Saint Patrick's Day

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Saint Patrick's Day
Kilbennan St. Benin's Church Window St. Patrick Detail 2010 09 16.jpg
Saint Patrick depicted in a stained glass window at Saint Benin's Church, Ireland
Official name Saint Patrick's Day
Also called Feast of Saint Patrick
Patrick's Day
Lá Fheile Pádraig
(Saint) Paddy's Day
St Patty's Day[1][2]
Observed by Irish people and people of Irish descent,
Catholic Church (see calendar), Anglican Communion (see calendars), Eastern Orthodox Church (see calendar), Lutheran Church (see calendar)
Type Ethnic, national, Christian
Significance Feast day of Saint Patrick, commemoration of the arrival of Christianity in Ireland[3]
Celebrations Attending parades, attending céilithe, wearing shamrocks, wearing green, drinking Irish beer, drinking Irish whiskey
Observances Attending mass or service
Date 17 March
Next time 17 March 2015 (2015-03-17)
Frequency annual

Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration occurring annually on 17 March, the death date of the most commonly-recognised patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick (c. AD 385–461).

Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early seventeenth century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion (especially the Church of Ireland),[4] the Eastern Orthodox Church and Lutheran Church. The day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland,[3] as well as celebrating the heritage and culture of the Irish in general.[5] Celebrations generally involve public parades and festivals, céilithe, and the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.[6] Christians also attend church services,[5][7] and the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol are lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption.[5][6][8][9]

Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland,[10] Northern Ireland,[11] Newfoundland and Labrador and Montserrat. It is also widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora around the world; especially in Great Britain, Canada, the United States, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand.

Saint Patrick[edit]

Main article: Saint Patrick

Much of what is known about St Patrick comes from the Declaration, which was allegedly written by Patrick himself. It is believed that he was born in Roman Britain in the fourth century, into a wealthy Romano-British family. His father was a deacon and his grandfather was a priest in the Christian church. According to the Declaration, at the age of sixteen, he was kidnapped by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Gaelic Ireland.[12] It says that he spent six years there working as a shepherd and that during this time he "found God". The Declaration says that God told Patrick to flee to the coast, where a ship would be waiting to take him home. After making his way home, Patrick went on to become a priest.

According to legend, Saint Patrick used the three-leaved shamrock to explain the Holy Trinity to Irish pagans.

According to tradition, Patrick returned to Ireland to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity. The Declaration says that he spent many years evangelising in the northern half of Ireland and converted "thousands". Tradition holds that he died on 17 March and was buried at Downpatrick. Over the following centuries, many legends grew up around Patrick and he became Ireland's foremost saint.

Celebration and traditions[edit]

Wearing of the green[edit]

On St Patrick's Day it is customary to wear shamrocks and/or green clothing or accessories (the "wearing of the green"). St Patrick is said to have used the shamrock, a three-leaved plant, to explain the Holy Trinity to the pagan Irish.[13][14] This story first appears in writing in 1726, though it may be older. In pagan Ireland, three was a significant number and the Irish had many triple deities, a fact that aided St Patrick in his evangelisation efforts.[15] The wearing of the 'St Patrick's Day Cross', especially in the World War I era, by the Irish, was also a popular custom. These St Patrick's Day Crosses have a Celtic Christian cross made of paper that is "covered with silk or ribbon of different colours, and a bunch or rosette of green silk in the centre."[16]

The colour green has been associated with Ireland since at least the 1640s, when the green harp flag was used by the Irish Catholic Confederation. Green ribbons and shamrocks have been worn on St Patrick's Day since at least the 1680s.[17] Green was adopted as the colour of the Friendly Brothers of St Patrick,[18] an Irish fraternity founded in about 1750.[19] However, when the Order of St. Patrick—an Anglo-Irish chivalric order—was founded in 1783 it adopted blue as its colour. This led to blue being associated with St Patrick. In the 1790s, green became associated with Irish nationalism when it was used by the United Irishmen. This was a republican organisation—led mostly by Protestants but with many Catholic members—who launched a rebellion in 1798 against British rule. The phrase "wearing of the green" comes from a song of the same name, which laments United Irishmen supporters being persecuted for wearing green. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the colour green and its association with Saint Patrick's Day grew.[20]

Celebrations by region[edit]

Ireland[edit]

