|Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought|
The awarding ceremony of the 1990 prize awarded to Aung San Suu Kyi inside the Parliament's Strasbourg hemicycle, in 2013.
|Presented by||European Parliament|
|Currently held by||Denis Mukwege|
|Official website||Sakharov Prize Network website|
The Sakharov Prize, officially known as the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought and named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1988 by the European Parliament as a means to honor individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought. A shortlist of nominees is drawn up by the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Development, with the winner announced in October. The prize is accompanied by a monetary award of €50,000.
The first prize was awarded jointly to South African Nelson Mandela and Russian Anatoly Marchenko. The 1990 award was given to Aung San Suu Kyi, but she could not collect it until 2013 as a result of her political imprisonment in Burma. The prize has also been awarded to organisations, the first being the Argentine Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in 1992.
Some Sakharov laureates still face harsh political oppression. Laureates living under repressive regimes include the Belarusian Association of Journalists (2004), Damas de Blanco and Guillermo Fariñas (Cuba, 2005 and 2010), Alaksandar Milinkievič (Belarus, 2006) and Hu Jia (China, 2008). Razan Zaitouneh (2011) was kidnapped in 2013 and is stil missing. Nasrin Sotoudeh (2012) was released from prison in September 2013, and, along with fellow 2012 laureate Jafar Panahi, is still banned from leaving Iran.
|1988||Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela||South Africa||Anti-apartheid activist and later President of South Africa|||
|1988||Marchenko, AnatolyAnatoly Marchenko (posthumously)||Soviet Union||Soviet dissident, author and human rights activist|||
|1989||Dubček, AlexanderAlexander Dubček||Czechoslovakia||Slovak politician, attempted to reform the communist regime during the Prague Spring|||
|1990||Aung San Suu Kyi||Burma||Opposition politician and a former General Secretary of the National League for Democracy|||
|1991||Demaçi, AdemAdem Demaçi||Kosovo||Kosovo Albanian Politician and long-term political prisoner|||
|1992||Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo||Argentina||Association of Argentine mothers whose children disappeared during the Dirty War|||
|1993||Oslobođenje||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Popular newspaper that defended Bosnia and Herzegovina as a multi-ethnic state|||
|1994||Nasrin, TaslimaTaslima Nasrin||Bangladesh||Ex-doctor, feminist author|||
|1995||Zana, LeylaLeyla Zana||Turkey||Politician of Kurdish descent from Southeastern Turkey, who was imprisoned for 10 years for speaking her native language of Kurdish in the Turkish Parliament|||
|1996||Jingsheng, WeiWei Jingsheng||China||An activist in the Chinese democracy movement|||
|1997||Ghezali, SalimaSalima Ghezali||Algeria||Journalist and writer, an activist of women's rights, human rights and democracy in Algeria|||
|1998||Rugova, IbrahimIbrahim Rugova||Kosovo||Albanian politician, the first President of Kosovo|||
|1999||Gusmão, XananaXanana Gusmão||East Timor||Former militant who was the first President of East Timor|||
|2000||¡Basta Ya!||Spain||Organisation uniting individuals of various political positions against terrorism|||
|2001||Peled-Elhanan, NuritNurit Peled-Elhanan||Israel||Peace activist|||
|2001||Ghazzawi, IzzatIzzat Ghazzawi||Palestine||Writer, professor|||
|2001||Kamwenho, Dom ZacariasDom Zacarias Kamwenho||Angola||Archbishop and peace activist|||
|2002||Payá, OswaldoOswaldo Payá||Cuba||Political activist and dissident|||
|2003||Annan, KofiKofi Annan (& United Nations)||Ghana||Nobel Peace Prize recipient and seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations|||
|2004||Belarusian Association of Journalists||Belarus||Non-governmental organisation "aiming to ensure freedom of speech and rights of receiving and distributing information and promoting professional standards of journalism"|||
|2005||Ladies in White||Cuba||Opposition movement, relatives of jailed dissidents|||
|2005||Reporters Without Borders||International||France-based non-governmental organisation advocating freedom of the press|||
|2005||Ibrahim, HauwaHauwa Ibrahim||Nigeria||Human rights lawyer|||
|2006||Milinkievič, AlaksandarAlaksandar Milinkievič||Belarus||Politician chosen by United Democratic Forces of Belarus as the joint candidate of the opposition in the presidential elections of 2006|||
|2007||Mahmoud Osman, SalihSalih Mahmoud Osman||Sudan||Human rights lawyer|||
|2008||Jia, HuHu Jia||China||Activist and dissident|||
|2009||Memorial||Russia||International civil rights and historical society|||
|2010||Fariñas, GuillermoGuillermo Fariñas||Cuba||Doctor, journalist and political dissident|||
Mohamed Bouazizi (posthumously)
|Five representatives of the Arab people, in recognition and support of their drive for freedom and human rights.|||
|Iran||Iranian activists, Sotoudeh is a lawyer and Panahi is a film director.|||
|2013||Malala Yousafzai||Pakistan||Campaigner for women's rights and education|||
|2014||Denis Mukwege||DR Congo||Gynecologist treating victims of gang rape|||
Notes and references
- "Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought". European Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- "1986: Sakharov comes in from the cold". BBC News. 23 December 1986. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "20 years of the Sakharov Prize: Human rights and reconciliation". European Parliament. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- "Sakharov Network calls for immediate release of Aung San Suu Kyi, Sakharov Prize laureate 1990". Reporters Without Borders. 15 May 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- "Gusmão receives EU Sakharov prize". BBC News. 15 December 1999. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Basque group wins peace prize". BBC News. 26 October 2000. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Cuban dissident collects EU prize". BBC News. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "The Belarusian Association of Journalists - 2004, Belarus". European Parliament. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Gibbs, Stephen (14 December 2005). "Cuba 'bars women from prize trip'". BBC News. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Belarussian takes EU rights award". BBC News. 26 October 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "China dissident wins rights prize". BBC News. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Russia rights group wins EU prize". BBC News. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Cuba dissident Farinas awarded Sakharov Prize by EU". BBC News. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought 2011". European Parliament. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- Saeed Kamali Dehghan (26 October 2012). "Nasrin Sotoudeh and director Jafar Panahi share top human rights prize". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Nasrin Sotoudeh and Jafar Panahi – winners of the 2012 Sakharov Prize". European Parliament. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Jordan, Carol (10 October 2013). "Malala wins Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought". CNN. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- "DR Congo doctor Denis Mukwege wins Sakharov prize". BBC News. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought". European Parliament. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Sakharov Prize Network". European Parliament. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "20 years of the Sakharov Prize: rewarding courage, self-sacrifice". European Parliament. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2010.