Salekhard

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Salekhard (English)
Салехард (Russian)
Пуӆңават (Khanty)
-  Town[1]  -
Map of Russia - Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Salekhard is located in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Salekhard
Salekhard
Location of Salekhard in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 66°32′N 66°36′E / 66.533°N 66.600°E / 66.533; 66.600Coordinates: 66°32′N 66°36′E / 66.533°N 66.600°E / 66.533; 66.600
Coat of Arms of Salekhard (Yamal Nenetsia).png
Flag of Salekhard (Yamal Nenetsia).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of September 2009)
Country Russia
Federal subject Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug[1]
Administratively subordinated to town of okrug significance of Salekhard[1]
Administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug,[1] town of okrug significance of Salekhard[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2010)
Urban okrug Salekhard Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Salekhard Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Alexander Spirin[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 42,544 inhabitants[3]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[4]
Founded 1595[citation needed]
Town status since 1938[citation needed]
Previous names Obdorsk (until 1933)[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 34922[5]
Official website
Salekhard on WikiCommons

Salekhard (Russian: Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават; Nenets: Саляʼ харад, lit. house on a peninsula) is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. It is the closest town to the Polar circle, the main parts being about 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) south and suburbs stretching to the north of the circle. Population: 42,544 (2010 Census);[3] 36,827 (2002 Census);[6] 32,334 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

The settlement of Obdorsk (Обдорск) was founded in 1595, in the place of a Khanty settlement called Polnovat-Vozh (Полноват-вож), by Russian settlers after the conquest of Siberia.[citation needed] It was situated on the Ob River, and its name supposedly derives from that. The land around Obdorsk was referred to as Obdorsky krai, or Obdoriya.

The town was often used as a place of exile during the Tsarist and Soviet periods. Among notable people who spent time here was the Doukhobor spiritual leader Pyotr Verigin. The town and nearby area contained three Soviet camps where approximately 6,500 prisoners were held, arrested for their belief in God.[8] At the port of Salekhard, approximately 1,500 prisoners loaded and unloaded goods at the dock, or mined metal ores. About 5,000 prisoners in two camps near Salekhard were assigned to polish diamonds mined from Mirny.

On December 10, 1930, Obdorsk became the administrative center of the new Yamal (Nenets) National Okrug. It was renamed Salekhard in 1933, and granted town status in 1938.[citation needed]

The nearest railway is at Labytnangi on the opposite side of the river Ob. From 1949 to 1953, the Salekhard-Igarka Railway project made an unsuccessful attempt to extend the line to Igarka, claiming the lives of thousands of Gulag prisoners. The section of railway from Salekhard to Nadym was completed and remained in use for some time in the Soviet era, although it was later abandoned. It is currently being rebuilt, along with a long-awaited bridge across the Ob between Labytnangi and Salekhard.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one rural locality, incorporated as the town of okrug significance of Salekhard—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of okrug significance of Salekhard is incorporated as Salekhard Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

Yamal Airlines has its head office in Salekhard.[9]

By 2015, about 3 km from the airport, near the Arctic circle, authorities plan to build a large polar resort "Center of the Arctic tourism."

Transportation[edit]

The town is served by the Salekhard Airport.

The nearest railway is at Labytnangi (on the Salekhard–Igarka Railway) on the opposite side of the river Ob. A long-awaited bridge across the Ob between Labytnangi and Salekhard is being built.

As of 2010, cars and trucks cross the river by driving across the frozen river ice for 9–10 months a year. In the summer a ferry operates, "but twice a year, during floating of ice, Salekhard lives in a standalone mode, completely cut off from the world, regarding freight. Only helicopter in case of emergency. Native people always build safety stock of food at home, in the shops, in the market for this period, but they still have seasonal price increasing."[10] Long-distance passengers have the airport.

Climate[edit]

Salekhard has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) with short, mild summers and severely cold winters. Precipitation is moderate, and is significantly greater in summer than in winter.