A St Patrick's Day religious procession in Downpatrick, 2010

Saint Patrick's feast day, as a kind of national day, was already being celebrated by the Irish in Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries. In later times, he became more and more widely known as the patron of Ireland.[21] Saint Patrick's feast day was finally placed on the universal liturgical calendar in the Catholic Church due to the influence of Waterford-born Franciscan scholar Luke Wadding[22] in the early 1600s. Saint Patrick's Day thus became a holy day of obligation for Roman Catholics in Ireland. It is also a feast day in the Church of Ireland. The church calendar avoids the observance of saints' feasts during certain solemnities, moving the saint's day to a time outside those periods. Saint Patrick's Day is occasionally affected by this requirement, when 17 March falls during Holy Week. This happened in 1940, when Saint Patrick's Day was observed on 3 April to avoid it coinciding with Palm Sunday, and again in 2008, where it was officially observed on 14 March. Saint Patrick's Day will not fall within Holy Week again until 2160.[23][24] However, the secular celebration is always held on 17 March.

In 1903, Saint Patrick's Day became an official public holiday in Ireland. This was thanks to the Bank Holiday (Ireland) Act 1903, an act of the United Kingdom Parliament introduced by Irish Member of Parliament James O'Mara.[25] O'Mara later introduced the law that required that pubs and bars be closed on 17 March after drinking got out of hand, a provision that was repealed in the 1970s. The first Saint Patrick's Day parade held in the Irish Free State was held in Dublin in 1931 and was reviewed by the then Minister of Defence Desmond Fitzgerald.

In the mid-1990s the government of the Republic of Ireland began a campaign to use Saint Patrick's Day to showcase Ireland and its culture.[26] The government set up a group called St Patrick's Festival, with the aims:

Traditional St Patrick's Day badges from the early 20th century, photographed at the Museum of Country Life in County Mayo
  • To offer a national festival that ranks amongst all of the greatest celebration in the world
  • To create energy and excitement throughout Ireland via innovation, creativity, grassroots involvement, and marketing activity
  • To provide the opportunity and motivation for people of Irish descent (and those who sometimes wish they were Irish) to attend and join in the imaginative and expressive celebrations
  • To project, internationally, an accurate image of Ireland as a creative, professional and sophisticated country with wide appeal.[27]


A Saint Patrick's Day parade in Dublin

The first Saint Patrick's Festival was held on 17 March 1996. In 1997, it became a three-day event, and by 2000 it was a four-day event. By 2006, the festival was five days long; more than 675,000 people attended the 2009 parade. Overall 2009's five-day festival saw close to 1 million visitors, who took part in festivities that included concerts, outdoor theatre performances, and fireworks.[28] Skyfest forms the centrepiece of the festival.

The topic of the 2004 Saint Patrick's Symposium was "Talking Irish", during which the nature of Irish identity, economic success, and the future were discussed. Since 1996, there has been a greater emphasis on celebrating and projecting a fluid and inclusive notion of "Irishness" rather than an identity based around traditional religious or ethnic allegiance. The week around Saint Patrick's Day usually involves Irish language speakers using more Irish during Seachtain na Gaeilge ("Irish Language Week").[citation needed]

As well as Dublin, many other cities, towns, and villages in Ireland hold their own parades and festivals, including Cork, Belfast, Derry, Galway, Kilkenny, Limerick, and Waterford.

Everyone's Irish on 17 March
Sign promoting the drinking of Guinness beer on Saint Patrick's Day at Dublin's Guinness Storehouse

The biggest celebrations outside Dublin are in Downpatrick, County Down, where Saint Patrick is rumoured to be buried. In 2004, according to Down District Council, the week-long Saint Patrick's Festival had more than 2,000 participants and 82 floats, bands, and performers and was watched by more than 30,000 people.[citation needed]

The shortest St Patrick's Day parade in the world takes place in Dripsey, Cork. The parade lasts just 100 yards and travels between the village's two pubs.[29]

Christian leaders in Ireland have expressed concern about the secularisation of St Patrick's Day. In The Word magazine's March 2007 issue, Fr. Vincent Twomey wrote, "It is time to reclaim St Patrick's Day as a church festival." He questioned the need for "mindless alcohol-fuelled revelry" and concluded that "it is time to bring the piety and the fun together."[30]

Argentina[edit]

In Buenos Aires, a party is held in the downtown street of Reconquista, where there are several Irish pubs;[31][32] in 2006, there were 50,000 people in this street and the pubs nearby.[33] Neither the Catholic Church nor the Irish community, the fifth largest in the world outside Ireland,[34] take part in the organisation of the parties.

