Salisbury

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Salisbury
City of New Sarum
View From Harnham Hill, Salisbury - geograph.org.uk - 1587145.jpg
Salisbury Cathedral from Harnham Hill
Salisbury is located in Wiltshire
Salisbury
Salisbury
 Salisbury shown within Wiltshire
Population 40,302 (2011 Census)
OS grid reference SU145305
   – London  85 miles (137 km) 
Civil parish City of Salisbury
Unitary authority Wiltshire
Ceremonial county Wiltshire
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SALISBURY
Postcode district SP1, SP2
Dialling code 01722
Police Wiltshire
Fire Wiltshire
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament Salisbury
List of places
UK
England
Wiltshire

Coordinates: 51°04′26″N 1°47′37″W / 51.0740°N 1.7936°W / 51.0740; -1.7936

This article is about the city in England. For Zimbabwe's capital, which was called Salisbury until 1982, see Harare. For other uses, see Salisbury (disambiguation).

Salisbury (various pronunciations,[2] but locally /ˈsɔːzbri/, SAWZ-bree) is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, and the only city within the county. It is the 2nd-largest settlement in the county with a population of 40 302, between Chippenham at 35 800[3] and Swindon at 209 156.[4]

The city is located in the southeast of Wiltshire, near the edge of Salisbury Plain. The city was formerly located to the north at Old Sarum; following its relocation, it was initially known as New Saresbury and New Sarum. It sits at the confluence of five rivers: the Nadder, Ebble, Wylye, and Bourne are tributary to the Avon, which flows to the south coast and into the sea at Christchurch in Dorset. Salisbury railway station serves the city and is a regional interchange, marking the crossing point between the West of England Main Line and the Wessex Main Line.

Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury and greatly aids the local economy. The city itself, Old Sarum, and both cathedrals also attract visitors.

Name[edit]

The present name is a combination of the former name of the city with the Old English suffix -bury, a form of "borough".

The name Sarum seems to have been a corruption of the longer form Searesbyrig. The longer name was first abbreviated by writing Sar with a stroke over the r but, as such a mark was used to contract the Latin suffix -um (common in placenames), the name was confused and became Sarum sometime around the 13th century. The earliest known use was on the seal of the St Nicholas hospital at Salisbury, which was in use in 1239. The 14th-century Bishop Wyville was the first to describe himself as episcopus Sarum.[5]

History[edit]

John Constable, watercolor, 30cm×48.7cm, 1834, Victoria & Albert Museum.
The ruined hillfort at Old Sarum in an 1834 watercolor by John Constable
A reconstruction of Old Sarum in the 12th century

Old Sarum[edit]

Main article: Old Sarum

The hilltop at Old Sarum shows evidence of Neolithic settlement[6] and boasted a fortress (oppidum) during the Iron Age. Stonehenge was constructed nearby. The Romans called the community at Old Sarum Sorviodunum and may have occupied the fort. Bishop Ussher argued for an identification of the site with the "Cair Caratauc"[7] listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons traditionally ascribed to Nennius.[8] Following the Saxon invasions, they knew the location as Searesbyrig.[9][10][11] Following the Norman invasion, a castle was constructed at Seresberi and, by the time of the 1086 Domesday Book, it was recorded as Salesberie.[12]

The first Salisbury cathedral was built on the hill by the bishop Saint Osmund between 1075 and 1092. A larger cathedral was built on the same site c. 1120.

Salisbury Cathedral as seen from the motte at Old Sarum

New Sarum[edit]

Conflict between the bishop and the military garrison during the 12th century ended with the castellan sometimes refusing the clerics permission to reënter the protection of the city walls following their rogations and processions.[13] This caused Peter of Blois to describe the church as "a captive within the walls of the citadel like the ark of God in the profane house of Baal". He advocated

“Let us descend into the plain! There are rich fields and fertile valleys abounding in the fruits of the earth and watered by the living stream. There is a seat for the Virgin Patroness of our church to which the world cannot produce a parallel.”[14]

Bishop Richard Poore finally removed his cathedral to a new town on his estate at Veretes Sarisberias ("Old Salisburies") in 1220. The site was at "Myrifield" ("Merryfield"[15]), a meadow of the Avon valley beside the river. It was first known as "New Sarum"[14] or New Saresbyri.[13] The town was laid out on a grid.

The Great West Front of Salisbury Cathedral.

