptist. When Herod's edict went forth to destroy the young children, John was about six months older than Jesus, and came under this hellish edict, and Zacharias caused his mother to take him into the mountains, where he was raised on locusts and wild honey. When his father refused to disclose his hiding place, and being the officiating high priest at the Temple that year, was slain by Herod's order, between the porch and the altar, as Jesus said."
The LDS Church teaches that John the Baptist appeared on the banks of the Susquehanna River near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery on May 15, 1829, and ordained them to the Aaronic Priesthood. According to LDS doctrine, John's ministry has operated in three dispensations: he was the last of the prophets under the law of Moses; he was the first of the New Testament prophets; and he was sent to confer the Aaronic Priesthood in our day, the dispensation of the fulness of times. Mormons believe John's ministry was foretold by two prophets whose teachings are included in the Book of Mormon: Lehi and his son Nephi).
The Unification Church teaches that God intended John to help Jesus during his public ministry in Judea. In particular, John should have done everything in his power to persuade the Jewish people that Jesus was the Messiah. He was to become Jesus' main disciple and John's disciples were to become Jesus' disciples. Unfortunately John didn't follow Jesus and continued his own way baptizing people. John's failure to follow Jesus became the chief obstacle to the fulfillment of Jesus' mission.
Prophet, Seer, Messenger, Forerunner of Jesus
|Born||6 – 2 BCE
|Umayyad Mosque, Damascus|
|Other names||New Testament: John the Baptist|
|Known for||Being a gift from God to his father Zachariah, Prophesying with the scripture, Attaining wisdom in youth|
|Parents||Zachariah and Elizabeth|
|Relatives||Cousin of Jesus, Nephew of Mary|
John is also honored as a prophet in Islam as Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā (Arabic: يحيى بن زكريا), or "John, son of Zechariah". He is believed by Muslims to have been a witness to the word of God, and a prophet who would herald the coming of Jesus. His father Zechariah was also an Islamic prophet. Islamic tradition maintains that John was one of the prophets whom Muhammad met on the night of the Mi'raj, his ascension through the Seven Heavens. It is said that he met John and Jesus in the second heaven, where Muhammad greeted his two 'brothers' before ascending with archangel Gabriel to the third heaven. John's story was also told to the Abyssinian king during the Muslim refugees' Migration to Abyssinia. According to the Qur'an, John was one on whom God sent peace on the day that he was born and the day that he died.
It has been claimed that the Qur'an is mistaken in saying that John the Baptist was the first to receive this name (Quran 19:7–10), since the name Yoḥanan occurs many times before John the Baptist. This claim is challenged by Islamic writers, who say that "Yaḥyā" is not the same name as "Yoḥanan".
The exegetes frequently connected the name with the meaning of "to quicken" or "to make alive" in reference to John's mother's barrenness, which was cured by God, as well as John's preaching, which, as Muslims believe, "made alive" the faith of Israel.
The usage of the name Yuḥanna is well attested in the western Arabian peninsula. In the well-documented Najran Pact one of the fourteen chiefs was Yuḥannas. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that any Arab Christian would have used the name Yahya prior to the Quran's usage of it.
However, the Qur'an also mentions a root used in the Hebrew version of the name, 'Yohanan' יוֹחָנָן (Yahweh is gracious). Sura Maryam: 12–13 describes the virtues of Yahya: وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا – وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَزَكَاةً (And We gave him judgement, while yet a boy – And affection from Us, and purity.) Here 'Ḥanān' (حنان, Affection) is an Arabic word corresponding to the same root used in the Hebrew/Aramaic 'Yohanan'. It is also the only time this word is used in the Qur'an.