Canada[edit]

One of the longest-running and largest Saint Patrick's Day parades in North America occurs each year in Montreal,[35] whose city flag includes a shamrock in its lower-right quadrant. The annual celebration has been organised by the United Irish Societies of Montreal since 1929. The parade has been held annually without interruption since 1824. St. Patrick's Day itself, however, has been celebrated in Montreal since as far back as 1759 by Irish soldiers in the Montreal Garrison following the British conquest of New France.

Children watch the Saint Patrick's Day Parade in Montreal.

In Manitoba, the Irish Association of Manitoba runs an annual three-day festival of music and culture based around Saint Patrick's Day.[36]

In 2013, the CelticFest Vancouver Society organised an annual festival in downtown Vancouver to celebrate the Celtic Nations and their culture. This event, which includes a parade, occurs the weekend closest to Saint Patrick's Day.[37]

In Quebec City, there was a parade from 1837 to 1926. The Quebec City St-Patrick Parade returned in 2010 after an absence of more than 84 years. For the occasion, a portion of the New York Police Department Pipes and Drums were present as special guests.

There has been a parade held in Toronto since at least 1863.[38] The Toronto Maple Leafs hockey team was known as the Toronto St. Patricks from 1919 to 1927, and wore green jerseys. In 1999, when the Maple Leafs played on Saint Patrick's Day, they wore green Saint Patrick's retro uniforms. There is a large parade in the city's downtown core on the Sunday prior to 17 March which attracts over 100,000 spectators.[citation needed]

Some groups, notably Guinness, have lobbied to make Saint Patrick's Day a national holiday.[39]

In March 2009, the Calgary Tower changed its top exterior lights to new green CFL bulbs just in time for Saint Patrick's Day. Part of an environmental non-profit organisation's campaign (Project Porchlight), the green represented environmental concerns. Approximately 210 lights were changed in time for Saint Patrick's Day, and resembled a Leprechaun's hat. After a week, white CFLs took their place. The change was estimated to save the Calgary Tower some $12,000 and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 104 tonnes.[40]

Great Britain[edit]

2006 St Patrick's Day celebrations in Trafalgar Square London

In Great Britain, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother used to present bowls of shamrock flown over from Ireland to members of the Irish Guards, a regiment in the British Army consisting primarily of soldiers from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Guards still wear shamrock on this day, flown in from Ireland.[41]

Christian denominations in Great Britain observing his feast day include The Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.[42]

Horse racing at the Cheltenham Festival attracts large numbers of Irish people, both residents of Britain and many who travel from Ireland, and usually coincides with Saint Patrick's Day.[43]

Birmingham holds the largest Saint Patrick's Day parade in Britain with a city centre parade[44] over a two-mile (3 km) route through the city centre. The organisers describe it as the third biggest parade in the world after Dublin and New York.[45]

London, since 2002, has had an annual Saint Patrick's Day parade which takes place on weekends around the 17th, usually in Trafalgar Square. In 2008 the water in the Trafalgar Square fountains was dyed green.

Liverpool has the highest proportion of residents with Irish ancestry of any English city.[46] This has led to a long-standing celebration on St Patrick's Day in terms of music, cultural events and the parade.

Manchester hosts a two-week Irish festival in the weeks prior to St Patrick's Day. The festival includes an Irish Market based at the city's town hall which flies the Irish tricolour opposite the Union Flag, a large parade as well as a large number of cultural and learning events throughout the two-week period.[47]

The Scottish town of Coatbridge, where the majority of the town's population are of Irish descent,[citation needed] also has a Saint Patrick's Day Festival which includes celebrations and parades in the town centre.[citation needed]

Glasgow has a considerably large Irish population; due, for the most part, to the Irish immigration during the 19th century. This immigration was the main cause in raising the population of Glasgow by over 100,000 people.[48] Due to this large Irish population, there is a considerable Irish presence in Glasgow with many Irish theme pubs and Irish interest groups who run annual celebrations on St Patrick's day in Glasgow. Glasgow began an annual Saint Patrick's Day parade and festival in 2007.[citation needed]