Work on the new cathedral building—the present Salisbury Cathedral—began in 1221. The site was supposedly established by shooting an arrow from Old Sarum, although this is certainly a legend: the distance is over 3 km (1.9 mi). (The legend is sometimes emended to claim that the arrow struck a white deer, which continued to run and died on the spot where the cathedral now rests.) The structure was built upon wooden faggots on a gravel bed with unusually shallow foundations of 18 inches (46 cm) and the main body was completed in only 38 years. (The 123 m or 404 ft tall spire, the tallest in the UK, was built later.) Some of the stones came from Old Sarum and others from Chilmark. They were probably transported by ox-cart owing to the obstruction to boats on the River Nadder caused by its many weirs and watermills. The cathedral is considered a masterpiece of Early English architecture. The spire's large clock was installed in 1386, the oldest surviving mechanical clock in Britain. The Cathedral also contains the best-preserved of the four surviving copies of the Magna Carta.

The town developed rapidly and, by the 14th century, it was the foremost town in Wiltshire. The city wall surrounds the Close and was built in the 14th century. It now has five gates: the High Street Gate, St Ann's Gate, the Queen's Gate, and St Nicholas's Gate were the original ones while a fifth was constructed in the 19th century to allow access to Bishop Wordsworth's School in the Cathedral Close. During his time in the city, the composer Handel stayed in a room above St Ann's gate. The original site of the city at Old Sarum, meanwhile, fell into disuse. It continued as a rotten borough: at the time of its abolishment during the reforms of 1832, its MP represented three households.

A picture of Minster Street, c. 1870

In May 1289, there was uncertainty about the future of Margaret, Maid of Norway, and her father sent ambassadors to Edward I. Edward met Robert the Bruce and others at Salisbury in October 1289, which resulted in the Treaty of Salisbury, under which Margaret would be sent to Scotland before 1 November 1290 and any agreement on her future marriage would be delayed until she was in Scotland.[16]

In 1450, a number of riots broke out in Salisbury at roughly the same time Jack Cade led a famous rebellion through London. The riots occurred for related reasons, although the declining fortunes of Salisbury's cloth trade may have also been influential. The violence peaked with the murder of the bishop William Ayscough, who been involved with the government. In 1483, a large-scale rebellion against Richard III broke out, led by his own 'kingmaker', Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. After the revolt collapsed, Buckingham was executed at Salisbury, near the Bull's Head Inn. During the Great Plague of London, Charles II held court in Salisbury's cathedral close.

Salisbury was the site chosen to assemble James II's forces to resist the Glorious Revolution. He arrived to lead his approximately 19 000 men on 19 November 1688. His troops were not keen to fight Mary or her husband William, and the loyalty of many of James's commanders was in doubt. The first blood was shed at Wincanton, in Somerset. In Salisbury, James heard that some of his officers had deserted, such as Edward Hyde, and he broke out in a nosebleed which he took as an omen that he should retreat. His commander in chief, the Earl of Feversham, advised retreat on 23 November, and the next day John Churchill deserted to William. On 26 November, James's own daughter, Princess Anne, did the same, and James returned to London the same day, never again to be at the head of a serious military force in England.[17]

At the time of the 1948 Summer Olympics, held in London, a relay of runners carried the Olympic Flame from Wembley Stadium, where the Games were based, to the sailing centre at Torbay via Slough, Basingstoke, Salisbury, and Exeter.

Governance[edit]

Salisbury now falls under two authorities created in 2009, Salisbury City Council and Wiltshire Council. It was once at the heart of the now defunct Salisbury District, which oversaw most of south Wiltshire as well as the city. When Wiltshire's local government was reorganised under a unitary authority in April 2009, Salisbury City Council was formed, although with fewer responsibilities than the former district council. The city has one Member of Parliament for the Salisbury constituency, currently John Glen (Conservative) who was elected in the 2010 election.

Geography[edit]

Queen Elizabeth Gardens showing part of the River Avon diverted through the gardens.

Salisbury is located in a valley. The geology of the area, like much of South Wiltshire and Hampshire, is largely chalk. The rivers which flow through the city have been redirected, and along with landscaping, have been used to feed into public gardens. They are popular in the summer, particularly the Queen Elizabeth Gardens, as the water there is shallow and slow-flowing enough to enter safely. Close to Queen Elizabeth Gardens are water-meadows, where the water is controlled by weirs. Because of the low-lying land, the rivers are prone to flooding particularly during the winter months. The Town Path, a walkway that links Harnham with the rest of the city, is at times impassable.

