Salak

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For other uses, see Salak (disambiguation).
"Snake fruit" redirects here. It can also refer to the sapodilla (Manilkara zapota).
Salak
Salak200507.jpg
Salak fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Genus: Salacca
Species: S. zalacca
Binomial name
Salacca zalacca
(Gaertn.) Voss
Synonyms

Calamus zalacca
Salacca edulis

Salak (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm tree (family Arecaceae) native to Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia. It is a very short-stemmed palm, with leaves up to 6 metres (20 ft) long; each leaf has a 2-metre long petiole with spines up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long, and numerous leaflets.

Salak exported from Indonesia

The fruits grow in clusters at the base of the palm, and are also known as snake fruit due to the reddish-brown scaly skin. They are about the size and shape of a ripe fig, with a distinct tip. The pulp is edible. The fruit can be peeled by pinching the tip, which should cause the skin to slough off so it can be pulled away. The fruit inside consists of three lobes with the two larger ones, or even all three, containing a large inedible seed. The lobes resemble, and have the consistency of, large peeled garlic cloves. The taste is usually sweet and acidic, but its apple-like texture can vary from very dry and crumbly (salak pondoh from Yogyakarta) to moist and crunchy (salak Bali).

Cultivation[edit]

Salak agroforest, Bogor, West Java
Young fruit

The salak tree is indigenous to and has been cultivated throughout Indonesia, and there are at least 30 cultivars, most of which have an astringent taste and are sweet. Two popular cultivars are salak pondoh from Yogyakarta province (found in 1980s) and salak Bali from Bali island.

Salak pondoh[edit]

Salak pondoh is an important fruit in the Yogyakarta province on the island of Java. In the five years to 1999, the annual production in Yogyakarta doubled to 28,666 tons. Its popularity (compared with other cultivars) among local Indonesian consumers is mainly due to the intensity of its aroma and its sweet flavor even before reaching full maturity.

Salak pondoh has three more superior variations, namely pondoh super, pondoh hitam (black pondoh), and pondoh gading (ivory / yellowish-skinned pondoh).

Salak Pondoh
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,539 kJ (368 kcal)
0.4 g
0.8 g
Vitamins
Vitamin C
(10%)
8.4 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(4%)
38 mg
Iron
(30%)
3.9 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
18 mg
Sodium
(0%)
0 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Salak Bali[edit]

Salak Bali is commonly sold all over the island of Bali, and is a popular fruit with both locals and tourists. The fruit is roughly the size of a large fig, and has a crunchy and moist consistency. The fruit has a starchy 'mouth feel', and a flavour reminiscent of dilute pineapple and lemon juice.

Salak gula pasir[edit]

The most expensive cultivar of the Bali salak is the gula pasir (literally "sand sugar" or "grain sugar", referring to its fine-grainedness), which is smaller than the normal salak and is the sweetest of all salak. The price in Bali is Rp 15,000-30,000 (US$1.50-3.00) per kilogram depending on time of year.

Salak gula pasir or also known as Sugar salak which known for its juicy sweetness sometimes fermented into Salak wine which has an alcohol content of 13.5 percent, similar to traditional wine made from grapes.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Supriyadi; Suhardi; M. Suzuki; K. Yoshida; T. Muto; A. Fujita; and N. Watanabe (2002). "Changes in the Volatile Compounds and in the Chemical and Physical Properties of Snake Fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) Cv. Pondoh during Maturation". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (26): 7627–7633. doi:10.1021/jf020620e. PMID 12475281.