International Space Station[edit]

Chris Hadfield wearing green in the International Space Station on Saint Patrick's Day, 2013

Astronauts on board the International Space Station have celebrated the festival in different ways. Irish-American Catherine Coleman played a hundred-year-old flute belonging to Matt Molloy and a tin whistle belonging to Paddy Moloney, both members of the Irish music group The Chieftains, while floating weightless in the space station on Saint Patrick's Day in 2011.[49][50][51] Her performance was later included in a track called "The Chieftains in Orbit" on the group's album, Voice of Ages.[52]

Chris Hadfield took photographs of Ireland from earth orbit, and a picture of himself wearing green clothing in the space station, and posted them online on Saint Patrick's Day in 2013. He also posted online a recording of himself singing "Danny Boy" in space.[53][54]

Japan[edit]

Saint Patrick's Parades are now held in many locations across Japan.[55] The first parade, in Tokyo, was organised by The Irish Network Japan (INJ) in 1992. Nowadays parades and other events related to Saint Patrick's Day spread across almost the entire month of March.

Malaysia[edit]

The St. Patrick's Society of Selangor, which has been in existence since 1925, organises the annual St. Patrick's Ball, the biggest St Patrick's Day celebration in Asia. Guinness Anchor Berhad also organises 36 parties across the country in places like the Klang Valley, Penang, Johor Bahru, Malacca, Ipoh, Kuantan, Kota Kinabalu, Miri and Kuching.

Montserrat[edit]

The tiny island of Montserrat is known as "Emerald Island of the Caribbean" because of its founding by Irish refugees from Saint Kitts and Nevis. Along with Ireland and the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, St Patrick's Day is a public holiday. The holiday also commemorates a failed slave uprising that occurred on 17 March 1768.[56]

Russia[edit]

The first Saint Patrick's Day parade took place in Russia in 1992.[57] Since 1999, there is an annual international "Saint Patrick's Day" festival in Moscow and other Russian cities.[58] The Moscow parade has both official and unofficial parts. The first seems like a military parade and is performed in collaboration with the Moscow government and the Irish embassy in Moscow. The unofficial parade is performed by volunteers and seems more like a carnival and show with juggling, stilts, jolly-jumpers and Celtic music. In 2014, Moscow Irish Week was celebrated from 12 to 23 March, which includes St. Patrick's Day on 17 March. Over 70 events celebrating Irish culture in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Voronezh, and Volgograd were sponsored by the Irish Embassy, the Moscow City Government, and other organisations.[59]

South Korea[edit]

The Irish Association of Korea has celebrated Saint Patrick's Day since 1976 in Seoul (the capital city of South Korea). The place of parade and festival has been moved from Itaewon and Daehangno to Cheonggyecheon.[60]

Switzerland[edit]

While Saint Patrick's Day in Switzerland is commonly celebrated on 17 March with festivities similar to those in neighbouring central European countries, it is not unusual for Swiss students to organise celebrations in their own living spaces on Saint Patrick's Eve. Most popular are usually those in Zurich's Kreis 4. Traditionally, guests also contribute with beverages and dress accordingly in green.[61]

United States[edit]

Saint Patrick's Day, while not a legal holiday in the United States, is nonetheless widely recognised and observed throughout the country as a celebration of Irish and Irish American culture. Celebrations include prominent displays of the colour green, eating and drinking, religious observances, and numerous parades. The holiday has been celebrated on the North American continent since the late eighteenth century.

Celebrations around the world[edit]

Sydney Opera House 2010
Sydney 
International Space Station, 2011
Munich, Germany 
Moscow, 17 March 2012
Chicago, Illinois, US 
Nizhny Novgorod, 17 March 2012
Moscow, Russia 
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 
Birmingham, England 
Omotesando, Japan 
Coatbridge, Scotland 
White House, Washington DC, US 
Dallas, Texas, US 
Cleveland, Ohio, US 
Quebec, Canada 
New York City, New York, US 

Celebrations in Ireland[edit]

