Sakai clan

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Sakai
Family name
酒井家上屋敷跡Sakaikekamiyashikiato.JPG
Site of the Sakai clan's residence in Edo
Pronunciation Sakai
Region of origin Japanese
Related names Tokugawa, Matsudaira
In this Japanese name, the family name is "Sakai".

The Sakai clan (酒井氏 Sakai-shi?) was a Japanese samurai clan that claimed descent from the Nitta branch of the Minamoto clan, who were in turn descendants of Emperor Seiwa. Serata (Nitta) Arichika, a samurai of the 14th century, was the common ancestor of both the Sakai clan and the Matsudaira clan, which the Sakai later served. In the Sengoku period, under Tokugawa Ieyasu (who was the head of what was formerly the main Matsudaira family line), the Sakai became chief retainers. In the Edo period, because of their longstanding service to the Tokugawa clan, the Sakai were classified as a fudai family, in contrast with the tozama ("outsider clans").

Clan branches and histories[edit]

Emblem (mon) of the Sakai clan

The fudai[1] Sakai clan originated in 14th century Mikawa Province.[1] They claim descent from Minamoto no Arichika. Arichika had two sons; one of them, Yasuchika, took the name of Matsudaira, while the other son, Chikauji, took the name of Sakai. Chikauji is the ancestor of the Sakai clan. Sakai Hirochika, Chikauji's son, had two sons as well, and the descendants of these two sons gave rise to the two principal branches of the clan.[2] The senior branch was founded by Sakai Tadatsugu (1527–1596). Tadatsugu, a vassal of Tokugawa Ieyasu, was charged with the defense of Yoshida Castle in Mikawa Province. In 1578, Sakai Ietsugu (1564–1619) succeeded to his father's role as defender of Yoshida Castle. The Ie- in the beginning of Ietsugu's name was a special honor bestowed by Tokugawa Ieyasu, who intended to emphasize bonds of loyalty with those who were allowed to share in any part of his name.[3] When Ieyasu's holdings were transferred to the Kantō region in 1590, Ietsugu was installed at Usui Domain (30,000 koku) in Kōzuke Province, but, in 1604, he was moved to Takasaki Domain (50,000 koku). In 1616, he was again moved to Takata Domain (100,000 koku), this time in Echigo Province. In 1619, he was moved to Matsushiro Domain in Shinano Province; and then, from 1622 to 1868, he was installed at Tsurugaoka Domain (120,000 koku) in Dewa Province.[4] The Sakai of Tsuruoka (which later grew to 170,000 koku) in Dewa Province were prominent in the late Edo period as a military power. Charged with the safety of Edo, they were patrons of the Shinchogumi police force, and were very effective in their duties. Following the surrender of Edo, the Sakai withdrew and returned north to their domain, where they were active in the northern theater of the Boshin War, as well as becoming signatories to the pact that created the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei in 1868. The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Count" in the Meiji period.[5]

A cadet branch was created in 1647.[6] These Sakai were installed from 1647 through 1868 at Matsumine Domain (20,000 koku) in Dewa Province; the castle at Matsumine was constructed in 1779. The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Viscount" in the Meiji period.[5]

Another cadet branch was founded by Sakai Masachika (+1576). Vassal of the Tokugawa – Tokugawa Nobutada, Tokugawa Kiyoyasu and Tokugawa Hirotada. In 1561, he was installed at Nishio Castle in Mikawa Province, and the security of the castle was confided in him.[2] In 1590, Sakai Shigetada, the son of Masachika, received the Kawagoe Domain (15,000 koku) in Musashi Province; then in 1601, he was installed at Umayabashi Domain (35,000 koku) in Kōzuke Province.[7]

In 1749, the descendants of Sakai Tadakiyo (1626–1681) were transferred to Himeji Domain (150,000 koku) in Harima Province ; and they remained daimyō at Himeji until the Meiji period.[7] This cadet branch of the Sakai had been created in 1590.[6] The head of this clan line was first ennobled as a "Count" and in the Meiji period.[7]

Yet another cadet branch of the Sakai had been created in 1668,[8] These Sakai were installed from 1668 through 1868 at Katsuyama Domain (12,000 koku) in Awa Province. The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Viscount" in the Meiji period.[7]

A further cadet branch of the Sakai had been created in 1681,[8] These Sakai were installed in 1681 through 1868 at Isezaki Domain (20,000 koku) in Kōzuke Province. The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Viscount" in the Meiji period.[7]

Sakai Tadatoshi (1562–1627) received the fief of Tanaka Domain (10,000 koku) in Suruga Province in 1601; then his holding was transferred in 1609 to Kawagoe Domain (30,000 koku) in Musashi province.[7]

Sakai Tadakatsu (1587–1662) was installed in 1634 through 1868 at Obama Domain (103,500 koku) in Wakasa Province .[7] This cadet branch of the Sakai had been created in 1590.[6] The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Count" in the Meiji period.[7]

Finally, another cadet branch of the Sakai had been created in 1682.[8] These Sakai were installed in 1682 through 1868 at Tsuruga Domain (10,000 koku) in Echizen Province. The head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Viscount" in the Meiji period.[7]

Family heads[edit]

Shōnai[edit]

Dewa-Matsuyama[edit]

Tsuruga[edit]

Obama[edit]

Himeji[edit]

Maebashi domain[edit]

The successive leaders at Maebashi were:

Himeji domain[edit]

The successive leaders at Himeji were:

Notable members[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Appert, Georges; Kinoshita, Hiroji (1888). Ancien Japon. Imprimerie Kokubunsha. p. 76. 
  2. ^ a b Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. (1906). Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie du Japon; Papinot, (2003). "Sakai" at Nobiliare du Japon, pp. 50-51; retrieved 2013-8-8.
  3. ^ Herbert E. Plutschow (1995). Japan's Name Culture The Significance of Names in a Religious, Political and Social Context. Psychology Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-873410-42-4. 
  4. ^ Appert, Georges; Kinoshita, Hiroji (1888). Ancien Japon. Imprimerie Kokubunsha. p. 50. 
  5. ^ a b Papinot, p. 50.
  6. ^ a b c Appert, Georges; Kinoshita, Hiroji (1888). Ancien Japon. Imprimerie Kokubunsha. p. 76. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Papinot, p. 51.
  8. ^ a b c Appert, Georges; Kinoshita, Hiroji (1888). Ancien Japon. Imprimerie Kokubunsha. p. 77. 
  9. ^ a b c d Meyer, Eva-Maria."Gouverneure von Kyôto in der Edo-Zeit." Universität Tübingen (in German).
  10. ^ a b c d Beasley, William G. (1955). Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853–1868, p. 339.
  11. ^ Herbert E. Plutschow (1995). Japan's Name Culture The Significance of Names in a Religious, Political and Social Context. Psychology Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-873410-42-4. 
  12. ^ a b "Nobility, Peerage and Ranks in Ancient and Meiji-Japan," p. 13.
  13. ^ Japan peers, p. 14.

Further reading[edit]

  • This article has been compiled using corresponding material from the Japanese Wikipedia.

External links[edit]