Saint Piran's Flag

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Cornwall
Flag of Cornwall.svg
Names St Piran's Flag, Baner Peran, An Gwynn ha Du
Use Civil flag
Proportion 5:3
Adopted 19th century
Design A white cross on a black background.
Souvenir flags outside a café
Saint Piran's Day celebrations in Penzance
Flying the flag in Portloe

Saint Piran's Flag (Cornish: Baner Peran) is the flag of Cornwall, England, UK. The earliest known description of the flag as the Standard of Cornwall was written in 1838.[1] It is used by some Cornish people as a symbol of identity.[2] It is a white cross on a black background.

The flag is attributed to Saint Piran, a 6th-century Cornish abbot. One early use of a white cross and black background design is the 15th century coat of arms of the Saint-Peran family.[3]

At the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant in June 2012, the flag was among those flown on the Royal Barge, Gloriana.[4]

Origins[edit]

There are claims that the design dates from prior to 1188 when the flag was used in the Crusades,[unreliable source?][5] and an article in the Encyclopædia Britannica tells that the flag was carried by the Cornish contingent at the Battle of Agincourt (1415).[6][7][unreliable source?] However, the reference given by the Encyclopædia Britannica seems to have been confused with one that comes from a 1590 poem entitled Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton. It states that the banner carried by the Cornish men at Agincourt depicted two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch.[8]

The earliest known evidence of this flag was recorded by Davies Gilbert in his 1838 work: The Parochial History of Cornwall, in which he gives reference to

a white cross on a black ground [that] was formerly the banner of St Perran and the Standard of Cornwall; probably with some allusion to the black ore and the white metal of tin[1][2]

The fact that Gilbert identifies it as being "formerly" a standard of Cornwall implies that he believed it to have been used before 1838.[1] However, Gilbert did not leave a record of his background research, and referred only to his "recollection".[2]

One of the oldest depictions of the flag can be seen in a stained glass window at Westminster Abbey. It was unveiled in 1888, in memory of the famous Cornish inventor and engineer Richard Trevithick. The window depicts St Michael at the top and nine Cornish saints, Piran, Petroc, Pinnock,[9] Germanus, Julian, Cyriacus, Constantine, Nonna and Geraint in tiers below. The head of St Piran appears to be a portrait of Trevithick himself, and the figure carries the banner of Cornwall.[10]

Clues to its origin[edit]

Saint Piran's Flag has similarities to the old Breton flag and the flag of Saint David. The cultural links between Brittany, Wales and Cornwall are well recorded. Saint Piran's Flag is the negative image of the old Breton flag, a black cross on a white field. The flag of Saint David shares a black background with Saint Piran's Flag, but is surmounted by a gold, rather than a white, cross.

The Standard of the Army of the Breton Duchy

It has also been suggested that it may have been based on the arms of the Earl of Cornwall, or the later Duchy of Cornwall; based on the arms of other Cornish families; or be linked with the black and white livery of the Knights of St John.[2]

The flag is commonly understood to represent the white tin metal against the black tin ore; symbolically, however, the flag is said to represent the light of truth shining through the blackness/darkness of evil.[citation needed] Another theory of the black and white colours is that the white cross represents the igneous and metamorphic rocks of colour, such as granite and schists mainly found in the southwest of Cornwall, while the black background represents the weathered Devonian slate and carboniferous sandstone, both of which are mainly black-greyish in appearance, of the northern part of Cornwall.[citation needed]

The flag is identical to a flag attributed to the medieval kingdom of West Georgia in the Caucasus.

French and Breton family arms[edit]

The arms of the Saint-Peran family in Brittany, show a white cross pattee on a black field.

Several other French and Breton families also had coats of arms that bear a striking resemblance to the St Piran's flag:

  • Saint Peran or Saint Pezran (= Piran) of Brittany (from Glomel, in Cornouaille), is described as, "sable a cross patée argent".
  • Rossillon de Gex, coat of arms described: "De sable à la croix d'argent".
  • Brunet, de la Besse, coat of arms described: "D'azur, à la croix d'argent".[13]
  • Arnèke Family coat of arms.[14]
  • Rouvroy de Saint-Simon of Picardy, described: "De sable à la croix d'argent chargée de cinq coquilles".[15]

Usage[edit]

The flag is often displayed on bumper stickers, and flying from buildings, including those of Cornwall Council.[16] It is flown at most Cornish gatherings, such as the Gorseth Kernow, St Piran's Day (5 March), Camborne's Trevithick Day (April), Padstow's 'Obby 'Oss festival (May), Helston's Flora Day (May), and at Cornish rugby matches. It is regularly seen around Cornwall on car stickers with the word Kernow (Cornish for Cornwall), and is used around the world as a symbol of the Cornish diaspora or overseas Cornish associations. It has been adapted for use in the logos of a number of organisations, such as the Cornwall district of the Methodist Church, is used by a variety of Cornish businesses such as Ginsters, and is seen on the design of the Cornish All Blacks rugby shirts as well as the Cornish Pirates rugby logo.[16]

At the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant in June 2012, the flag was flown on the Royal Rowing Barge alongside the flags representing England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the City of London. One of the largest flags in the pageant was also St Piran's Flag, flown by the St Ives mackerel lugger Barnabas.[17]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c 'The Parochial History of Cornwall', by Davies Gilbert. (1838) Vol III, p. 332
  2. ^ a b c d Phil Rendle, Cornwall – The Mysteries of St Piran, The Flag Institute
  3. ^ P. POTIER de COURCY, Nobiliaire et armorial de Bretagne, A. Aubry, 1862, p390
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Celtic League flags
  6. ^ Heraldry Society Flag Section Newsletter, Autumn 1969
  7. ^ Cornish flag
  8. ^ Poly-Olbion by Michael Drayton
  9. ^ http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=5453
  10. ^ Westminster Abbey
  11. ^ Guide des drapeaux bretons et celtes (English: Guide of Breton and Celtic flags) by Divi Kervella and Mikael Bodlore-Penlaez, published by Yoran Embanner (in French), (2008) ISBN 978-2-916579-12-2
  12. ^ http://www.briantimms.com/vermandois/bretons.htm
  13. ^ visu_armes_p
  14. ^ La page du généalogiste fou ... L'héraldique
  15. ^ rouvroy
  16. ^ a b How far has the “Cornish Revival” affected modern Cornwall?
  17. ^ "St Ives lugger flies the flag at Jubilee river pageant". Falmouth Packet. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 

External links[edit]