Sale of UK gold reserves, 1999–2002
The sale of UK gold reserves was a policy pursued by HM Treasury over the period between 1999 and 2002, when gold prices were at their lowest in 20 years, following an extended bear market. The period itself has been dubbed by some commentators as the Brown Bottom or Brown's Bottom.
The period takes its name from Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer (who later became Prime Minister), who decided to sell approximately half of the UK's gold reserves in a series of auctions. At the time, the UK's gold reserves were worth about US$6.5 billion, accounting for about half of the UK's US$13 billion foreign currency net reserves.
The UK government's intention to sell gold and reinvest the proceeds in foreign currency deposits, including euros, was announced on 7 May 1999, when the price of gold stood at US$282.40 per ounce (cf. the price in 1980: $850/oz ) The official stated reason for this sale was to diversify the assets of the UK's reserves away from gold, which was deemed to be too volatile. The gold sales funded a like-for-like purchase of financial instruments in different currencies. Studies performed by HM Treasury had shown that the overall volatility of the UK's reserves could be reduced by 20% from the sale.
The advance notice of the substantial sales drove the price of gold down by 10% by the time of the first auction on 6 July 1999. With many gold traders shorting, gold reached a low point of US$252.80 on 20 July. The UK eventually sold about 395 tons of gold over 17 auctions from July 1999 to March 2002, at an average price of about US$275 per ounce, raising approximately US$3.5 billion. By 2011, that quantity of gold would be worth over $19 billion.
To deal with this and other prospective sales of gold reserves, a consortium of central banks - including the European Central Bank and the Bank of England - were pushed to sign the Washington Agreement on Gold in September 1999, limiting gold sales to 400 tonnes per year for 5 years. This triggered a sharp rise in the price of gold, from around US$260 per ounce to around $330 per ounce in two weeks, before the price fell away again into 2000 and early 2001. The Central Bank Gold Agreement was renewed in 2004 and 2009.
Gold prices remained relatively low until 2001, when the price began consistently rising in a protracted bull market. By 2007, the price of gold had reached US$675, and the loss to the UK taxpayer (contrasted to selling the gold later) was estimated at more than £2 billion, as the Euros bought with the proceeds had also risen in value. The gold price briefly passed US$1,000 per ounce in March 2008, before reaching all-time highs of $1,043.77 on 6 October 2009 and $1,048.40 on 7 October 2009, by which time the loss to the UK taxpayer was approximately £4 billion. Gold prices continued to rise, reaching a new all-time high of US$1,896.50 per ounce at the London morning Gold Fix of 5 September 2011.
Brown's actions have attracted considerable criticism, particularly concerning his timing, his decision to announce the move in advance, and the use of an auction. The decision to sell gold at the low point in the price cycle has been likened[who?] to the mistakes in 1992 that led to Black Wednesday, when the UK was forced to withdraw from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, which HM Treasury has estimated cost the UK taxpayer around £3.3 billion.
More recently, it has been suggested that the sale, and its seemingly inept management, was a deliberate attempt to drive down the gold price in order to rescue several banks which had highly leveraged short positions in gold.
- Goldfinger Brown's £2 billion blunder in the bullion market, The Times, 15 April 2007
- The outlook for gold, The Daily Telegraph, 19 December 2008
- The Gold Bull Market Remembers How Gordon Brown Sold Half of Britains Reserves at the Lowest Price, The Market Oracle, Clive Maund, 1 April 2007
- The Significance of the IMF-RBI Gold Sales, Tim Iacono, GoldSeek.com, 5 November 2009
- In 2008, Gold Should Glitter, James Turk, SFO magazine, February 2007.
- China & IMF Gold Sales; The Real Story, Warren Bevan, gold-eagle.com, 23 June 2009
- Review of the sale of part of the UK gold reserves (PDF), HM Treasury, October 2002
- Gold: Does Gordon Brown's regret selling half of Britains' gold reserves 10 years ago?, The Daily Telegraph, 8 May 2009
- Chart of gold 1968–99
- Gold returns back above $1,000, BBC News, 8 September 2009, Gold hits $1,000 for first time, BBC News, 13 March 2008
- Gold price rises to all-time high, BBC News, 6 October 2009
- Gold price returns to fresh high, BBC News, 7 October 2009
- "Gold Demand Trends Q4 2013", "Top 40 reported official gold holdings" is on page 18 of the pdf file.