There are numerous quotations in the writings of Bahá'u'lláh, Founder of the Bahá'í Faith mentioning John the Baptist. He is regarded by Bahá'ís as a lesser Prophet. Bahá'u'lláh claimed that his Forerunner, the Báb, was the spiritual return of John the Baptist. In his letter to Pope Pius IX, Bahá'u'lláh wrote:
"O followers of the Son! We have once again sent John unto you, and He, verily, hath cried out in the wilderness of the Bayán: O peoples of the world! Cleanse your eyes! The Day whereon ye can behold the Promised One and attain unto Him hath drawn nigh! O followers of the Gospel! Prepare the way! The Day of the advent of the Glorious Lord is at hand! Make ready to enter the Kingdom. Thus hath it been ordained by God, He Who causeth the dawn to break."
Gnostic and anthroposophic views
In Gnosticism, John the Baptist was a "personification" of the Old Testament prophet Elijah. Elijah did not know the True God (as opposed to the Abrahamic God), and thus had to be reincarnated in Gnostic theology. As predicted by the Old Testament prophet Malachi, Elijah must "come first" to herald the coming of Jesus Christ. Modern anthroposophy concurs with the idea that the Baptist was a reincarnation of Elijah, (cf. Mark 9:11–13, Matthew 11:13–14, Luke 7:27) although the Gospel of John explicitly denies this (John 1:21).
John the Baptist is considered the chief prophet of the Mandaeans, and plays a large part in some of their writings, including the Ginza Rba and the Draša D-Iahia (The Mandaean Book of John). They view John as the only true Messiah, and are opposed to Jesus. The Mandaean scriptures state: "If the carpenter [Jesus] has joined together the god, who then has joined together the carpenter?"
The beheading of St. John the Baptist is a standard theme in Christian art, in which John's head is often depicted on a platter, which represents the request of Herod's stepdaughter, Salome. He is also depicted as an ascetic wearing camel hair, with a staff and scroll inscribed Ecce Agnus Dei, or bearing a book or dish with a lamb on it. In Orthodox icons, he often has angel's wings, since Mark 1:2 describes him as a messenger.
The Baptism of Christ was one of the earliest scenes from the Life of Christ to be frequently depicted in Early Christian art, and John's tall, thin, even gaunt, and bearded figure is already established by the 5th century. Only he and Jesus are consistently shown with long hair from Early Christian times, when the apostles generally have trim classical cuts; in fact John is more consistently depicted in this way than Jesus. In Byzantine art the composition of the Deesis came to be included in every Eastern Orthodox church, as remains the case to this day. Here John and the Theotokos (Mary) flank a Christ Pantocrator and intercede for humanity; in many ways this is the equivalent of Western Crucifixions on roods and elsewhere, where John the Evangelist takes the place of John the Baptist (except in the idiosyncratic Isenheim Altarpiece). John the Baptist is very often shown on altarpieces designed for churches dedicated to him, or where the donor patron was named for him or there was some other connection of patronage – John was the patron saint of Florence, among many other cities, which means he features among the supporting saints in many important works.
A number of narrative scenes from his life were often shown on the predella of altarpieces dedicated to John, and other settings, notably the large series in grisaille fresco in the Chiostro dello Scalzo (it), which was Andrea del Sarto's largest work, and the frescoed Life by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel, both in Florence. There is another important fresco cycle by Filippo Lippi in Prato Cathedral. These include the typical scenes: the Annunciation to Zechariah, John's birth, his naming by his father, the Visitation, John's departure for the desert, his preaching in the desert, the Baptism of Christ, John before Herod, the dance of Salome, and his beheading.
His birth, which unlike the Nativity of Jesus allowed a relatively wealthy domestic interior to be shown, became increasingly popular as a subject in the late Middle Ages, with depictions by Jan van Eyck in the Turin-Milan Hours and Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel being among the best known. His execution, a church feast-day, was often shown, and by the 15th-century scenes such as the dance of Salome became popular, sometimes, as in an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem, the interest of the artist is clearly in showing the life of Herod's court, given contemporary dress, as much as the martyrdom of the saint. Salome bearing John's head on a platter equally became a subject for the Northern Renaissance taste for images of glamorous but dangerous women (Delilah, Judith and others), and was often painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder and engraved by the Little Masters. These images remained popular into the Baroque, with Carlo Dolci painting at least three versions. John preaching, in a landscape setting, was a popular subject in Dutch art from Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his successors.
