The Sakhalin–Hokkaidō Tunnel (or potentially bridge) is a proposed connection to link the Russian island of Sakhalin with the Japanese island of Hokkaidō. Cost estimates by Russia, in the year 2000, put the project to span the 45-kilometre (28-mile) strait at $50bn (US$ 68 billion in 2014).
On January 16, 2009, the Russian Vice-Minister of Transport, Andrei Nedossekov, confirmed that proposals are now under consideration in regards to the Sakhalin–Hokkaidō Tunnel. His decision to invite Japanese companies to bid to become consortium members of a wide array of Russian rail infrastructure work, particularly the Sakhalin Tunnel (or bridge) to the Russian mainland could be taken as a nod towards future rail cooperation between Russia and Japan.
The tunnel would span roughly 40–45 km between Cape Crillon in Russia to Cape Sōya in Japan. In comparison the completed 53.85 km (33.46 mi) Seikan Tunnel links the Japanese islands of Honshu and the island Hokkaido. A further bridge in the north of the island would have to be created. Already a proposal for the Sakhalin Tunnel, has been announced by the Russian Government. Once on the Russian mainland the rail link could connect to the rest of the Russian (and hence European) rail network, allowing for gauge changes. Running south, from Hokkaido, the line would connect with the Seikan Tunnel between Hokkaidō and Honshū, currently the longest undersea tunnel in the world. This would allow connections to the rest of the Japanese rail network.
The project could be seen as an alternative to the Japan-Korea Undersea Tunnel, as Russia is already under way with planning and construction of many of the necessary linkages on the Russian side, whilst the tunnel itself would be considerably shorter than that between Japan and Korea.
As well as the great cost and engineering difficulty, there may be political problems, particularly in regards to the Kuril Islands dispute between Russia and Japan. The Japanese government's initial reaction has been cool towards the idea.
Russian railways use 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) gauge, while in southern Sakhalin the original Japanese 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge is still in use. Japanese railways use 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge. It is unclear what rail gauge would be used for the proposed tunnel (and associated infrastructure) .
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