Climate data for Salekhard
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
1.9
(35.4)
5.7
(42.3)
15.5
(59.9)
24.5
(76.1)
31.6
(88.9)
32.9
(91.2)
29.9
(85.8)
24.8
(76.6)
18.2
(64.8)
7.0
(44.6)
4.1
(39.4)
32.9
(91.2)
Average high °C (°F) −18.8
(−1.8)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−9.9
(14.2)
−4
(25)
3.7
(38.7)
14.3
(57.7)
19.7
(67.5)
15.7
(60.3)
8.8
(47.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−11.3
(11.7)
−16.2
(2.8)
−1.39
(29.52)
Daily mean °C (°F) −23.2
(−9.8)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−14.9
(5.2)
−9.1
(15.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.5
(49.1)
14.8
(58.6)
11.4
(52.5)
5.3
(41.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
−15.3
(4.5)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−5.72
(21.7)
Average low °C (°F) −27.8
(−18)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−14
(7)
−4.2
(24.4)
5.2
(41.4)
10.0
(50)
7.3
(45.1)
2.2
(36)
−6
(21)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−25.2
(−13.4)
−9.94
(14.11)
Record low °C (°F) −51.3
(−60.3)
−53.7
(−64.7)
−47.4
(−53.3)
−38.7
(−37.7)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−11
(12)
−1
(30)
−5.5
(22.1)
−9.6
(14.7)
−35.7
(−32.3)
−47.1
(−52.8)
−51.5
(−60.7)
−53.7
(−64.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23
(0.91)
19
(0.75)
21
(0.83)
26
(1.02)
37
(1.46)
51
(2.01)
65
(2.56)
69
(2.72)
42
(1.65)
46
(1.81)
28
(1.1)
27
(1.06)
454
(17.88)
Avg. rainy days 0.1 0 0.5 3 10 17 18 21 20 9 1 0 99.6
Avg. snowy days 26 23 23 16 13 2 0 0 3 17 24 27 174
 % humidity 83 82 81 78 77 70 72 79 82 86 85 83 79.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 4.0 48.0 135.0 209.0 233.0 270.0 307.0 185.0 96.0 57.0 18.0 0.0 1,562
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[11]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[12]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Salekhard is twinned with:

External links[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #42-ZAO
  2. ^ a b c Law #26-ZAO
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Телефонные коды городов (in Russian). Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Thomas, George. "Stalin's 'Railroad of Death' Witnesses Revival". CBN News. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Yamal Airlines. Retrieved on February 27, 2012.
  10. ^ 2010/2011 visitor Любовь
  11. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net - Climate Data for Salekhard" (in Russian). Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Salekhard Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Государственная Дума Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. Закон №42-ЗАО от 6 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа», в ред. Закона №123-ЗАО от 6 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа в части изменения вида населённого пункт Тазовский путём отнесения его к сельским пунктам и наделении муниципального образования посёлок Тазовский статусом сельского поселения». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №119, 13 октября 2006 г. (State Duma of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Law #42-ZAO of October 6, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #123-ZAO of December 6, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Due to Changing the Status of the Inhabited Locality of Tazovsky to a Rural Locality and on Granting the Municipal Formation of the Settlement of Tazovsky the Status of a Rural Settlement. Effective as of the day upon expiration of ten days from the official publication date.).
  • Государственная Дума Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа. Закон №26-ЗАО от 22 июня 2004 г. «О наделении статусом, определении административного центра и установлении границ муниципального образования город Салехард», в ред. Закона №100-ЗАО от 31 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа "О наделении статусом, определении административного центра и установлении границ муниципального образования город Салехард"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №50, 23 июня 2004 г. (State Duma of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Law #26-ZAO of June 22, 2004 On Granting the Status, Determining the Administrative Center, and Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Salkhard, as amended by the Law #100-ZAO of October 31, 2012 On Amending the Law of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug "On Granting the Status, Determining the Administrative Center, and Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Salkhard". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).