As a child (of varying age), he is sometimes shown from the 15th century in family scenes from the life of Christ such as the Presentation of Christ, the Marriage of the Virgin and the Holy Kinship. Leonardo da Vinci's versions of the Virgin of the Rocks were influential in establishing a Renaissance fashion for variations on the Madonna and Child that included John, probably intended to depict the cousin's reunion in Egypt, when after Jesus' Flight to Egypt John was believed to have been carried to join him by an angel. Raphael in particular painted many compositions of the subject, such as the Alba Madonna, La belle jardinière, Aldobrandini Madonna, Madonna della seggiola, Madonna dell'Impannata, which were among his best-known works. John was also often shown by himself as an older child or adolescent, usually already wearing his distinctive dress and carrying a long thin wooden cross – another theme influenced by Leonardo, whose equivocal composition, reintroducing the camel-skin dress, was developed by Raphael Titian and Guido Reni among many others. Often he is accompanied by a lamb, especially in the many Early Netherlandish paintings which needed this attribute as he wore normal clothes. Caravaggio painted an especially large number of works including John, from at least five largely nude youths attributed to him, to three late works on his death – the great Execution in Malta, and two sombre Salomes with his head, one in Madrid, and one in London.
Amiens cathedral, which holds one of the alleged heads of the Baptist, has a biographical sequence in polychrome relief, dating from the 16th century. This stresses the execution and the disposal of the saint's remains.
A remarkable Pre-Raphaelite portrayal is Christ in the House of His Parents by John Everett Millais. Here the Baptist is shown as a child, wearing a loin covering of animal skins, hurrying to bring a bowl of water to soothe the injured hand of Jesus. Artistic interest enjoyed a considerable revival at the end of the 19th century with Symbolist painters such as Gustave Moreau and Puvis de Chavannes (National Gallery, London). Oscar Wilde's play Salome was illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley, giving rise to some of his most memorable images.
In film and television
John the Baptist has appeared in a number of screen adaptations of the life of Jesus. Actors who have played John include Robert Ryan in King of Kings (1961), Mario Socrate in The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964), Charlton Heston in The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), David Haskell in Godspell (1973), Michael York in Jesus of Nazareth (1977), and Andre Gregory in The Last Temptation of Christ (1988).
As a patron saint
Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its capital city, San Juan. In 1521, the island was given its formal name, "San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico", following the custom of christening a town with its formal name and the name which Christopher Columbus had originally given the island. The names "San Juan Bautista" and "Puerto Rico" were eventually used in reference to both city and island, leading to a reversal in terminology by most inhabitants largely due to a cartographic error. By 1746, the city's name ("Puerto Rico") had become that of the entire island, while the name for the island ("San Juan Bautista") had become that of the city. The official motto of Puerto Rico also references the saint: Joannes Est Nomen Eius (Latin for "his name is John", from Luke 1:63).
He is also a patron saint of French Canada, and Newfoundland. The Canadian cities of St. John's, Newfoundland (1497) and Saint John, New Brunswick (1604) were both named in his honor. In the United Kingdom, Saint John is the patron of Penzance, Cornwall. His feast day of 24 June, celebrated in Quebec as the Fête Nationale du Québec, and in Newfoundland as Discovery Day.
Also, on the night of 23 June on to the 24th, Saint John is celebrated as the patron saint of Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. An article from June 2004 in The Guardian remarked that "Porto's Festa de São João is one of Europe's liveliest street festivals, yet it is relatively unknown outside the country".
He is also patron of the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, Malta, Florence, and Genoa, Italy. John is patron saint of Xewkija-Gozo, Malta, which remember him with a great feast on the Sunday nearest to 24 June.
Calamba City, Laguna, Calumpit, Bulacan, Balayan and Lian in Batangas, and San Juan, Metro Manila are among several places in the Philippines that venerate John as the town or city patron. A common practise of many Filipino fiestas in his honour is bathing and the dousing of people in memory of John's iconic act. The custom is similar in form to Songkran[disambiguation needed] and Holi, and serves as a playful respite from the intense tropical heat. While famed for the Black Nazarene it enshrines, Quiapo Church in Manila is actually dedicated to Saint John.