Sports events[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "St. Patty's Day celebration packs extra emotion". CBS Evening News. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "100,000 at St. Patrick's Day Block Party in St. Paul". ABC 5 Eyewitness News. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Kevin Meethan, Alison Anderson, Steven Miles. Tourism, Consumption & Representation. CAB International. 
  4. ^ ""St Patrick's Day celebrations". Church of Ireland Notes from ''The Irish Times''. Official Church of Ireland website.". Ireland.anglican.org. 12 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c Circles of Tradition: Folk Arts in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Press. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "In nineteenth-century America it became a celebration of Irishness more than a religious occasion, though attending Mass continues as an essential part of the day." 
  6. ^ a b Circles of Tradition: Folk Arts in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Press. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "The religious occasion did involve the wearing of shamrocks, an Irish symbol of the Holy Trinity, and the lifting of Lenten restrictions on drinking." 
  7. ^ Edna Barth. Shamrocks, Harps, and Shillelaghs: The Story of the St. Patrick's Day Symbols. Sandpiper. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "For most Irish-Americans, this holiday is partially religious but overwhelmingly festive. For most Irish people in Ireland the day has little to do with religion at all. St. Patrick's Day church services are followed by parades and parties, the latter being the best attended. The festivities are marked by Irish music, songs, and dances." 
  8. ^ John Nagle. Multiculturalism's Double-Bind. Ashgate Publishing. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "Like many other forms of carnival, St. Patrick's Day is a feast day, a break from Lent in which adherents are allowed to temporarily abandon rigorous fasting by indulging in the forbidden. Since alcohol is often proscribed during Lent the copious consumption of alcohol is seen as an integral part of St. Patrick's day." 
  9. ^ James Terence Fisher. Communion of Immigrants: A History of Catholics in America. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "The 40-day period (not counting Sundays) prior to Easter is known as Lent, a time of prayer and fasting. Pastors of Irish- American parishes often supplied "dispensations" for St. Patrick s Day, enabling parishioners to forego Lenten sacrifices in order to celebrate the feast of their patron saint." 
  10. ^ "Public holidays in Ireland". Citizens Information Board. Retrieved 13 November 2010. 
  11. ^ "Bank holidays". NI Direct. Retrieved 13 November 2010. 
  12. ^ "Confession of St. Patrick". Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 
  13. ^ "St. Patrick's Day: Fact vs. Fiction". p. 2. Retrieved 31 March 2009. 
  14. ^ "Holiday has history". Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  15. ^ Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing, 2009. p.416
  16. ^ Cronin, Mike; Adair, Daryl (23 November 2004). The Wearing of the Green: A History of St Patrick's Day. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9781134242313. Retrieved 28 March 2014. "In 1681, the English traveller, Thomas Dineley noted a series of St Patrick's Day practices which in one form or another, became standard markers for those celebrating the day. Dineley observed that the Irish wore Celtic crosses, had green ribbon in their hats, pinned shamrock to their clothes, and, after demanding St Patrick's groat from their masters, drank so that 'very few of the zealous are found sober at night'. The crosses, which were predominantly made and worn by children, consisted of a paper or card backing and featuring couloured ribbons as decoration, all of which were centered around a Celtic cross. In 1805, the 'little girl's St Patrick's Day Cross' was described as a cross of paper 'wrapped or covered with silk or ribbon of different colours, and a bunch or rosette of green silk in the centre'." 
  17. ^ Mike Cronin, Daryl Adair (2002). The Wearing of the Green: A History of St. Patrick's Day. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-18004-7. 
  18. ^ The Fundamental Laws, Statutes and Constitutions of the Ancient Order of the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick. 1751.
  19. ^ Kelly, James. That Damn'd Thing Called Honour: Duelling in Ireland, 1570–1860. Cork University Press, 1995. p.65
  20. ^ St. Patrick: Why Green? – video. History.com. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  21. ^ Liam de Paor: St. Patrick's World, The Christian Culture of Ireland's Apostolic Age. Four Courts Press, Dublin, 1993
  22. ^ "The Catholic Encyclopedia: Luke Wadding". Retrieved 15 February 2007. 
  23. ^ MacDonald, G. Jeffrey (6 March 2008). "St. Patrick's Day, Catholic Church march to different drummers". USA Today. Retrieved 11 March 2008. 
  24. ^ Nevans-Pederson, Mary (13 March 2008). "No St. Pat's Day Mass allowed in Holy Week". Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Woodward Communications, Inc. Retrieved 13 March 2008. 