A cause of concern to the people of Salisbury is the lack of adequate roads. There is no motorway that links the ports of Southampton and Bristol, so all traffic between must pass through the city via the A36.

There are civil airfields at Old Sarum (where the experimental aircraft the Edgley Optica was developed and tested) and at Thruxton near Andover.

Climate[edit]

Salisbury experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom. The nearest Met Office weather station to Salisbury is Boscombe Down, about 6 miles to the north of the city centre. In terms of the local climate, Salisbury is amongst the sunniest of Inland areas in the UK, averaging over 1650 hours of sunshine in a typical year. Temperature extremes since 1960 have ranged from −12.4 °C (9.7 °F) in January 1963[18] to 34.5 °C (94.1 °F) during July 2006.[19] The lowest temperature to be recorded in recent years was −10.1 °C (13.8 °F) during December 2010.[20]

Climate data for Boscombe Down 126asl, 1971–2000, Extremes 1960–
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
15.7
(60.3)
21.3
(70.3)
25.9
(78.6)
27.5
(81.5)
33.7
(92.7)
34.5
(94.1)
34.2
(93.6)
27.8
(82)
26.2
(79.2)
17.6
(63.7)
14.3
(57.7)
34.5
(94.1)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
7.3
(45.1)
9.8
(49.6)
12.4
(54.3)
16.1
(61)
18.9
(66)
21.7
(71.1)
21.4
(70.5)
18.2
(64.8)
14.1
(57.4)
10.0
(50)
7.8
(46)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 1.1
(34)
1.0
(33.8)
2.8
(37)
3.8
(38.8)
6.8
(44.2)
9.5
(49.1)
11.8
(53.2)
11.7
(53.1)
9.6
(49.3)
6.9
(44.4)
3.6
(38.5)
2.2
(36)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−9.6
(14.7)
−9.6
(14.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.4
(39.9)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.4
(25.9)
−6.4
(20.5)
−11.3
(11.7)
−12.4
(9.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 76.4
(3.008)
52.9
(2.083)
59.0
(2.323)
48.2
(1.898)
52.1
(2.051)
55.1
(2.169)
40.5
(1.594)
57.1
(2.248)
64.5
(2.539)
70.9
(2.791)
73.2
(2.882)
85.9
(3.382)
735.6
(28.961)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.0 75.4 115.3 169.2 206.8 207.3 223.5 208.3 151.2 113.8 78.3 53.9 1,661
Source #1: MetOffice[21]
Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[22]

Demography[edit]

The civil parish of Salisbury - which excludes some of the city's suburbs such as Laverstock, Ford, Britford, Harnham and Odstock - had a population of 40,302 at the 2011 census.[23]

The urban zone, which contains the wards immediately surrounding the city had a population of 62,216 at the 2011 Census.[24] The wards included in this figure are Laverstock, Wilton, Britford, Downton, Alderbury and Odstock among others, however does not include the towns of Amesbury or Romsey as these support their own local populations.

At the 2011 census the population of the civil parish was 95.73% white (91.00% White British), 2.48% Asian (0.74% Indian, 0.41% Bangladeshi, 0.40% Chinese), 0.45% black and 1.15% mixed race.[25]

86.43% of the civil parish's population were born in England, 3.94% were born elsewhere in the UK and 4.94% were born elsewhere in the EU (including the Republic of Ireland), while 4.70% of the population were born outside the EU.[26]

62.49% of the civil parish's population declared their religion as Christianity, while 27.09% stated "no religion" and 8.02% declined to state their religion.[27] 0.79% of the population declared their religion as Islam, 0.41% as Buddhism, 0.40% as Hinduism and 0.80% as some other religion.[27]

95.89% of the civil parish's population considered their "main language" to be English, while 1.12% considered it to be Polish, 0.28% considered it to be Bengali and 0.24% considered it to be Tagalog.[28] 99.43% of the population claimed to be able to speak English well or very well.[29]

In 2001, 22.33% of Salisbury's population were aged between 30–44, 42.76% were over 45, and only 13.3% were between 18–29.[30]

Economy[edit]

The 15th-century Poultry Cross originally marked the section of the market trading in poultry.

