It replaced "the Country Church" which existed from the early days of St Helenian colonisation in the late 17th century. Building work on the new church began in 1850, was completed in 1851 and the church became the cathedral in 1859 when the Diocese of St Helena was established. At the time the diocese included the islands of Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, but the latter has since been transferred away.
It is designated as a Grade I listed building. Nearby is Plantation House, also Grade I listed.