Locations, churches, and other establishments in his name
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- Armenian Apostolic Monastery of Gandzasar, Nagorno Karabakh
- Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, a 4th-century Armenian monastery in the Taron province of historic Armenia that contained the relics of Saint John the Baptist (which were moved there from Caeserea)
- Maronite Catholic Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, Beit Mery, Lebanon
- Romanian Skete Prodromos (the name is the Greek for "The Forerunner") on Mount Athos, holding relics believed to be of John the Baptist
- St John's College of The University of Oxford, Oxford, England
- San Juan del Río, Querétaro, Mexico, was founded on June 24, 1531
- St. John's, Newfoundland, was founded on June 24, 1497.
- Saint John, New Brunswick, was named after the Saint John River which was named by Samuel de Champlain
- Fête nationale du Québec (also known as la St- Jean-Baptiste) is the provincial holiday of Quebec, celebrated on June 24 of every year
- Prince Edward Island, a Canadian province, was originally called Île de St-Jean or St. John's Island
- St. John's University located in Queens, New York; St. John's is the second largest Roman Catholic university in the United States
- Mission San Juan Bautista, one of the original 18th-century missions in northern California
- San Juan, Metro Manila, the Philippines (also known as San Juan del Monte), the city's Pinaglabanan Church is dedicated to this saint
- The main parish church of Calamba City, Laguna, the Philippines; established in 1859, national hero Dr. José Rizal was christened there in 1861
- 12th-century cathedral in Kamień Pomorski, Poland, with a famous 17th-century organ
- St. John Ambulance and the Venerable Order of St. John
- Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (commonly referred to as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta)
- The College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University and Saint John's Abbey in Collegeville, MN
- The city of Sveti Ivan Zelina and the village of Sveti Ivan Žabno in Croatia were named after John the Baptist; both have churches dedicated to him
- St. John the Baptist Catholic Parish in Beloit, Kansas, includes St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, St. John the Baptist Catholic Grade School, and St. John's Catholic High School (Beloit, Kansas).
- Biblical and Quranic narratives
- Chronology of Jesus
- Historical background of the New Testament
- Legends and the Quran
- Matthew 3:1 "This verse introduces the character of John the Baptist."
- Messengers from John the Baptist
- Prophets in Islam
- Qisas Al-Anbiya Stories of The Prophets
- Metzger, Bruce Manning (1993). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 283. "Herod beheaded John at Machaerus in 31 or 32 CE."
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Michael D. Coogan (2004). The Oxford Guide to People & Places of the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 103. "Herod beheaded John at Machaerus in 31 or 32 CE."
- Kokkinos, The Herodian Dynasty, pp. 268, 277.
- Goldberg, G. J (2001) "John the Baptist and Josephus" – "Having said that, it does appear that Josephus is giving John's death as occurring in 36 CE, which is at least 6 years later than what is expected from the New Testament, and after the crucifixion of Jesus."
- "And No One Had The Name Yahya (= John?) Before: A Linguistic & Exegetical Enquiry Into Qur'an 19:7". Islamic-awareness.org. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub ISBN 9004172548 Page 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist"
- "Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής :: Άγιος Ιωάννης Πρόδρομος και Βαπτιστής (Σύλληψη)". Saint.gr. 2012-09-23. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- "H ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ : Επιτροπές της Ιεράς Συνόδου – Συνοδική Επιτροπή επί της Εκκλησιαστικής Τέχνης και Μουσικής". Ecclesia.gr. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- παπα Γιώργης Δορμπαράκης (2012-01-26). "ΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΕΙΝ: Η ΣΥΝΑΞΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΑΓΙΟΥ ΕΝΔΟΞΟΥ ΠΡΟΦΗΤΟΥ, ΠΡΟΔΡΟΜΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΠΤΙΣΤΟΥ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ (7 ΙΑΝΟΥΑΡΙΟΥ)". Pgdorbas.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- Wetterau, Bruce. World history. New York: Henry Holt and company. 1994.
- Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3, article "John the Baptist, St"
- Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper; "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268
- Compilations (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.), ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. p. 475. ISBN 81-85091-46-3.
- Crossan, John Dominic (1998). The Essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books; p. 146
- Charles M. Sennott, The body and the blood, Public Affairs Pub, 2003. p 234 Google Link
- Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from Galilee. Mark Allan Powell, published by Westminster John Knox Press, page 47 "Few would doubt the basic fact...Jesus was baptized by John"
- Sanders, E.P. (1985) Jesus and Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press; p. 91
- James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered (Eerdmans, 2003) page 350.
- Robert L. Webb, 'John the Baptist and his relationship to Jesus', in Bruce David Chilton, Craig Alan Evans, Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research (BRILL, 1998) page 219.
- Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield John 1:36–40
- Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.5.2
- Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield; p. 382
- Marshall, I. H.; Millard, A. R.; Packer, J. I. (eds.). "John the Baptist". New Bible Dictionary (Third ed.). IVP reference collection. ISBN 0-85110-636-6.
- Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.San Francisco: Harper; "Mark," pp. 51–161.
- Meier, John (1994). Mentor, Message, and Miracles (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Vol. 2) 2. Anchor Bible. ISBN 0-385-46992-6.
- "Josephus, Flavius." In: Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press
- Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiqities 18. 5. 2. (Translation by William Whiston). Original Greek
- Mark 1:4
- Crossan, John Dominic (2007), God and Empire, London: HarperCollins, p. 117 ff
- Just, Arthur A.; Oden, Thomas C. (2003), Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture – Luke: New Testament III, InterVarsity Press; p. 10. Luke 1:7
- Luke 1:5
- 'Aaron', In: Mills, Watson E. (ed.) (1998) Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. 5, Macon GA: Mercer University Press, ISBN 0-86554-299-6; page 1
- Brown, Raymond Edward (1973), The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus, Paulist Press, p. 54
- Vermes, Geza. The Nativity, p. 143.
- Englebert, Omer (1951). The Lives of the Saints. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 529. ISBN 978-1-56619-516-4.
- Freed, Edwin D. (2001), The Stories of Jesus' Birth: a Critical Introduction Continuum International, pp. 87–90.
- Acts 18:24–19:6
- John 1:35–42
- John 3:22–36
- John 4:2
- John 5:35
- "Was John the Baptist really Elijah? | Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry". Carm.org. 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- Lives of the Prophets, Leila Azzam, John and Zechariah
- A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, John the Baptist
- Quran 19:7–10
- Quran 19:12
- Tabari, i, 712
- Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 905: "The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is: "the Righteous." They form a connected group round Jesus. Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as "Elias, which was for to come" (Matt 11:14); and Elias is said to have been present and talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration on the Mount (Matt. 17:3)."
- Quran 19:13–15
- Encyclopedia of Islam, Yahya ibn Zakkariya, Online web.
- Whereas the Qur'an itself gives blessings of peace to John (Quran 19: 15), Jesus, in contrast, gives himself the blessings of peace. (Qur'an 19: 16–33)
- Nicephorus, Ecclesiastical History I, ix. See Patrologia Graeca, cxlv.–cxlvii.
- Clucas, W. "Early Halifax", Hull Quarterly & East Riding Portfolio, reprinted Barnwell, Hull, 1885, pp. 2–4; Watson, Rev. John. The History of the Town and Parish of Halifax, Milner, Halifax, 1789, pp. 90–92
- Lost Worlds: Knights Templar, July 10, 2006 video documentary on The History Channel, directed and written by Stuart Elliott
- Hooper, Simon (30 August 2010). "Are these the bones of John the Baptist?". Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- "Hetq Online " Pilgrimage to the oldest Armenian Apostolic Church in India". Hetq.am. 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- "The Monastery of St. Macarius the Great". Stmacariusmonastery.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- Ker Than (19 June 2012). "John the Baptist's Bones Found?". National Geographic.