Salisbury holds a market on Tuesdays and Saturdays and has held markets regularly since 1227. In the 15th century the Market Place had three crosses. The Poultry Cross whose name describes its market. The cheese and milk cross indicated that market which was in the triangle between the HSBC bank and the Salisbury Library. There was a third cross near the site of the present war memorial and this marked a woolen and yarn market. A fourth cross called Barnwell or Barnards Cross was situated around the Culver Street, Barnard Street area, this marked a cattle and livestock market.[31] Today only the Poultry Cross remains, to which flying buttresses were added in 1852.

In 1226, King Henry III granted the Bishop of Salisbury a charter to hold a fair lasting 8 days from the Feast of the Assumption of Mary (15 August).[32] Over the centuries the dates for the fair have moved around, but in its modern guise, a funfair is now held in the Market Place for three days from the third Monday in October. However, there is still an ancient law stating that the fair can be held in the Cathedral Close.

From 1833 to its demolition in the mid-1980s, the Salisbury Gas Light & Coke Company, who ran the city's gasworks, were one of the major employers in the area.The company was formed in 1832 with a share capital of £8,000, and its first chairman was The 3rd Earl of Radnor. The company was incorporated by a private Act of Parliament in 1864, and the Gas Orders Confirmation Act 1882 empowered the company to raise capital of up to £40,000. At its peak, the gasworks were producing not only coal gas but also coke which was sold off as the by-product of gas-making. Ammonical liquor which came out as another by-product in the making of gas, was mixed with sulphuric acid, dried and ground to make a powder which was sold as an agricultural fertiliser. The clinker from the retort house was sold to a firm in London to be used as purifier beds in the construction of sewage works .[33]

Shopping centres include The Old George Mall, The Maltings, Winchester Street and the Crosskeys precinct. Major employers include Salisbury District Hospital and Friends Life.

Culture[edit]

Salisbury High Street

Salisbury was an important centre for music in the 18th century. The grammarian James Harris, a friend of Handel, directed concerts at the Assembly Rooms for almost 50 years up to his death in 1780, with many of the most famous musicians and singers of the day performing there.[34]

Salisbury holds an annual St George's Day pageant, the origins of which are claimed to go back to the 13th century.

Salisbury has a strong artistic community, with galleries situated in the city centre, including one in the public library. In the 18th century, John Constable made a number of celebrated landscape paintings featuring the cathedral's spire and the surrounding countryside. Salisbury's annual International Arts Festival, started in 1973, and held in late May to early June, provides a programme of theatre, live music, dance, public sculpture, street performance and art exhibitions. Salisbury also houses a producing theatre – Salisbury Playhouse – which produces between eight and ten plays a year, as well as welcoming touring productions.

Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum[edit]

Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum, housed in the King's House

The Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum is housed in the King's House, a Grade I listed building whose history dates back to the 13th century, just opposite the west front of the cathedral.

The permanent Stonehenge exhibition gallery has interactive displays about Stonehenge and the archaeology of south Wiltshire, and its collections include the skeleton of the Amesbury Archer, which is on display.

The Pitt Rivers gallery holds a collection from General Augustus Pitt Rivers, often called the "father of modern archaeology".[citation needed]

The costume gallery showcases costume and textiles from the area with costumes for children to try on and imagine themselves as characters from Salisbury's past.

Twinning[edit]

Salisbury is twinned with Saintes, France, since 1990;[35] Xanten, Germany, since 2006.[35] Salisbury is also a sister city of Salisbury, North Carolina and Salisbury, Maryland, both of which are in the United States.[35]

Schools[edit]

There are numerous schools around the area of Salisbury, including located in Salisbury Cathedral Close, Leaden Hall School for Girls Leaden Hall School and Salisbury Cathedral School. Other schools in the city include the Chafyn Grove School, Leehurst Swan School, the Godolphin senior and prep school, St Edmund's Girls' School, Sarum Academy and Stonehenge Comprehensive School. Salisbury also includes the only two grammar schools in Wiltshire: South Wilts Grammar School for Girls and Bishop Wordsworth's School, which is for boys.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

The main transport links for the city are the roads. Salisbury lies on the intersection of the A30, the A36 and the A338 and is at the end of the A343, A345, A354 and A360. Car parks around the periphery of the city are linked to the city centre by a park and ride scheme (see details in the bus section below).

Bus[edit]

There are bus links to Southampton, Bournemouth and Andover working seven days a week with limited services on Sundays. Wilts & Dorset are the main local bus company, part of the Go-Ahead group, with a bus station at 8 Endless Street and a bus yard in Castle Street. Stagecoach in Hampshire runs the number 87 to Andover every two hours from Salisbury and also every other journey on route 8 to Andover via Amesbury and Tidworth along with Wilts & Dorset. Bodman's also runs the number 24 bus between Salisbury and Warminster,[36] which replaced the X4/X5 service which used to run between Salisbury and Bath.

