Sallarid dynasty

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Sallarid dynasty
سالاریان
Monarchy

919–1062
Map of the Sallarid dynasty at its greatest extent
Capital Tarom
Languages Persian
Religion Islam
Political structure Monarchy
King
 -  919–941 Muhammad bin Musafir (last)
 -  1050-1062 Musafir ibn Ibrahim II (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 919
 -  Disestablished 1062
History of Iran
History of Iran
ANCIENT PERIOD
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
IMPERIAL PERIOD
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE
Sasanian Empire 224–651
MEDIEVAL (EARLY ISLAMIC) PERIOD
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
  Minor dynasties of northern Iran
Dabuyids 642–760 Bavandids 651–1349
Masmughans
of Damavand
651–760
Paduspanids 665–1598
Justanids 791–974
Alids of northern Iran 864–14th century
  Iranian Intermezzo 821–1062
Tahirid dynasty
821–873
Samanid dynasty
819–999
Saffarid dynasty
861–1002
Ziyarid dynasty
930–1090
Sallarid dynasty
919–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid dynasty
934–1062
Ilyasids
932–968
Ghaznavid Empire 977–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Ghurid dynasty 1011–1215
Nasrids 1029–1236
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Mihrabanids 1236–1537
Kurt dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid dynasty
1335–1393
Jalayirid dynasty
1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
Injuids 1335–1357
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504
Marashis 1359–1596
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
Kia'i dynasty 1389–1592
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729)
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand dynasty
1750–1794
Afsharid dynasty
1747–1796
Qajar dynasty 1785–1925
MODERN PERIOD
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present
Faravahar background
History of Greater Iran
Until the rise of modern nation-states
Pre-modern

The Sallarid dynasty (Persian: سالاریان‎), (also known as the Musafirids or Langarids) was an Iranian[1][2] Muslim dynasty ruled in Tarom, Samiran, Daylam and subsequently Azerbaijan, Arran, some districts in Eastern Armenia in the 2nd half of the 10th century.[3] They constitute the period in history that has been named the Iranian Intermezzo,[4] a period that saw the rise of native Iranian dynasties during the 9th to the 11th centuries.

Early years[edit]

Sallarids, centered in Tabriz

The Sallarids were Daylamites[5][6] who, probably in the later 9th century, gained control of Shamiran, a mountain stronghold about twenty five miles north of Zanjan. From Shamiran they established their rule over the surrounding region of Tarom. The Sallarids also established marriage ties with the neighboring Justanid dynasty of Rudbar.

Muhammad bin Musafir[edit]

In the early 10th century the Sallarid in control of Shamiran was Muhammad bin Musafir. He married a Justanid and subsequently involved himself in their internal affairs. His harsh rule, however, eventually turned even his family against him, and in 941 he was imprisoned by his sons Wahsudan ibn Muhammad and Marzuban.

Azerbaijan Under the Sallarids[edit]

Marzuban ibn Muhammad[edit]

Wahsudan remained in Shamiran while Marzuban invaded Azerbaijan and took it from its ruler, Daisam. Marzuban took Dvin and successfully held off attacks from the Rus and Hamdanids of Mosul. However, he was captured in a war with the Buwayhid Rukn al-Daula and control of Azerbaijan was fought over between Muhammad bin Musafir, Wahsudan, the Buyids, and Daisam. Eventually Marzuban escaped and reestablished control over Azerbaijan and made peace with Rukn al-Daula, marrying off his daughter to him. He ruled until his death in 957.

Marzuban's Successors[edit]

Marzuban had designated his brother Wahsudan as his successor. When he came to Azerbaijan, however, the commanders of the fortresses refused to surrender to him, recognizing instead Marzuban's son Justan I ibn Marzuban I as his successor. Unable to establish his rule in the province, Wahusdan returned to Tarum; Justan was recognized as ruler in Azerbaijan, with his brother Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I made governor of Dvin. Justan seems to have been interested primarily in his harem, a fact which alienated some of his supporters, although he and Ibrahim successfully put down a revolt by a grandson of the caliph al-Muktafi in 960.

Shortly afterwards Justan and another brother, Nasir, came to Tarum, where they were treacherously imprisoned by Wahsudan, who sent his son Isma'il to take over Azerbaijan. Ibrahim raised an army in Armenia to oppose Isma'il, prompting Wahsudan to execute Justan, his mother and Nasir. Ibrahim was driven out of Azerbaijan by Isma'il, but retained his rule in Dvin.