- Old Town Sozopol – Bulgaria's 'Rescued' Miracle and Its Modern Day Saviors. Sofia News Agency, 10 October 2011.
- Malachi 3:1
- Mat 3:3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
- Mar 1:2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. Mar 1:3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
- Luk 1:16–17 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
- J Verheyden, Epiphanius on the Ebionites, in The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian literature, eds Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry, ISBN 3-16-148094-5, p. 188 "The vegetarianism of John the Baptist and of Jesus is an important issue too in the Ebionite interpretation of the Christian life. "
- Robert Eisenman (1997), James the Brother of Jesus, p. 240 – "John (unlike Jesus) was both a ‘Rechabite’ or ‘Nazarite’ and vegetarian", p. 264 – "One suggestion is that John ate 'carobs'; there have been others. Epiphanius, in preserving what he calls 'the Ebionite Gospel', rails against the passage there claiming that John ate 'wild honey' and 'manna-like vegetarian cakes dipped in oil. ... John would have been one of those wilderness-dwelling, vegetable-eating persons", p. 326 – "They [the Nazerini] ate nothing but wild fruit milk and honey – probably the same food that John the Baptist also ate.", p. 367 – "We have already seen how in some traditions 'carobs' were said to have been the true composition of John's food.", p. 403 – "his [John's] diet was stems, roots and fruits. Like James and the other Nazirites/Rechabites, he is presented as a vegetarian ..".
- James Tabor, The Jesus Dynasty p. 134 and footnotes p. 335, p. 134 – "The Greek New Testament gospels says John's diet consisted of "locusts and wild honey" but an ancient Hebrew version of Matthew insists that "locusts" is a mistake in Greek for a related Hebrew word that means a cake of some type, made from a desert plant, similar to the "manna" that the ancient Israelites ate in the desert on the days of Moses.(ref 9) Jesus describes John as "neither eating nor drinking," or "neither eating bread nor drinking wine." Such phrases indicate the lifestyle of one who is strictly vegetarian, avoids even bread since it has to be processed from grain, and shuns all alcohol.(ref 10) The idea is that one would eat only what grows naturally.(ref 11) It was a way of avoiding all refinements of civilization."
- Bart D. Ehrman (2003). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. pp. 102, 103. ISBN 0-19-514183-0. p. 102 – "Probably the most interesting of the changes from the familiar New Testament accounts of Jesus comes in the Gospel of the Ebionites description of John the Baptist, who, evidently, like his successor Jesus, maintained a strictly vegetarian cuisine."
- James A. Kelhoffer, The Diet of John the Baptist, ISBN 978-3-16-148460-5, pp. 19–21
- G.R.S. Mead (2007). Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandæan John-Book. Forgotten Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-60506-210-5. p. 104 – "And when he had been brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he is and where he has been until then. And to this he made answer and spake: I am pure; [for] the Spirit of God hath led me on, and [I live on] cane and roots and tree-food."
- Tabor (2006) Jesus Dynasty p. 334 (note 9) – "The Gospel of the Ebionites as quoted by the 4th-century writer Epiphanius. The Greek word for locusts (akris) is very similar to the Greek word for "honey cake" (ekris) that is used for the "manna" that the Israelites ate in the desert in the days of Moses (Exodus 16:32)" & p. 335 (note 11) – "There is an old Russian (Slavic) version of Josephus's Antiquities that describes John the Baptizer as living on 'roots and fruits of the tree' and insists that he never touches bread, even at Passover."
- Bart D. Ehrman (2003). Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-19-514182-2. p. 13 – Referring to Epiphanius' quotation from the Gospel of the Ebionites in Panarion 30.13, "And his food, it says, was wild honey whose taste was of manna, as cake in oil".
- In late antiquity this feast in some churches marked the beginning of the Ecclesiastical Year; see Archbishop Peter (L'Huiller) of New York and New Jersey, "Liturgical Matters: "The Lukan Jump"", in: Newspaper of the Diocese of New York and New Jersey, Fall 1992.