Salisbury also has a Park and Ride bus scheme with five sites around the city. These park and ride sites relieve pressure on the city centre but run at an annual loss of £1 million.[37] The Park and Ride sites, which are funded by Wiltshire Council and cost £2.50 for parking and bus transport for an individual or £3.50 for up to six passengers, are:[38] 501 Beehive – |A345 Castle Road to the north, 502 Wilton – A36 Wilton Road to the west, 503 Britford – A338 Downton Road to the south, 504 London Road – A30 London Road to the northeast, 505 Petersfinger – A36 Southampton Road, to the southeast.[37]

Railways[edit]

Salisbury railway station is the crossing point of the West of England Main Line, from London Waterloo to Exeter Central and Exeter St Davids, and the Wessex Main Line from Bristol to Southampton. The station is operated by South West Trains. First Great Western hourly trains call from Cardiff Central, Bristol Temple Meads, Bath Spa to Southampton Central and Portsmouth Harbour.

Salisbury Racecourse with the cathedral in the distance.

Sport and leisure[edit]

The city has a football team, the Salisbury City F.C., who play in the Conference Premier division. Their games are at The Raymond McEnhill Stadium on the northern edge of the city. Also in the city are non-league clubs the Bemerton Heath Harlequins F.C. and the Laverstock & Ford F.C., the latter playing at The Dell.

Salisbury Rugby Club, which is based at Castle Road, has produced several England Internationals in recent years and continues to nurture future talent through a buoyant Mini and Youth section. It is seen as one of the prime rugby nurturing centres nationwide, regularly providing County Championship winning sides, County Players at all ages, and academy players for the professional game. Their junior section has also won National tournaments on a regular basis playing finals at Twickenham.[39]

There are three cricket clubs in the area: South Wilts Cricket Club is based at the Salisbury and South Wilts Sports Club; Winterbourne Cricket Club is based in Winterbourne Gunner; and Farley Cricket Club is based at Coronation Field, Farley. [40] [41] [42] Salisbury Hockey Club is also based at the Salisbury and South Wilts Sports Club.[43]

The Five Rivers Leisure Centre and Swimming Pool is located just outside the ring road and was opened in 2002. Salisbury Racecourse is a flat racing course to the south-west of the city. Five Rivers Indoor Bowls Club and Salisbury Snooker Club share a building on Tollgate road (behind the College). The snooker club also has sections for Pool and Darts. The Bishop's Walk on the edge of the city provides a popular viewing point.

The Old Sarum Airfield, North of Salisbury city centre, is home to a variety of aviation based businesses including traditional flying schools[44] and the APT Charitable Trust.

The local theatre is the Salisbury Playhouse. The City Hall is an entertainment venue and hosts comedy, musical performances (including those by the resident Musical Theatre Salisbury) as well as seminars and conventions. Salisbury Arts Centre[45] has exhibitions and workshops.

Salisbury is well-supplied with pubs. 'The Haunch of Venison', overlooking the Poultry Cross, still operates from a 14th-century building. One of its attractions is a cast of a mummified hand, supposedly severed during a game of cards. The hand vanished in 2004 as a publicity stunt for the pub but later reappeared and can still be seen there.[46] The Rai d’Or has original deeds dating from 1292. It was the home of Agnes Bottenham who used the profits of the tavern to found Trinity Hospital next door around 1380.

Some buildings in Salisbury are reputed to be haunted. Ghost tours are popular with locals and visitors. One such building is the local Odeon cinema located in the Hall of John Halle – the oldest building in the UK to contain a cinema. The Debenhams department store is said to be haunted by Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham – the store is on the site where he was beheaded in 1483.

Media[edit]

Salisbury is served by two local radio stations. Spire FM is the Independent Local Radio station, and BBC Wiltshire is the BBC Local Radio public service station for the whole county. Regional television services are provided by BBC South and ITV Meridian.

The Salisbury Journal is the local paid-for weekly newspaper which is available in shops every Thursday, with some home deliveries coming on Wednesday night. The local free weekly newspaper is the Avon Advertiser, which is delivered to houses in Salisbury and the surrounding area and made by the same company as the Journal.

