Salammbô is an opera in five acts composed by Ernest Reyer to a French libretto by Camille du Locle. It is based on the novel Salammbô by Gustave Flaubert (1862). The opera was first performed at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels on 10 February 1890. The American premiere was at the French Opera House in New Orleans on 25 January 1900 with Lina Pacary in the title role. This rarely nowadays performed opera received the last performance in Paris Opera in 1943, and the most recent one in Marseilles on 27 September 2008, in commemoration of 100th anniversary of Reyer's death.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast,
|Hamilcar, Carthaginian leader||baritone||Maurice Renaud|
|Salammbô, a priestess, Hamilcar's daughter||soprano||Rose Caron|
|Taanach, Salammbo's servant||mezzo-soprano|
|Shahabarim, high priest of Tanit||tenor||Edmond Vergnet|
|Narr'Havas, King of Numidia||bass||Sentein|
|Giscon, Carthaginian general||bass||Peeters|
|Mathô, chief Libyan mercenary||tenor||Henri Sellier|
|Spendius, Greek slave||baritone||Max Bouvet|
|Autharite, Gaulish mercenary||bass||Challet|
- Place: Carthage
- Time: 240 BC
Other opera adaptations
In 1863, Modeste Mussorgsky also started writing text and music for an opera based on Flaubert's novel, but he never managed to complete the work. Other versions were written by V. Fornari (1881), Niccolò Massa (1886), Eugeniusz Morawski-Dąbrowa, Josef Matthias Hauer (1930), Alfredo Cuscinà (1931), Veselin Stoyanov (1940) and Franco Casavola (1948). Contemporary French composer Philippe Fénélon's Salammbô was first performed in the Opéra Bastille in 1998.