Salisbury steak is a dish made from a blend of minced beef and other ingredients, which is shaped to resemble a steak, and is usually served with gravy or brown sauce. Hamburger steak is a similar product, but differs in ingredients. Salisbury steak was invented by an American physician, Dr. J. H. Salisbury (1823–1905), an early proponent of a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss; the term "Salisbury steak" has been in use in the United States since 1897. The dish is popular in the United States, where it is traditionally served with gravy and mashed potatoes or noodles.
Standards of identity (for packaged product)
The USDA standards for processed, packaged "Salisbury steak" require a minimum content of 65% meat, of which up to 25% can be pork, except if defatted beef or pork is used, the limit is 12% combined. No more than 30% may be fat. Meat byproducts are not permitted; however, beef heart meat is allowed. Extender (bread crumbs, flour, oat flakes, etc.) content is limited to 12%, except isolated soy protein at 6.8% is considered equivalent to 12% of the others. The remainder consists of seasonings, fungi or vegetables (onion, bell pepper, mushroom or the like), binders (can include egg) and liquids (such as water, milk, cream, skim milk, buttermilk, brine, vinegar etc.). The product must be fully cooked, or else labelled "Patties for Salisbury Steak".
The standards for hamburger limit the meat to beef only, and of skeletal origin only. Salt, seasonings and vegetables in condimental proportions can be used, but liquids, binders and/or extenders preclude the use of the term "hamburger" or "burger". With these added, the product is considered "beef patties".
Products not made in USDA-inspected establishments are not bound by these standards and may be bound by other standards which vary from country to country.
Around the world
Hamburg (ハンバーグ hanbāgu?, Hamburg steak) is a popular Salisbury steak dish in Japan. It is made from ground meat with finely chopped onion, egg and breadcrumbs flavored with various spices, and made into a flat, circular shape about a centimeter thick and 10 to 15 cm in diameter. Many restaurants specialize in various styles of hamburger steak. Some variations include hanbāgu topped with cheese (チーズハンバーグ, or chizuhanbāgu), hanbāgu with Japanese curry, and Italian hanbāgu (with tomato sauce rather than gravy).
Hamburger steak became popular during the 1960s as a more affordable way to serve otherwise costly meat. Magazines regularly printed the recipe during that decade, elevating it to a staple dish in Japanese culture. In Japan, the dish dates back to the Meiji period and is believed to have been first served in Yokohama, which was one of the first ports opened to foreigners. Since the 1980s, vacuum packed hamburgers are sold with sauce already added, and these are widely used in box lunches (bento). Frozen hamburgers are popular as well, often served in fast food style restaurants because they have a richer taste and firmer texture than vacuum-packed hamburger.
In Hawaii, hamburger steak is very similar to the Japanese hanbāgu. It consists of burger patty with brown gravy. It is usually served with macaroni salad and rice in a plate lunch. There is also a variety which includes an egg, which is called loco moco. The dish is also common in South Korea, where the recipe and name (햄버그 스테이크 | hambeogeu seuteikeu) were adopted from Japan.
Minced cutlet (котлета рубленая, kotleta rublenaya), or, since the late 19th century, simply "cutlet", is a staple of Russian cuisine. It is similar to a Salisbury steak, with the main difference being pure beef is rarely employed—usually pork or a beef-pork mixture is used. The meat is seasoned with salt and pepper, mixed with finely chopped onion (optionally fried), garlic, and a binder (eggs and breadcrumbs soaked in milk), divided into oval-shaped patties, lightly breaded and shallow-fried in a half-inch of vegetable oil. The similarly named Japanese dish, menchi katsu, is always deep-fried and heavily breaded, being essentially a mincemeat croquette, while the Russian version is always shallow-fried.
Grillsteaks are a similar product sold in the UK.
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- "Salisbury steak". Merriam-Webster on line. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- Food Standards and Labeling Policy, USDA, FSIS, September 2005, p. 165
- Food Standards and Labeling Policy, USDA, FSIS, September 2005, p. 67
- "Japanese Hamburg Steak".
- Murakami, Haruki. The Elephant Vanishes, p. 188-194.
- "Collins English Dictionary".