- Treatise of Prayer. Retrieved 1-15-2012.
- The Dialogue of Saint Catherine of Siena. Retrieved 1-15-2012
- Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich, The Life of Jesus Christ and Biblical Revelations, Vol. 1, p. 416.
- "John the Baptist Never Sinned – by Ronald L. Conte Jr". Catholicplanet.com. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- "Doctrine and Covenants 84:27–28". Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- "Section Five: 1842–1843". Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Teaching of The Prophet Joseph Smith Section Five 1842–43, p. 261
- [D&C 13]; D&C 27:7–8
- Joseph Smith History 1:68–72
- "1 Nephi 10:7–10".
- 1 Nephi 11:27
- 2 Nephi 31:4-18
- "Divine Principle Chapter 4, Section 2". Webcitation.org. Retrieved 2014-01-26.
- "Yahya", Encyclopedia of Islam
- Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, Mi'raj
- Muhammad, Martin Lings, Abysinnia. etc.
- A. Geiger, Judaism And Islam (English translation of Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen?), 1970, Ktav Publishing House Inc.: New York, p. 19.
- A. Jeffrey, Foreign Vocab. of the Qur'an, Baroda 1938, 290–1
- Bahá'u'lláh (2002). The Summons of the Lord of Hosts. Haifa, Israel: Bahá'í World Centre. p. 63. ISBN 0-85398-976-1.
- Mark 9:11–13
- Matthew 11:13–14
- Luke 7:27
- John 1:21
- Sergei Prokofieff, The Mystery of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist Turning Point of Time: An Esoteric Study, Temple Lodge Publishing 2005, ISBN 1-902636-67-8
- Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Mandaeans
- "Baptisms of Yeshu in ancient Mandaic scrolls – The Order of Nazorean Essenes". Essenes.net. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- The story appears in Matthew 14:8 and Mark 6:25, without the name Salome
- "John the Baptist, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- See Tornabuoni Chapel for further information on these scenes
- "Engraving by Israhel van Meckenem". Artsmia.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- On this see Chapter V, "The Power of Women", in H Diane Russell;Eva/Ave; Women in Renaissance and Baroque Prints; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990; ISBN 1-55861-039-1
- Robin, Larsen and Levin, p. 368
- King of Kings, cast and crew
- The Gospel According to St. Matthew, cast and crew
- The Greatest Story Ever Told, cast and crew
- Godspell, cast and crew
- Jesus of Nazareth, cast and crew
- The Last Temptation of Christ, cast and crew
- Matthew Hancock (June 12, 2004). "The Guardian, June 12, 2004, "There's only one São João"". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- "Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry". Freemasons-freemasonry.com. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
Books on John the Baptist
- Brooks Hansen (2009) John the Baptizer: A Novel. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06947-1
- Murphy, Catherine M. (2003) John the Baptist: Prophet of Purity for a New Age. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. ISBN 0-8146-5933-0
- Taylor, Joan E. (1997) The Immerser: John the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-4236-4
- W. Barnes Tatum (1994) John the Baptist and Jesus: A Report of the Jesus Seminar., Sonoma, California: Polebridge Press, 1994, ISBN 0-944344-42-9
- Webb, Robert L. (1991) John the Baptizer and Prophet: a Socio-Historical Study. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59752-986-0 (first published Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991)
- Rippin, A. "Yahya b. Zakariya". In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
- J.C.L Gibson, John the Baptist in Muslim writings, in MW, xlv (1955), 334–345
Passages in the Qur'an
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- Media related to John the Baptist at Wikimedia Commons
- Catholic Encyclopedia: St. John the Baptist
- Jewish Encyclopedia: John the Baptist
- Prophet John (Yahya)
- Mandaean Book of John translation project
- "John the Baptist". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- St. John the Baptist at the Christian Iconography web site
- Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend chapters on The Decollation of John the Baptist and The Nativity of St. John Baptist