|Colombia and Venezuela|
The Saliban (Salivan) languages, also known as Piaroa–Saliban or Saliba–Piaroan, are a small proposed language family of the middle Orinoco Basin, which forms an independent island within an area of Venezuela and Colombia (northern llanos) dominated by peoples of Carib and Arawakan affiliation.
Saliba is a possible language isolate; if related to Piaroa, the connection is a distant one. Piaroan is a language or dialect cluster, consisting of Piaroa itself, Wirö (or "Maco"), and the extinct Ature. The Piaroa and Wirö both consider their languages to be distinct: they can understand each other, but not reliably. Hotï was little known until recently and remains unclassified in most accounts.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Piaroa–Saliban". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Aikhenvald & Dixon, 1999, The Amazonian Languages
- Zent S & E Zent. 2008. Los Hoti, in Aborigenes de Venezuela, vol. 2, second edition 
- Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
- Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
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