In fiction[edit]

  • Salisbury is the original of "Melchester" in Thomas Hardy's novels, such as Jude the Obscure (1895).[citation needed]
  • A lively account of the Salisbury markets, as they were in 1842, is contained in Chapter 5 of "Martin Chuzzlewit" by Charles Dickens.
  • The fictitious Kingsbridge Cathedral in TV miniseries, The Pillars of the Earth (2010) based on a historical novel by the same name by Ken Follett is modelled on the cathedrals of Wells and Salisbury. The final aerial shot of the series is of Salisbury Cathedral.[47][48]
  • The novel Sarum by Edward Rutherfurd describes the history of Salisbury.
  • The novel The Spire by William Golding tells the story of the building of the spire of an unnamed cathedral similar to Salisbury Cathedral.
  • The Starbridge series (six novels) of Susan Howatch is laid in a cathedral city similar to Salisbury during the 1930s and 1960s. It tracks various strands of religious thought and action in the Church of England.

Notable residents[edit]

  • Sir James Macklin, DL, JP (1864 – 1944), Mayor of Salisbury for six terms
  • Sir Edward Heath (1916-2005), Prime Minister, retired to Arundells in the Cathedral Close, Salisbury
  • David Mitchell b. 1974, actor and writer, born in Salisbury
  • Joseph Fiennes b. 1970, actor, born in Salisbury.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Salisbury". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  2. ^ Including /ˈsɔːlzbri/,[citation needed] SAWLZ-bree, /ˈsɔːlzbərɪ/ SAWLZ-berry,[1] and /ˈsɒlzbri/ SOLZ-bree.[citation needed]
  3. ^ "Usual resident population.". 
  4. ^ "Usual resident population.". 
  5. ^ Victoria History of Wiltshire Vol. VI, pp. 93–94
  6. ^ English Heritage. Old Sarum, p. 22. (London), 2003.
  7. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  8. ^ Newman, John Henry & al. Lives of the English Saints: St. German, Bishop of Auxerre, Ch. X: "Britain in 429, A. D.", p. 92. James Toovey (London), 1844.
  9. ^ Samuel, Lewis. Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of England, Vol. IV. 1835.
  10. ^ Cameron, Kenneth. English Place-Names, p. 35. (Batsford), 1988. ISBN 0-7134-5698-1.
  11. ^ Blake, Norman Francis & al. "English Historical Linguistics: Studies In Development" in CECTAL Conference Papers Series, No. 3. Centre for English Cultural Tradition and Language (Sheffield), 1984.
  12. ^ Wiltshire Government. "193".
  13. ^ a b John Leland, quoted in Ledwich (1777), pp. 253 ff.
  14. ^ a b George Walter Prothero, The Quarterly Review, Volume 103, p. 115 online at books.google.com
  15. ^ Ledwich, Edward. Antiquitates Sariſburienſes: The History and Antiquities of Old and New Sarum Collected from Original Records and Early Writers, Rev. Ed., "Appendix of Original Records, with Observations", p. 260. E. Easton (Salisbury), 1777.
  16. ^ Oram. Canmore Kings, p. 109.
  17. ^ Childs, J. The Army, James II, and the Glorious Revolution. (Manchester), 1980.
  18. ^ "1963 Temperature". KNMI. 
  19. ^ "2006 temperature". UKMO. 
  20. ^ "2010 temperature". Tutiempo. 
  21. ^ "Boscombe Down 1971–2000". UKMO. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "Boscombe Down extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  23. ^ Office for National Statistics
  24. ^ Complied Neighbourhood Statistics
  25. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for race and ethnicity". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  26. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for country of birth". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  27. ^ a b Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for religion". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  28. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for main language". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  29. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for proficiency in English". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  30. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "British government census statistics for age". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  31. ^ "Wiltshire Community History". Wiltshire Council. 
  32. ^ "Wiltshire". Gazetteer OF MARKETS AND FAIRS IN ENGLAND AND WALES TO 1516. Centre for Metropolitan History. Retrieved 12 April 2010. 
  33. ^ Watts, John (1991)Salisbury Gasworks: The Salisbury Gas Light & Coke Company Salisbury: South Wiltshire Industrial Archaeology Society ISBN 0906195128
  34. ^ Music and Theatre in Handel's World: The Family Papers of James Harris 1732–1780, by Donald Burrows and Rosemary Dunhill, Oxford University Press, USA (29 March 2002)
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