Isma'il died in 962, however, allowing Ibrahim to occupy Azerbaijan. He then invaded Tarum and forced Wahsudan to flee to Dailaman. In 966 Ibrahim was defeated by an army of Wahsudan's and his soldiers subsequently deserted him. He fled to his brother-in-law, the Buyid Rukn al-Daula, while Wahsudan installed his son Nuh in Azerbaijan. Rukn al-Daula sent an army under his vizier to reinstate Ibrahim in Azerbaijan, and Wahsudan was ejected from Tarum for a time. In 967 however he again sent an army, which burnt Ardabil before Ibrahim concluded a peace with his uncle, ceding part of Azerbaijan to him. In 968 he reaffirmed Sallarid authority over Shirvan, forcing the Shirvanshah to pay him tribute.

Ibrahim's authority began to decline in the latter part of his reign. In 971 the Shaddadids took Ganja, and Ibrahim was forced to recognize their rule in that city after a siege failed to dislodge them. In around 979 he was deposed and imprisoned; he died in 983. His deposition marked the end of the Sallarids as a major power in Azerbaijan, as the Rawadids of Tabriz overran much of the province. A grandson of Wahsudan named Marzuban b. Isma'il retained a small portion of Azerbaijan until 984 when he was captured by the Rawadids. His son Ibrahim fled to Tarum and would later restore Sallarid rule there after it was seized by the Buwayhids.

In Dvin, meanwhile, a son of Ibrahim b. Marzuban b. Muhammad, Abu'l-Hajja', held power; in 982 or 983 he was persuaded by the King of Kars to invade the domain of the Bagratid king Smbat II. Some time after this Abu'l-Hajja' led an expedition against Abu Dulaf al-Shaibani, the ruler of Golthn and Nakhchivan, but was defeated and lost Dvin to him. He then traveled throughout Georgia and Armenia and visited the Byzantine emperor Basil II. In 989 or 990 Smbat II gave him an army to retake Dvin, but afterwards revoked his support. Eventually Abu'l-Hajja' met his end at the hands of his servants, who strangled him.

Tarum Under the Later Sallarids[edit]

After Wahsudan's death (some time after 967), his son Nuh succeeded him in Shamiran. Nuh died before 989; in that year the Buwayhid Fakhr al-Daula married his widow and then divorced her, taking Shamiran in the process. Nuh's young son Justan was brought to Ray.

In 997, after Fakhr al-Daula died, Ibrahim b. Marzuban b. Isma'il took advantage of the weakness of his successor to seize control of Shamiran, Zanjan, Abhar, and Suharavard. When the Ghaznavid Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Ray in 1029 he sent a force to conquer Ibrahim's territories, but it failed to do so. Ibrahim took Qazvin from the Ghaznavids and defeated Mahmud's son Mas'ud in battle. Mas'ud managed to bribe some of Ibrahim's soldiers to capture him. Ibrahim's son refused to give up the fortress of Sarjahan but was compelled to pay tribute. By 1036 the Sallarids were back in Shamiran.

In around 1043 the Seljuk sultan Toghril Beg received the submission of the salar of Tarum, who became his vassal and submitted tribute. This Sallarid may have been Justan b. Ibrahim, who was named as the ruler of Tarum in 1046. In 1062 Toghril went to Shamiran and again received tribute from its ruler, Musafir. This is the last Sallarid who is known; it is likely that the dynasty was shortly afterwards wiped out by the Assassins of Alamut, who dismantled the fortress of Shamiran. Latterly, the dynasty was assimilated by Seljuk Turks.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University, 1996), 148-149.
  2. ^ V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian History, Cambridge University Press, 1957. pg 112
  3. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 148-149. "..their centres at Tarum and Samiran, and then in Azerbaijan and Arran..", "..into Azerbaijan, Arran, some districts of Eastern Armenia and as far as Darband in the Caspian coast."
  4. ^ V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press, 1957. pg 110
  5. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, Columbia University, 1996. pg 148
  6. ^ V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press, 1957. pg 112

References[edit]

  • Madelung, Wilferd. "Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran." The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: The Period From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Ed. R. N. Frye. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-521-20093-8

See also[edit]