  25. ^ "James O'Mara". HumphrysFamilyTree.com. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "The History of the Holiday". Historychannel.com. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  27. ^ "St. Patrick's Festival was established by the Government of Ireland in November 1995". St. Patrick's Festival. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  28. ^ "St. Patrick's Day Facts Video –". History.com. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  29. ^ "Dripsey". Dripsey. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  30. ^ "More piety, fewer pints 'best way to celebrate'", The Irish Independent, 12 March 2007
  31. ^ "Saint Patrick's Day in Argentina". Sanpatricio2009.com.ar. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  32. ^ Saint Patrick's Day in Argentina on YouTube. Retrieved on 17 March 2009.
  33. ^ "San Patricio convocó a una multitud". Clarin.com. 18 March 2006. Retrieved 17 March 2012. 
  34. ^ Nally, Pat (1992). "Los Irlandeses en la Argentina". Familia, journal of the Ulster Historical Foundation 2 (8). Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  35. ^ "Montreal celebrates 191st St. Patrick's Day parade Sunday – Montreal – CBC News". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  36. ^ "Irish Association of Manitoba". irishassociation.ca. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  37. ^ "CelticFest Vancouver". Celticfestvancouver.com. 30 January 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  38. ^ http://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/hssh/article/viewFile/16699/15557
  39. ^ "Guinness". Proposition 3–17. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  40. ^ Bevan, Alexis (11 March 2009). "Calgary Tower gets full green bulb treatment". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  41. ^ "In pictures: St Patrick's Day around the world". 1st Battalion Irish Guards marching in a St Patrick"s Day parade held at the Victoria Barracks in Windsor (BBC). 17 March 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009. 
  42. ^ Richard P. Mcbrien. Lives of the Saints: From Mary and St. Francis of Assisi to John XXIII and Mother Teresa. HarperOne. Retrieved 13 November 2010. "The most famous church in the United States is dedicated to him, St. Patrick's in New York City. St. Patrick's Day is celebrated by people of all ethnic backgrounds by the wearing of green and parades. His feast, which is on the General Roman Calendar, has been given as March 17 in liturgical calendars and martyrologies. The Church of England, the Episcopal Church in the USA, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America observe his feast on this day, and he is also commemorated on the Russian Orthodox calendar." 
  43. ^ "The day the world turns green". BBC News. 17 March 1998. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  44. ^ "Connecting Histories – St Patrick's Day Parade". Search.connectinghistories.org.uk. 12 March 2006. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  45. ^ "St. Patrick's Parade 2009". BBC News. 18 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2010. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Irish Immigration in Liverpool". Mersey Reporter. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  47. ^ "Manchester Irish Festival". Manchester Irish Festival. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  48. ^ "Industrial Revolution: 1770s to 1830s". TheGlasgowStory. Retrieved 17 March 2012. 
  49. ^ St. Patrick's Day Greeting From Space NASA TV video, 17 March 2011.
  50. ^ Molloy's flute to help Irish music breach the final frontier Irish Times, 15 December 2010  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
  51. ^ Irish Astronaut in Space Gives St. Patrick's Day Musical Flair Space.com, 17 March 2011.
  52. ^ Chieftains' call-up to an army of indie admirers Irish Times, 10 March 2012.  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
  53. ^ Out of this world rendition of Danny Boy marks St Patrick’s Day in space The Irish Times, 17 March 2013.
  54. ^ Astronaut Chris Hadfield singing "Danny Boy" on the International Space Station Soundcloud, 17 March 2013.
  55. ^ "2013 St Patricks Day Parades in Japan". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  56. ^ Fergus, Howard A. (1996). Gallery Montserrat: some prominent people in our history. Canoe Press University of West Indies. p. 83. ISBN 976-8125-25-X. Retrieved 24 December 2010. 
  57. ^ Москва. День Св. Патрика (in Russian). stpatrick.ru. 1999–2007. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  58. ^ Erin Andersen (17 March 2013). "St. Patty's Day: Not just green beer — but some of that, too". Lincoln Journal Star. 
  59. ^ Grace Cuddihy (18 March 2014). "Muscovites Turn Green For Irish Week". The Moscow Times. 
  60. ^ "Saint Patrick's Day in Korea Event Page". Irish Association of Korea. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  61. ^ "Saint Patrick's Eve in Switzerland Event Page". Zurich Student Association. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  62. ^ Lowe, Brian (2010). "Tomahawks To Host Ireland". We Are Rugby. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 

External links[edit]